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SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT 



OF THE 



Bureau of Labor Statistics 



OF THE 



State of Colorado, 

1899-1900. 




ELMER F. BECKWITH, 

SECRETARY OF STATE, COMMISSIONER EX OFFICIO. 

BY JAMES T. SMITH, 
Deputy Commissioner. 



DENVER, COLORADO: 

THE SMITH-BROOKS PRINTING CO.. STATE PRINTERS. 

1900. 



C-i 



SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT 



OF THE 



Bureau of Labor Statistics 



OF THE 



State of Colorado, 

1899-1900. 




ELMER F. .BECKWITH, 

SEOBETARY OF STATE, COMMISSIONER EX OFFICIO. 



BY JAMES T. SMITH, 

Deputy Commissioner. 



DENVER. COLORADO; 

THB SMITH-BROOKS PRINTING CO.. STATE PRINTERS. 

1900. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page. 
Ijetter of Transmittal 8 

CHAPTER I. 

The Orsanixation of Labor in Colorado 9 

Tabulation of Labor Organizations in Colorado 88 

CHAPTER II. 
Wage ESarnera' Statistics 61 



Compliments of 

JAMES T. SMITH, 

Deputy Labor Commissioner^ 



National. International and State Federated Bodies 216 

CHAPTER VIII. 
Convict Lal>or— 

The Colorado State Penitentiary 239 

The Problem of Convict Labor 266 

The State Industrial School at Qolden 257 

The Colorado State Reformatory 262 



CHAPTER IX. Pa^e. 

Wasres, Hours and Conditions of Employment 268 

The Unemployed In Colorado 273 

The Colorado Home 277 

Labor Day 283 

CHAPTER X. 
Free Public Employment Airencies 286 



CHAPTER XI. 

Mines and Metalliferous Mining 314 

Coal MininfT 329 

CHAPTER XII. 

The Rise and Growth of Labor Organizations in the United States 836 

The Rise of Railroad Organizations 366 

Bureaus of Labor Statistics 873 

Trades Unions in Qreat Britain and Ireland 876 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Agriculture 881 

Education in Colorado 396 

Foreign Immigration 403 

Population of Colorado In 1900 407 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Employers' Liability 414 

CHAPTER XV. 
Labor Laws in Colorado « 417 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Extracts from and a Digest of Reports of Bureaus of Labor Statistics in 



Other States 



CHAPTER XVII. 
Recent Court Decisions Affecting the Interests of Labor 494 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
Report to the Thirteenth General Assembly of the Tax Commission 612 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



State of Colorado, 
Office of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
Denver, November 30, 1900. 
To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives , 

forming the Thirteenth General Assembly of the State 

of Colorado: 

In compliance Avith the statute creating this office, I have 
the honor to herewith transmit to your honorable bodies the 
seventh biennial jeport of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of 
the State of Colorado. for the years 1899 and 1900. 

The benefits which have accrued to all classes of citizens 
through the establishment of Bureaus of Labor for the pur- 
pose of gathering data and information bearing upon indus- 
trial and economic subjects has come to be very generally 
recognized. The annual and biennial reports issued by the 
chain of offices in thirty-one states, and by the national de- 
partment at Washington, D. C, are eagerly sought and fur- 
nish a fund of useful knowledge which would otherwise never 
have been collected. The prejudice which at one time ex- 
isted against such bureaus has almost entirely disappeared. 

It is especially within the province of the Commissioner 
to make such recommendations by way of needful legislation 
as his observation and experience has convinced him will 
best promote the happiness and prosperity of the common- 
wealth. In this report I have not hesitated to act in accord- 
ance with this opinion, and have made numerous legislative 
recommendations. 

The Bureau of Labor in Colorado ha« not been given that 
degree of support by the legislature which its importance de- 
mands. In fact, the appropriation in this state is less than 
in any other in which the office has been created save one. 
The very small expense appropriation for the maintenance of 
the office has made it impossible to employ clerical help, and 



4 BIENNIAL RBPOET 

has placed the entire work of the office, including field work, 
upon the Commissioner. This has made it impossible to un- 
dertake every necessary line of investigation, and has caused 
some things to remain undone. 

In order that the office be given its highest degree of effi- 
ciency and influence, I would recommend that it be divorced' 
from the office of Secretary of State and made a separate and 
distinct office; the name Bureau of Labor Statistics be 
changed to Department of Labor; the State Labor Commis- 
sioner to be elected by popular vote and hold his office for 
the period of four years, and be ineligible for re-election while 
in office. I would also suggest that the proposed law be made 
to specify that a citizen to be eligible for election as State 
Labor Commissioner must have been a member of organized 
labor continuously for at least three years prior to induction 
into office. This last suggestion is based upon the knowledge 
that the office is sociological in its character, that the data 
gathered and the conclusions arrived at should form the basis 
of required legislation. The citizen who has had training in 
a labor organization is much more apt to enter into the spirit 
of the required work than is the person whose mind has never 
been occupied in this way. 

At the present time there is no. system of gathering sta- 
tistics throughout the state. In the event of the establish- 
ment of free state employment offices, which question has been 
discussed quite fully in the chapter upon that subject, and 
which I sincerely hope your honorable bodies will consider 
favorably, the agents in charge of these offices should be made 
to co-operate with the Labor Commissioner in the work of 
gathering data. 

I would recommend that there be a new office created in 
each county of the state. That the new (k)unty official be 
known as County Statistician, and that he hold his office for 
the period of four years and be elected by popular vote. 

It ought to be the duty of the County Statistician to make 
full and complete reports to the Labor Commissioner and 
other state officials upon blanks furnished to him by them, 
for that purpose. 

For the sake of efficiency, accuracy and completeness, the 
law creating this office should require every owner, operator 
or manager of any mill, factory, machine shop or business of 
any kind, or manufacturing establishment of any kind in the 
state, to furnish the County Statistician, upon blanks sup- 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 5 

plied by him, all facts relating to such business. This in- 
formation shall include capital invested, the class and value 
of goods manufactured annually, the number of weeks the 
business was operated, the number of weeks it was idle, the 
amount paid for rent, taxes and insurance, the total number 
of employes, male and female, the total amount paid out in 
wages, the highest and lowest wages paid to skilled and un- 
Bkilled labor. In short, all possible information to enable 
the compilation of an annual census of leading facts. The 
blanks returned to the County Statistician should be burned 
after the required data had been secured, and the result as 
published be grouped in totals, which would afford no clue to 
the individual business of any ona Indeed, it is evident from 
a reading of the present law governing this bureau that it con- 
templates this very thing, though it makes no provision for 
carrying it out. 

Statistics taken frequently are more valuable for pur- 
poses of legislation and comparison than are those taken at 
long intervals. 

Numerous statistics have been obtained from people who 
have applied to this office for help. These have been embodied 
in the report. 

The chapter upon wage earners contains the result of the 
inquiry made upon blanks sent out from this office. The re- 
turns show the prevailing rates of wages in the different oc- 
cupations and the important facts concerning craftsmen as 
accurately as is possible under the present desultory system 
of gathering statistics. 

Although many realize the desirability of statistics, but 
few seem to appreciate the difficulty of getting them except in 
a systematic way. Wages must be adjusted to the cost of 
living, that is to determine what proportion of the income is 
devoted, to rent, to subsistence and to clothing. 

"Remarks of Wage Earners" affords an index as to what 
the workers are thinking, and indicates the high order of in- 
telligence among the wrkers. 

"The Organization of Labor in Colorado," and "The Rise 
and Growth of Labor Organizations in the United States," 
are subjects in which all who realize the important function 
assumed by labor bodies will feel an interest. Many facts not 
heretofore published have been gathered and included in these 
chapters. 



6 BIENNIAL REl'ORT 

The political agitation in favor of the shorter work dav 
in Colorado and the result of it are matters of recent history. 
The most salient points of interest in connection with this 
contest have been noted, together with such comments and 
criticisms as are w^arranted by the facts. One of the benefits 
of progress claimed by the laborer as his due is a reduction 
in the hours of labor. It is a subject w^hich in a review of the 
labor question by the legislature should receive earnest con- 
sideration. An eight-hour day will help on the advent of the 
day, "steady work and no idleness." That eight hours will 
in the near future be the standard measure of a day's labor 
is, in my judgment, beyond question. 

There have been quite a number of strikes in the state 
during the biennial period, the most important of which was 
the smelter strike in the summer of 1899. The subject has 
been quite fully presented in the chapter upon that subject. 
Strikes, their causes and results, have been important in 
compelling the attention which labor interests have received 
in recent years. Had the laborer been quiet and suffered in 
silence there would have been no progress. The repeated in- 
terruptions to money making and capitalistic investment 
have called attention to the workmen's claim. The possibility 
of strikes is a restraint upon capital, and if none had oc- 
curred labor would have gained nothing from capital's gen- 
erosity. 

The strike is a mighty argument. It is war, and a great 
responsibility rests upon those who provoke it, or upon those 
who use it lightly. 

In the evolution of society, in the adaptation of an or- 
ganism to an ever-changing environment, have we not passed 
the strike period? Is it not the duty of the state to stretch 
out its paternal hand and prevent its citizens from destroying 
each other. 

Our greatness, strength and future upon this continent 
are dependent upon the health, the character and the intelli- 
gence of the producing classes. The first step looking to a 
solution of the labor problem is a clear recognition of its ex- 
istence. This fact once recognized, we should set about solv- 
ing it in a way consistent with mental, moral and material 
progress. 

The revolt of the laborer against the advice to be con- 
tent is the result of too much work and too little wages. But 



BUREAU OF LABOU STATISTICS. 7 

how too much work and why too little wages are serious 
questions. 

Says Henry George: "In allowing one man to own the 
land on which and from which other men must live, we have 
made them his bondsmen in a degree which increases as ma- 
terial progress goes on. This is the subtle alchemy that in 
ways they do not realize is extracting from the masses in ev- 
ery civilized country the fruits of their weary toil;. that is in- 
stituting a harder and more hopeless slavery in place of that 
which has been destroyed; that is bringing political despot- 
ism out of political freedom, and must soon transmute demo- 
cratic institutions into anarchy." 

The single taxers know that the division of land among 
the people is unnecessary ; a tax upon land values sufficient 
to appropriate the unearned increment, and the use of this 
revenue for public purposes will, through its far-reaching 
effect, regenerate society. The single taxers favor govern- 
ment ownership of railroads, telegraphs, telephones, etc., and 
municipal ownership of local public necessities. As the value 
of franchises are created by population, they are only an- 
other form of land values properly belonging to society and 
should be taxed at their full value. 

The organization of labor in Colorado represents the 
largest proportion of the wage working population of any 
state in the Union. A tabulation of the several organizations 
has been made as perfect and complete as possible. The di- 
rectory of unions will be found useful for both present and 
future reference. The value and signilflicance of labor organ- 
izations is becoming understood. They will remain and mul- 
tiply as long as the causes which gave them birth continue to 
exist. 

In conclusion, I wish to tender thanks to the Hon. Chas. 
S. Thomas, Governor of the state, and to the other state of- 
ficials, from all of whom I have received courtesies and kind- 
nesses innumerable. I desire to express my grateful acknowl- 
edgments to the secretaries of labor organizations, who very 
generally responded promptly and fully to the request foV 
such statistics as were at their disposal, and thus contributed 
very materially to the preparation of the several chapters in 
this report. I also wish to thank theDenver press in partic- 
ular and the state press in general for their kind and consid- 
erate mention of the labors of this office. The thanks of the 
Commissioner is due to a large number of others living in all 



8 BIENNIAL REPORT BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 

parts of the state for suggestions made and information ' 
given, and I wish to assure tjiem, one and all, that their co- 
operation has been gratefully received and sincerely appre- 
ciated. 

I am, most respectfully, your obedient servant, 

ELMER P. BECKWITH, 
Commissioner of Labor, Eco Officio, 

By JAMES T. SMITH, 

Deputy Ck)minissioner. 



THE ORGANIZATION OF LABOR 
IN COLORADO- 



The pioneer union organized in the State of Colorado is 
that of the printers. The Iflirst charter issued to a union in 
this state bears date June 6, 1860, and may still be seen in 
the historical department at the Capitol building in Denver. 
It was brought across the plains with a freighting outfit. 
For many years after the first printers' union was formed, 
organization was slow. Prior to January 1, 1880, but eleven 
unions were organized in the state, viz.: Tailors No. 3, 
Denver, June, 1871. Locomotive Engineers No. 199, Den- 
ver, March, 1875. Locomotive Firemen No. 77, June, 1877. 
Conductors No. 44, Denver, July, 1877. Yard Masters No. 8, 
Denver, May, 1878. Knights of Labor No. 771, Erie, August, 
1878. Iron Moulders No. 188, October, 1878. Knights of 
Labor, 1005, Leadville, tTanuary, 1879. Stone Cutters No. 1, 
Denver, June, 1879. Printers No. 179, Leadville, November 
1, 1879. 

In 1880 an active interest in labor unions began to mani- 
fest itself, and the work of organization has continued, with 
varying interest,, during the last twenty years. At times the 
working classes have taken a very energetic part in keeping 
the largest possible number inside the ranks of unionism, 
and then, again, the work has flagged and faltered. Here, 
as elsewhere, the work of unifying the industrial classes into 
one harmonious whole has been attended with many draw- 
backs and reverses. Still, efforts in this direction have stead- 
ily gone forward, until at the present time there is a larger 
proportion of the workers of Colorado enrolled upon the 
books of its many labor organizations than in any state of 
the Union. 

The form and name of unions have changed from time to 
time as circumstances have seemed to warrant, but the added 
sum of experiences has been continuously carried forw^ard, 



no BIENNIAL BBPOET 

and places the unions in Colorado of to-day upon a stronger 
and firmer foundation, with a clearer idea of their mission, 
and an ever abiding confidence in their ability to achieve it, 
than at any preceding time. 

Some of the objects may be briefly summarized : The es- 
tablishment of a minimum, also a standard, scale of wages 
for labor, skilled and unskilled, in all organized callings. The 
fixing of trade rules and regulations, witli a view to systema- 
tize labor in the interest of employers and employes. To re- 
sist a reduction of wages and to secure an advance whenever 
the conditions of industry may warrant. To secure employ- 
ment for members out of work. To cultivate a spirit of fra- 
ternity and to enable all organized workers to come into 
closer touch with each other. To educate its membership 
upon sociological, industrial and economic questions. Very 
many of the unions have regular night schools, where the 
writings of Henry George, Edward Bellamy and other stand- 
ard authors are taken up chapter by chapter and discussed 
in a capable and intelligent manner. 

Nearly, if not quite all, the labor laws upon the statute 
books of Colorado have been placed there through the efforts 
of organized labor. In every craft and calling in this state, 
in which the eight-hour day has come to be generally recog- 
nized, it is unionism, and that alone, which has accomplished 
this result. 

Upon the whole the organized workers of Colorado are 
a prudent, a patriotic, an intelligent and a useful body of 
men and women. On many a well-contested field they have 
demonstrated their power as a potent factor in establishing 
more equitable conditions. 

The following is a brief statement concerning the organ- 
ization, history and purpose of nearly all the labor organiza- 
tions in this state. 

BABBERS. 

In May, 1886, the barbers of Denver organized a union. 
It flourished for a time and then gradually declined in mem- 
bership until it finally lapsed altogether. It was reorganized 
in 1890 and made to include bosses as well as journeymen. 
In March, of the present year, it was again reorganized as a 
strictly journeymen barbers' union and chartered from the 
international, which includes as members only journeymen 
barbers. The barbers have at present eight unions in this 
state. Through their efforts they have reduced the hours of 



BUREAU OF LABOR STA^HSTICS. 11 

labor and brought about early closing in all cities where or- 
ganized. These unions have waged a very bitter warfare 
against the so-called barbers^ colleges. At the last session 
of the legislature a measure was introduced making provision 
for the examination* of barbers as to their skill and profi- 
ciency, and licensing those found competent. 

This bill was strongly favored by the union barbers, but 
for some reason it failed to become a law. A similar measnrc 
will be introduced in the coming legislature, and I would rw- 
ommend it for passage. Nearly every good barber shop iii 
the state is conducted in accordance with union rules. 

BUILDING LABORERS. 

The building laborers have five unions in this state. Its 
membership is composed, as the name implies, of laborers 
working in different capacities in connection with the con- 
struction of buildings. These unions are local and are affil- 
iated with the international body. Some of them belong to 
the State Federation of Labor. They have established a uni- 
form scale of wages for each locality. Before they were or- 
ganized there was a cut-throat competition among workers of 
this class, from which they all suffered greatly. 

THE BREWERY WORKMEN. 

The brewery workers haye two unions in Colorado. Lo- 
cal Union No. 44, at Denver, was organized November, 1887. 
No. 150, of Pueblo, was organized at a much later date. 
These two unions have jurisdiction over the entire state. 
Nearly all workmen employed in the breweries of Colorado 
are members of one or other of these unions. The hours of 
labor have been regulated and shortened, wages have been 
increased and many general improvements have been brought 
about. The relations between the brewers and their work- 
men have been friendly and agreeable. The brewery union's 
label is used upon the product. 

BEER DRIVERS. 

Beer Drivers' Union No. 56, of Denver, is composed of 
men w^ho deliver beer to the saloons in and around the city. 
It is a compactly organized union and includes the driver 
of every beer wagon in Denver, and has always carefully 
protected the trade rights of its members. It had one short 
strike in the last two years, which was successful. 



12 BIENNIAL REPORT 

BINDERY WOMEN. 

The membership of Bindery Women's Union No. 58, of 
Denver, consists of the bindery girls employed in the several 
bookmaking establishments of the city. It was organized 
in 1896 and was chartered by and subject to the !t^tional 
Bookbinders' Union. It lias secured uniformity in wages for 
work and has regulated trade matters generally. The Bind- 
ery Girls' Union has had but one strike since its organization, 
and that was successful. 

BOOKBINDERS. 

The Bookbinders' Union, of Denver, was organized Oc- 
tober, 1887. Though small in membership, this union is 
strong and vigorous and includes all the bookbinders in the 
city, completely controlling this branch of labor. Its juris- 
diction includes the State of Colorado. 

BOILERMAKERS. 

The Boilermakers' Union No. 44, of Pueblo, is the only 
one of this craft in Colorado. Its jurisdiction includes the 
state. The relations between the boilermakers and the Colo- 
rado Fuel and Iron Company, by whom they are mostly em- 
ployed, have been fairly good. One or two small strikes have 
occurred. 

THE AMALGAMATED SOCIETY OP CARPENTERS. ^ 

This is the only union in Colorado affiliated with an or- 
ganization in Europe. It is a branch of the Amalgamated 
Society of Carpenters and Joiners of England and was or- 
ganized in Denver in 1882. The membership consists largely 
of English workmen who belonged to the organization in the 
old country. It has a very valuable insurance feature in 
connection with it. 

THE BROTHERHOOD OP CARPENTERS. 

The Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners has fifteen 
local branches in this state. The oldest union of this craft 
in Colorado is No. 55, which was organized in March, 1884, 
in Denver. Organization among the carpenters has had its 
ebb and flow tide. The panic of 1893 decimated the ranks 
of such unions as continued to exist, while many went out of 
business entirely. After the panic, and as times began to 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 13 

improve, some of these unions were reorganized. The car- 
penters of Colorado have been among the pioneer organized 
workers of the state to labor unceasingly for the eighthour 
day. They have succeeded in establishing it in many of the 
mining camps and cities of Colorado. 

The summer of 1899 marked a revival in labor organisa- 
tion and a number of carpenters' unions were organized 
throughout the state. The membership of all the local 
branches was very materially increased. The Denver branch 
increased its membership from less than forty in December, 
1897, to more tl^an 600 at the present writing. The carpen- 
ters have had several strikes, most of which have been won. 
The wages of carpenters have been advanced until the wages 
paid and the trade conditions are among the best prevailing 
among any class of workers in the state. 

GI6ABMAKERS. 

The cigarmakers of Colorado were early in the field with 
an organization. No. 129, of Denver, being organized in Au- 
gust, 1884. There are at the present time three cigarmakers' 
unions in Colorado, at Denver, Pueblo and Cripple Creek. 
The jurisdiction of the entire state is divided between these 
three branches. Members of one or the other may be found 
in every city and mining camp in Colorado where a cigar- 
maker finds employment. Practically every journeyman in 
the state is a union man. •Years ago these unions met with 
much opposition on the part of the manufacturers, who at- 
tempted to reduce the wages of cigarmakers to compete with 
the sweat-shop and cheaply-manufactured goods from the 
East. Through the efforts of the union, a local sentiment 
has grown up which demands Colorado made cigars in pref- 
erence to those manufactured elsewhere. While this is to 
the advantage of the cigarmaker, it is very much to the in- 
terest of the local manufacturer, and convinces him that the 
union is beneficial to him as well as to the journeyman. 

The hours of labor have been reduced to eight. Women 
receive the same pay as men for the same work. May 1, 1886, 
the cigarmakers adopted the eight-hour day, being the first 
organization of workmen, who worked by the piece, to do so. 
In many of the shops of Denver the cigarmakers employ a 
boy to read to them while they work. They are among the 
most loyal adherents of trade unionism. The well-known 
bine label is the badge of unionism in connection with cigars. 



14 BIENNIAL EBPORT 

CARRIAGE WORKERS. 

Carriage and Wagon Workers' Union No. 5, of Denver, 
is the only union of this craft in Colorado. It was organized 
in May, 1890. It has established the nine-hour day without 
any reduction of wages. The wages of carriage workers have 
been fixed at three dollars a day. AU questions concerning 
wages and trade privileges have been settled without any 
special trouble. Every regularly employed carriage worker 
in Denver is a member of this union. 

RETAIL CLERKS. 

In the eighties there were a number of clerks' unions or- 
ganized in the cities and mining camps of Colorado. Some 
of these were organized as trades assemblies of the Knights 
of Labor and others as local unions of clerks. All of these 
went to pieces and when Clerks' Union No. 7 was organized 
in Denver, June, 1890, it was the only organization of clerks 
in the state. There are now twelve local branches of the 
Clerks' International Protective Association in Colorado. 
They are all in a prosperous and flourishing condition. Early 
closing week days, save Saturdaj^s, and Sunday closing, were 
two objects that the clerki^ sought to attain. Before the 
clerks organized the proprietors kept the stores open from 
seven in the morning until ten at night. In all cities of this 
state where the clerks have organized, they have secured 
early closing and the abatement *of the Sunday opening cus- 
tom. The struggle has not been an easy one, and many mer- 
chants had to be severely disciplined before they would yield 
to the shorter day. 

(X)0KS. 

There are but two distinctly cooks' unions in the state, 
located at Denver and Cripple Creek. Several others have 
been organized at different places, but after a short time have 
formed a joint union with the waiters. In January, 1890, 
Journeymen Cooks' Union No. 18 was organized with eleven 
members. At this time there was no uniformity of hours or 
wages. Cooks work from twelve to sixteen hours per day, 
and in many instances receive very poor wages. Through 
the judicious use of the strike and the boycott, the cooks, in 
co-operation with the Trades Assembly, made their union an 
instrument to increase their wages and to decrease their ex- 
cessively long hours of toil. The union became strong and 
powerful, and most of the leading restaurants in Denver have 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 15 

been successfully unionized. In the old days the cooks of 
Denver worked seven days a week. One of the purposes of 
the union from its inception was to establish a six-day work 
in the week. After a great deal of effort this was ultimately 
secured, and in the union eating houses of Denver the cooks 
get one day off in each week without any reduction of pa\'. 
The Cooks' Union of Cripple Creek was recently formed by 
dividing the Cooks' and Waiters' Union into a union of each 
kind. 

COOKS AND WAITKRS. 

There are two cooks' and waiters' unions in the states 
located at (Colorado Springs and Victor. Being engaged 
in the same general line of work in towns where they 
are not numerous enough to support two unions, they botli 
unite in one. They have vastly benefited the craft by increas- 
ing wages, shortening hours and securing various other bene- 
fits wherever organized. The cooks and waiters at Victor 
conducted a very effective strike and boycott in December, 
1899. It was successful. These unions are fraternal and 
benevolent, and have sick and death benefits. They are all 
affiliated with the Colorado State Federation of Labor. 

CONDUCTORS. 

There are eight divisions of the Order of Railway Con- 
ductors in Colorado. Almost every railway conductor em- 
ployed upon the railway lines of this state is enrolled in the 
list of members of one of these divisions. Division No. 44, of 
Denver, was one of the earlier crafts to organize. Its forma- 
tion goes back to October, 1877. But few misunderstandings 
have occurred between the conductors and the companies by 
whom they are emplojed, and the differences were settled 
without much difficulty. 

LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS. 

The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers have eleven 
divisions in Colorado. The first division to organize was No. 
186, of Denver, ifarch, 1875. The locomotive engineers of 
(^olorado were quick to appreciate the many advantages to be 
secured by organization, and, with the developments of the 
lailroads of the state and an ever increasing mileage, the 
number of engineers has constantly been increasing, and new 
divisions have been organized as rapidly as their formation 
became necessary. It is customary with the engineers, wher- 



16 BIENNIAL REPORT 

ever practicable, to organize all members of the craft work- 
ing on a certain road into one division. Thus in Denver No. 
186 is composed of Union Pacific, Colorado & Southern and 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, while No. 451 consists prin- 
cipally of Rio Grande engineers. The order in Colorado in- 
cludes all the locomotive engineers employed. 

FEDERAL LABOR UNIONS. 

In the organization of trades there was originally no 
provision made for organizing those with no trade at all, but 
who were classified as common laborers. The Federal Labor 
Union is for the purpose of organizing those who have no 
craft organization, as well as all tradesmen who have no 
union in the locality where the Federal Labor Union is or- 
ganized. The field is a large one. A Federal Labor Union 
is nearly the sanie thing as a mixed assembly of the Knights 
of Labor. It is a nucleus to bring all workers into one fold 
and organize those who are tradesmen into their own craft 
as soon as a sufficient number can be gotten together. A con- 
siderable number of these Federal Labor Unions exist in Col- 
orado and much excellent work has been done by them. 

LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN. 

The Locomotive Firemen were in the field with an or- 
ganization very soon after the whistle of the first locomotive 
was heard in the streets of Denver. Rocky Mountain Lodge 
No. 77 is the pioneer one of this order in Colorado. It was 
organized in June, 1877, with a chartered membership of 
the supposed unlucky number thirteen. There are now fif- 
teen lodges in the state, with a membership which includes 
practically all the locomotive firemei^in Colorado. 

THE GRANITE CUTTERS. 

The Denver branch of the Granite Cutters* National 
Union is the only one in Colorado. It was organized in April, 
1885. It has jurisdiction all over the state and has members 
at work in every city and camp where granite is cut. When 
this union was first formed the wages of granite cutters in 
Denver were three dollars for ten hours' work. As one of the 
results of organization wages have been advanced to four 
dollars for an eight-hour day. In some parts of Colorado 
four and a half has been paid. Several attempts have been 
made at different times and places to reduce the four-dollar 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 17 

scale, but the granite cutter has successfully resisted every 
effort in this direction. 

HORSESHOERS. 

The only union in this state composed exclusively of 
horseshoers is Journeymen Horseshoers' Union No. 29 of 
Denver. This was organized December, 1886. A ten-hour 
day, with nine hours on Saturday, was one of the first results 
obtained. After a few years this was changed to a straight 
nine-hour day. Before organization there was no regular 
scale of w^ages. A uniform scale has since been established. 
Through the efforts of the organized horseshoers the Eleventh 
General Assjembly passed a law creating a board of examiners 
to examine and license all working horseshoers in the city of 
Denver found to be competent. The Supreme Court, by an 
unfavorable construction, rendered the law inoperative. A 
city ordinance embodying the same proposition was passed by 
the City Council, but was vetoed by Mayor McMurray. 

THE GARMENT WORKERS. 

There are two unions of the garment workers in the city 
of Denver. Both are affiliated with the International Gar- 
ment Workers' Union of America. No. 139 was organized 
April, 1896, with thirty-five charter members, all of whom 
were employes of the TJnderhill factory. The membership 
increased and after a time an agreement was entered into 
with the proprietor and notice posted to the effect that all 
employes must be members of the Garment Workers' Union. 
The entire membership, of which nearly all are women, are 
employed at the Underbill factory, at the corner of Seven- 
teenth and Market streets. The employes are engaged at 
making overalls, corduroy pants, jumpers, shirts and all 
goods that are worn by workmen when engaged at their 
daily avocations. Every garment bears the union label. The 
condition of the workers has been improved in many ways 
since organization, and their earnings are considerably more. 
Wages for some kinds of work have been advanced as much as 
twenty-five per cent. The scale of wages paid to employes at 
the present time is from ten to fifteen per cent, higher than in 
any other similar manufactories in the country. The man- 
agement of the Underbill factory is respected, honored and 
patronized by the organized workers of Colorado for the fair 
and generous treatment accorded to its employes. The kind- 



18 BIENNIAL REPORT 

liest and most friendly relations exist between the proprietor 
and the opera tires. 

Garment Workers' Union No. 113 is one of the new 
unions of the state, having been organized March 15, 1900. 
Previous to its formation the Tailors' Union admitted to 
membership some of this class of garment workers. They 
were, however, hardly up to the standard of proficiency re- 
quired, and the Tailors' Union encouraged their being formed 
into a distinct union of garment workers. This class reireived 
some recruits from those who have acquired some knowledge 
of the work in the sweat shops of the old world. A consid- 
erable portion of these workmen are foreigners. The mem- 
bership of 113 is increasing, and the lodge is in very good con- 
dition. 

IRON SMOULDERS. 

The Iron Moulders' Union of North America has two 
branches in Colorado, located at Denver and Pueblo. The 
Denver branch was organized October, 1878, and the one at 
Pueblo, April, 1888. 

All moulders in Colorado are under the jurisdiction of 
either one or the other of these two branches. The wonderful 
development in the use of iron in modern society makes the 
iron moulder a w'orker of importance. To acquire a mastery 
of all departments of iron moulding requires several years 
training. The man doing but one thing acquires a rapidity 
of execution that lessens the cost of production, hence the sub- 
division of labor in iron moulding establishments. While 
cheapening the cost of production it has rendered the work- 
man less independent. The journeymen strive to secure for 
themselves a share of the results accruing from the subdi- 
vision of labor, the introduction of machinery and modern 
methods of production. They use their organization to a(^- 
complish these results. The iron moulders have always come 
to the assistance of other unions that found it necessary to 
invoke the strike or the boycott. 

LATHERS. 

There are four unions composed of lathers in Colorado. 
They are located at Denver, Pueblo, Colorado Springs and 
Cripple Creek. All are affiliatecl with the (Colorado State 
Federation of Labor. Before the unions were organized 
there was no fixed number of hours for a day's work, and 
the scale of wages paid to lathers was whatever they could 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 19 

get.' Since organization a regnlar eight-hour day has been 
established^ and a wage scale determined upon which is uni- 
form in each locality. 

LETTER CARRIERS. 

The letter carriers are well organized in Colorado, hav- 
ing an association in each city where carriers are employed, 
ten in all. There are not to exceed five or six carriers in the 
state who do not belong to some one of the branches. 

Silver State Branch No. 47, of Denver, was the first to 
organize, August, 1890. The locals are fraternal and bene- 
ficiary. These associations work in entire harmony with the 
postoffice department. All letter carriers get a vacation of 
fifteen days each year, with full pay. 

THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR. 

No review of the labor organizations of Colorado, past 
and present, however brief, would be complete which omitted 
mention of the Knights of Labor. This order has played a 
very important part in the organization of labor here, as in- 
deed it has everywhere. A very large portion of the trade 
unionists of Colorado have at some time been identified with 
the Knights of Labor. No organization in the history of the 
race had its origin in a more commendable desire to eradicate 
everything from our social and industrial system which 
smacks of tyranny or injustice than did this one, and none 
can point with a greater degree of pride to better results. 
Its principles command the admiration and respect of all 
right-thinking people. The very essence of every economic 
advance that has already accomplished much and promises 
inestimable good in the years to come, is included in the 
principles of knighthood. 

The first local Knight of Labor Assembly in Colorado 
was organized at Erie, August, 1878 — the next to organize 
was "Cosmopolitan," at Leadville, January, 1879. This as- 
sembly lived for many years and reached its zenith in 1889, 
when it had a membership of 1,140 in good standing. Jan- 
uary 1 of that year the assemblies in Leadville, Colorado, 
had an aggregate membership of 1,982 in good standing. Up 
to January 1, 1884, the growth of the order had been slow, 
and but five assemblies had been organized in the state. In 
the spring of 1884 the Union Pacific Railroad Company 
made an attempt to reduce the wages of its shop employes 



20 BIENNIAL REPORT 

from ten to twenty per cent. Against this objectionable or- 
der the employes, who were organized into a very strong as- 
sembly of the Knights of Labor, went on strike, with the re- 
sult that in three days the notice of reduction was taken 
down and the scale of wages remained as it was. Other work- 
men recognizing the benefits accruing to the Union Pacific 
employes from organization, became anxious to organize, and 
local assemblies of the Knights of Labor sprang into exist- 
ence very rapidly. In 1885 organizers were sent through the 
coal mining districts, and the coal miners at the various 
camps were quite generally formed into assemblies of the 
Knights of Labor. The next five years were palmy ones 
for Knights of Labor organizations in Colorado, and in 1888 
sixty-eight assemblies had been organized and most of them 
were in working order. There was scarcely a mining camp 
in the mountains, an agricultural town in the valleys, or a 
city in the state that did not have one or more assemblies of 
the Knights of Labor. Three strong district assemblies were 
organized, one for western and two for eastern and southern 
Colorado. During several sessions of the legislature the 
Knights of Labor had a committee in attendance to watch 
legislation, and a number of labor measures were enacted 
into law through the efforts of the order. The Sixth Gen- 
eral Assembly had eight members who were at that time 
Knights of Labor in good standing. This order continued to 
exert great influence for many years. Of late its member- 
ship has declined materially, the growth of trades unions 
having to a great extent absorbed the membership. During 
the last year the order in Colorado has increased, several 
new assemblies having been organized. There are three 
Knights of Labor assemblies in the city of Denver, and as- 
semblies are to be found in various parts of the state. The 
order is very secret, and the Master Workman in Colorado 
requests that a list of the assemblies and the names of the 
secretaries be not published. 

MINERS^ UNIONS. 

There are thirty-four unions in Colorado, composed of 
metalliferous miners, men working around mines, coal min- 
ers, mill men, smelter employes, engineers working around 
mines, mills or smelters. Of this number twenty-seven are 
affiliated with the Western Federation of Miners. In the 
early eighties there w'ere several local unions of miners in the 
different mining camps. They w:ere soon afterward organ- 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 21 

ized into assemblies of the Knights of Labor and exercised 
gi*eat influence in labor circles for a number of years. The 
strongest and most important of these old-time organizations 
was the Lake County Miners' Union of Leadville. 

In March, 1893, Pitkin County Miners' Union No. 6 
was organized at Aspen, Colorado. It was the first one to 
be organized under the auspices of the Western Federation 
of Miners and is the oldest of the present system of miners' 
unions in the state. The new organization grew apace, and 
in 1896 between fifty and sixty unions had been formed and 
nearly every mining camp in Colorado had a branch of the 
Western Federation. Some of these unions were never 
strong, others had a phenomenal metnbership. 

In June, 1896, the ill-fated Leadville strike was inaug- 
urated. It continued until February of the following year. 
This strike proved a severe drain upon the resources of the 
miners and cost the federation approximately |100,000. A 
numl)er of the miners' unions in Colorado collapsed while 
this strike, or, more accurately speaking, lockout, was on, or 
soon after it was declared oflF. The Leadville union. Cloud 
City No. 33, one of the strongest in the state, having more 
than 2,000 members, July 1, 1896, found its treasury empty, 
its membership demoralized, in arrears and scattered, its in- 
fluence broken. The work of again rebuilding proceeded 
slowly. Steadily lost ground was recovered and the end of 
each year found the membership larger than did its begin- 
ning. At present the unions of the miners are full of life and 
vitality, with a constantly increasing membership. 

THE MUSICIANS. 

The musicians of Colorado in early days made several 
attempts to organize in the dilBferent towns, but with very in- 
diflferent success. Harmony seemed to be lacking with them 
as with others, and all these associations dissolved soon after 
being formed. Since 1890 strong and well-disciplined unions 
of musicians have been organized at Leadville, Denver, Pu- 
eblo and Cripple Creek. Each one of these associations is 
in a thriving condition and is able to fully regulate all mat- 
ters pertaining to their vocation in the several localities. 
Prior to organization competition had become so keen among 
the musicians, and wages so small, that they were completely 
demoralized. A uniform scale of prices has beeen adopted, 
suited to the several localities, competition has been checked 



22 BIENNIAL REPORT 

and in every way have conditions for the musician been made 
better. These unions include every professional musician in 
the state. 

THE MACHINISTS. 

The International Association of Machinists have three 
branches in the state. The organization found its way in 
Colorado first by way of Pueblo, Pueblo Lodge No. 13 being 
the first in the western country. The seeds of organization 
were first sown in Denver when Mr. E. P. Crawford, member 
of No. 13, as organizer, visited Denver, and on October 10, 
1889, the records say: "First meeting Pioneer Lodge No. 
47." 

"The members desiring to form an association of ma- 
chinists of the national branch met at the hall, 1554 Champa 
street, under the leadership of E. P. Crawford, organizer of 
Pike's Peak Lodge No. 13, of Pueblo." 

The records say there were nine members present. They 
organized. The young lodge was very well officered, as the 
records show they had a full quota. J. C. Fulton was Master 
Mechanic. W. 8. Gardner, Past Master Mechanic. W. W. 
Ball, Foreman. G. F. Bartholmes, Secretary. J. T. John- 
ston, Treasurer. From the time of its organization the lodge 
seemed to grow. 

Seeing the necessity of organizing, the lodge held several 
"mass meetings" in City Hall during the early part of De- 
cember, 1889, and several new members were obtained by this 
method, as many as twelve being taken in at one meeting. 

On January 31, 1890, after the meeting of Pioneer Lodge, 
Queen City Lodge No. 67 was organized, the Master Me- 
chanic of No. 47 acting as organizer. Thirty-one members 
were enrolled, and the records show an attendance of about 
fifty members of Pioneer. 

The folly of trying to keep two lodges of the same organ- 
ization in a city the size of Denver soon became apparent. 
On November 21, 1890, the lodges consolidated under the 
name of Denver Lodge No. 47. 

Denver Lodge has been in but a very few strikes or dis- 
turbances of any kind for an organization as old and pass- 
ing from the period where employers do not care to and will 
not recognize labor organizations to the period when they sk* 
the necessity of such recognition. In 1893 there was a strike 
on the Union Pacific system that involved No. 47. This was 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 23 

settled by agreement with Jhe company, in which a standard 
rate of wages was established. 

In October, 1898, the lodge got into trouble with the F. 
M. Davis Iron Works Company over the discharge of a com- 
mittee appointed to attend to union matters after working 
hours, and the refusal of the company to reinstate them. 

In March of the present year the members working at 
the Vulcan Iron Works walked out on account of helpers be- 
ing placed on machinists' work. 

The branch at Colorado Citv was organized in March, 
1900. 

THE DENVER MAILERS. 

Mailers' Union No. 8 was organized in October, 1897. 
The membership is composed of those engaged in the mailing 
department of the Denver newspapers. This union has been 
successful in regulating and systematizing the work of its 
menil)ership, and has secured for them many privileges 
which they did not enjoy before they were organized. 

The mailers are chartered by the International Typo- 
graphical Union and belong to the Printing Trades Council. 

PLUMBERS AND GAS FITTERS. 

The plumbers, steam and gas fitters have four unions in 
the state. In addition to this they have associations at Boul- 
der and Cripple Creek, which are affiliated directly with the 
unions at Denver and Victor. The first to organize was 
No, 3, of Denver, which was formed in July, 1887, with 
tw^enty members. Its membership now includes everj jour- 
neyman plumber or gas fitter in Denver. The workmen in 
this craft at Pueblo, the Cripple Creek district and Colorado 
Springs are thoroughly organized, and the unions at these 
places include all the journeymen plumbers employed there. 
The whole state is included in the jurisdiction of the cities 
where unions exist, and members nmy be found in many other 
cities. An eight-hour day has been secured in every city of 
the state where unions of plumbers exist. Wages, while uni- 
form in each locality, vary in the state from $3.50 to |4.50 per 
day. 

The plumbers, after much labor, secured the passage of 
a law creating a board of examiners and making it necessary 
for each workman to pass an examination and have a certifi- 
cate certifying to his competency. This board consists of 



24 ^ BIENNIAL BEPOBT 

two journeymen, two master plumbers and the plumbing In- 
spector. It applies to the city of Denver solely. 

The plumbers and gas fitters of Colorado have a state 
association organized upon very similar lines to the interna- 
tional. This association has jurisdiction over all questions 
pertaining to the craft in the state, and can establish any 
local rules and regulations not in conflict with the interna- 
tional union. 

Since the office of plumbing inspector has been created 
in the city of Denver, a great improvement has been effected 
in the quality of plumbing In the city. 

A bill will be introduced in the Thirteenth General As- 
sembly making provision for registering and licensing jour- 
neymen plumbers, and thorough inspection of the sewerage 
system of all towns and cities in the state. Such inspection, 
accompanied with authority upon the part of the state in- 
spector to compel compliance with required regulations, 
would very much improve the general health of people living 
in the towns and cities of Colorado. I would recommend this 
measure to the careful consideration of the Thirteenth Gen- 
eral Assembly. 

PLUMBERS^ LABORERS AND DRAIN LAYERS. 

Plumbers', Laborers' and Drain Layers' Union of Denver 
is the only organization of the kind in the state. It was or- 
ganized in March, 1898. Since organization an agreement 
has been entered into with the master plumbers by which only 
union men are employed and a uniform wage scale of $2 for 
an eight-hour day is paid. It is chartered directly by the 
American Federation of Labor. 

PAINTERS AND DECORATORS. 

The painters, decorators and paperhangers of Colorado 
are a fairly well organized craft, and have, through their 
unions, been enabled to secure many advantages that other- 
wise they would not be enjoying. There are five unions of 
this trade in the state, all affiliated with the international 
trade organization. These unions have had many ups and 
downs, and at times have struggled for existence. At present 
they all have a satisfactory membership and are husky, grow- 
ing organizations. No. 79 of Denver is the oldest, having been 
organized in March, 1888. During the panic of 1893 wages of 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 25 

l>aiiiters were reduced to $2.50 per day. With the revival of 
industry which set in in 1897 an effort was made to restore 
the old scale. This was accomplished in the spring of 1899 
and in March, 1900, but not without a good deal of friction. 

PLASTERERS. 

A city where four or five hundred carpenters and three 
or four hundred bricklayers can find employment will furnish 
work for not more than seventy-five plasterers. There are, 
therefore, but few cities of sufficient population in Colorado 
to employ enough plasterers to form a union. Plasterers are 
found very frequently among the membership of the federal 
labor unions. There are four unions of this craft in the 
state, and where organized they have succeeded fairly well in 
establishing their wage scale and fixing the hours of labor. 
Some difficulties have occurred between these workmen and 
the bosses, to which reference has been made in the chapter 
on "Strikes." 

PRINTING PRESSMEN. 

There are two unions of printing pressmen in Colorado, 
No. 40 located at Denver, and No. 83 at Victor. These two 
branches have exclusive jurisdiction in all press rooms in the 
state, and members of one or the other man the press rooms 
in every large printing establishment in Colorado. The print- 
ing pressmen were formerly admitted to membership in the 
typographical union, with the privil^e of voting upon ques- 
tions pertaining to press rooms alone. The pressmen's unions, 
while distinct, are still affiliated with the typographical 
union. The pressman has charge of a complicated machine, 
and his responsibilities are in proportion. Recent inventions 
have made. radical changes in the work of pressmen, as they 
have in all other kinds of labor connected with printing. No 
serious trouble has occurred between the pressmen and their 
employers. 

PRINTERS. 

The International Typographical Union has eight 
branches in Colorado. No. 49 of Denver is the oldest union 
in the state, having been organized in 1860. The great flood 
in Cherry Creek in 1864 carried away all the books, records 
and papers, also more than |100 in money belonging to 49. 
None of this property was ever recovered. Practically every 
journeyman printer in the state is a union workman. The 
few exceptions to be found are in the remote country districts. 



2G BIENNIAL KEPORT 

It was largely through the etforts of the union printers of 
Colorado that the Childs-Drexel Home was secured for Colo- 
rado Springs. The printers were among the most intelligent 
of the early craftsmen, and they have always struggled, and 
with a marked degree of success, to preserve the best of the 
old-time customs, and to establish new usages in conformity 
with the new conditions of the times. At an early date each 
union adopted the plan of allowing each local to legislate 
upon all craft questions within its jurisdiction, thus recogniz- 
ing the principle of home rule. But few trades have felt the 
effect of machinery so severely as has that of the printers. 
In many large offices nmchines have entirely supplanted hand 
work except as to job work. When the printers realized that 
the change from hand composition to typesetting by ma- 
chinery was inevitable it tried to adapt itself to the new order 
as agreeably as possible. It tried to transfer the hand com- 
positor to the macthines. This was frequently successful and 
the compositor became a skilled machine operator. The old- 
time printer who could not or who did not get an opportunity 
to operate a machine finds himself out of work a good share 
of the time. The situation, difficult though it was, has been 
met by the printers' unions with marked sagacity, and at no 
time have the advantages of compact organization been more 
apparent than since the introduction of the linotype ma- 
chines. Women are admitted to the printers' unions upon 
the same terms as men, and receive equal pay for equal work. 

PRINTING PRESS ASSISTANTS. 

Denver Printing Press Assistants' Union was organized 
January, 1894. It is chartered by the International Print- 
ing Pressmen's Union. It is a strong, compact little organ- 
ization, and embraces all the capable workmen of this class 
in Denver. The printing pressmen have had but one small 
strike, and that was satisfactorily settled. 

POSTAL CLERKS. 

This union is composed of postal railway clerks in Colo- 
rado and in some of the adjoining states. It is chartered 
by the National Association, and is part of the seventh di- 
vision, which includes Colorado, Kansas, Missouri and New 
Mexico. It is a fraternal and beneficiary association, and 
has an accident insurance feature which enables postal clerks 
to carry reliable accident insurance at very low rates. It 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 27 

has accomplished a good deal by way of re-classifying the 
mail service and making the labor of postal clerks easier. 

SIGN WRITERS. 

Sign writing or lettering is a business carried on by a 
class of painters who have a union separate and distinct 
from that of the painters and decorators. While most sign 
writers can do all kinds of work connected with the craft, 
it is considered a separate avocation. It requires skill of a 
very high order to do this work well. Several unions of sign 
writers have been organized, but dissolved after a brief per- 
iod. The present union was organized May, 1898. It has 
adopted a trade mark and established a uniform scale of 
wages. 

SHEET METAL WORKERS. 

Sheet Metal Workers' Union No. 9, of Denver, was or- 
ganized April, 1898. It is the only one of the kind in the 
state. Before organization there had been no regular scale 
of wages paid; workmen in this craft had been working for 
such wages as they would bargain for each time they were 
employed. Since organization a regular minimum wage 
scale has been established, many evils have been corrected, 
and the hours have Tbeen reduced to eight. This union is 
chartered by the Amalgamated International Association of 
Sheet Metal Workers, and is affiliated with the Building 
Trades Council of Denver. 

STEAM ENGINEERS. 

The International Steam Engineers' Union of America, 
which was organized at Denver, April, 1896, has two lodges 
in the state of Colorado, located at Denver and Pueblo, re- 
spectively. The lodge in Denver was organized as a local 
union in March, 1883, and affiliated with the American Fed- 
eration of Labor soon after, receiving the charter number 
5703, by which it was known for many years. Through the 
efforts of the Denver branch the international was organ- 
ized, the local union being chartered as number one. This 
is an efficient and a progressive organization, and demands 
a high standard of efficiency upon the part of its member- 
ship. In the city of Denver, in order to be eligible to mem- 
bership the applicant must possess a license issued by a 
board composed of machinists, engineers and boiler makers, 
acting under the authority of the fire and police board. The 



28 BIENNIAL REPORT 

boiler inspector is a member of this board, ex officio. These 
licenses are subject to revocation for drunkenness or other 
good cause. In cities where there is no examining board 
provided for by law, the applicant for membership must pass 
a satisfactory examination before a board appointed by the 
lodge, for the purpose of ascertaining his qualifications/ The 
lodge aims to secure good wages and fair conditions of em- 
ployment for good, competent service. It is fraternal, and 
makes provision for sick and disabled members. The rate 
of wages paid to stationary engineers in Colorado ranges 
from 140 to |250 per month. 

SWITCHMEN. 

The Switchmen's Union of North America has five 
lodges in Colorado. The present organization of switchmen 
is of recent date, all the lodges in this state having been 
chartered since January 1, 1899. The Switchmen's Mutual 
Aid Association disbanded in 1894, since which time some of 
these unions maintained an existence as locals until the 
present national organization was started, when they 
affiliated. In the earlier years of railroad service compe- 
tency among switchmen counted for but little. Almost any 
one who was willing to take the risk of personal injury in 
this dangerous branch of railroad labor would be employed. 
At present the value of skill and training is well understood. 
The experienced switchman is required by all railroad com- 
panies. The membership of these unions is increasing aud 
will soon include all the workmen of this kind in the state. 
The motto of the organized switchmen is benevolence, hope 
and protection. 

STONE CUTTERS. 

The stone cutters, as they are called by way of distinc- 
tion from the granite cutters, have three unions in the state 
of Colorado, located at Denver, Pueblo and Colorado Springs. 
No. 1, located at Denver, is one of the historic labor un- 
ions of Colorado. When building operations were be- 
ing extensively carried on in Denver, the Stone Cutters' 
Union was a powerful organization in more ways than one, 
and absolutely controlled everything pertaining to that in- 
dustry. This union of stone cutters was organized in 1879 
with a membership of eighty. In 1890 the membership was 
550. It was always conservative and reasonable in its de- 
mands, which, taken together with its large membership. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 29 

enabled it to settle such diflficulties as arose fairly and justly. 
The stone cutters have derived very great benefits from their 
organization by way of wages, hours, and trade conditions. 
They have the usual sick, disability and death benefits. 

STONE MASONS. 

Stone Masons' Union of Denver was organized April, 
1886. In 1890, when the building boom was at its best, this 
union had a membership of more than 300. Stone masons 
formerly worked ten hours. Soon after organization was 
effected they secured an eight-hour* day without reduction of 
wages, and have since retained it. The stone masons and the 
brick layers in most cities are members of the same union 
and have an international organization. The order is frater- 
nal, and has excellent beneficiary features. 

STEREOTYPERS. 

The stereotypers employed in the printing offices of Den- 
ver were organized into a union of their own, July 13, 1891. 
Prior to that date they were members of the Typographical 
Union, with voting privileges upon questions relating solely 
to their own vocation. The stereotypers in 1898 were granted 
autonomy, and the stereotypers and electrotypers' trade dis- 
trict union has entire control of all matters relating to 
themselves. They are still under the jurisdiction of the Typo- 
graphical Union. Though not large in point of numbers^ this 
union includes most members of the craft and has members 
employed in several cities of Colorado and surrounding 
states. 

STENOGRAPHERS. 

There are two organizations of stenographers in Den- 
ver. The Denver Council of Women Stenographers was or- 
ganized June, 1898, by Miss Gertrude Beeks. It is affiliated 
with the National Association of Women Stenographers, 
which was incorporated under the laws of the State of Illi- 
nois, November, 1894. Miss Beeks is president of the Na- 
tional Association. Its objects are to enable the members to 
become better acquainted with each other, to secure the ben- 
efits resulting from organized effort, and for the relief of 
sick members. It is composed exclusively of women, and is 
literary and fraternal. 

The Colorado State Stenographers' Association is one 
of the newest unions in the state, having been organized May, 



30 BIENNIAL REPORT 

1900. All stenographers of both sexes are eligible to mem- 
bership. There is an employment committee who make it 
their business to secure situations for stenographers and 
typewriters who are seeking employment. The salary paid 
depends upon the competency of the applicant to do certain 
kinds of work. This committee has been instrumental in se- 
curing work for mai;iy members. There is also a speed com- 
mittee, whose duty it is to ascertain the efficiency of mem- 
bers and to recommend them for situations according to 
merit. The salaries paid to stenographers, who must also 
be typewriters, varies considerably, ranging from ?30 to f 85 
per month. Court stenographers and perhaps a few others 
doing work requiring exceptional skill receive mucli higher 
wages. The objects of this association are declared to be, 
"To advance and protect professional interests of members, 
to assist them in procuring employment, to encourage and 
develop their ability, and to elevate the profession in gen- 
eral.'' 

THEATRICAL STAGE EMPLOYES. 

There are three unions in this state composed of scene 
shifters and theatrical stage workers. The membership is 
necessarily small, as but few workmen are employed at this 
kind of labor, and these solely around theatres and opera 
houses. Scene shifting requires a peculiar sort of skill, and 
the worker only becomes proficient with experience. Some 
considerable friction has occurred at times between the theat- 
rical managers and the workmen in this vocation. 

TEAMSTERS. 

There are two teamsters' unions in this state, located 
at Denver and Pueblo. Both are locals and without any 
connection with each other. Both are affiliated with the 
State Federation of Labor. Before the teamsters organized 
there was no regular wages paid and each teamster worked 
for what he could get. Since the unions have been formed, 
regular wages have been established and regular hours 
worked. 

TRAINMEN. 

The Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen has^eleven lodges 
in Colorado. No. 30, at Denver, and lodges at Salida and 
Pueblo were organized in August, 1884, and bore the name 
of brakemen. In 1891 the name was changed to the present 
one. It now includes not only brakemen, but conductors, 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 31 

baggagemen, express messengers, in fact any workman who 
has served for one year in any capacity in the train service. 
It participates with the other railroad organizations in form- 
ing a joint board which acts for the best interests of all. The 
trainmen have the same policy as the other railroad men with 
reference to seniority of service and promotions in accord- 
ance with it. The order in Colorado has a large and a con- 
stantly increasing membership. Several lodges of trainmen 
have been formed within the last year. 

TEAM OWNERS. 

The team owners and the transfer outfits of Denver or- 
ganized themselves into a union March, 1898. Their work 
consists of all kinds of hauling and transferring and is done 
both by the day and by the job. Before organization, there 
had been so much competition between team owners that 
their earnings were very small. Since organization uniform 
rates for given kinds of work have been established and prices 
have been advanced about 40 per cent. This union belongs 
to the Denver Trades and Labor Assembly. 

THE DENVER TRADES ASSEMBLY. 

The oldest representative body of wage workers in Colo- 
rado, a union made up of delegates from different locals, is 
the Denver Trades Assembly, which was organized November, 
1882. As the printers were the first craftsmen to organize in 
the state, so they were the pioneers in the movement to bring 
about closer and more harmonious relations between the la- 
bor unions of Denver. The Trades Assembly was originally 
composed of five unions, the printers, tailors, bakers, stone 
cutters and the iron moulders. Its life has been continuous 
from date of organization until the present writing. Like 
most labor organizations in its first beginnings, it had many 
prejudices to meet, many jealousies to overcome. The years 
1885-86 saw many new unions formed and affiliated as rap- 
idly as they were organized. Prom this time forward the 
Trades Assembly became a strong and an infiuential body. 
While declining to become an adjunct of any political party, 
its declared purpose is to use every infiuence possible upon 
the law making power to secure favorable and desired legis- 
lation upon the many subjects in which the industrial classes 
feel an interest. The Assembly has taken an active interest 
in the subject of convict labor and its employment in a way 



32 BIENNIAL EKPOUT 

which will not permit the product to come into competition 
with free labor. 

The Denver Trades Assembly has frequently been called 
upon to act as an arbiter in the settlement of labor disputes. 
Its findings have been marked by a spirit of fairness that 
caused them to be respected by both parties to the contro- 
versy in dispute. The Denver Trades Assembly is char- 
tered by both the American Federation of Labor and the 
Colorado State Federation of Labor. 

THE LEADVILLE TRADES ASSEMBLY. 

Several trades assemblies composed of delegates from 
the labor organizations of Leadville have been formed at 
diiferent times during the last ten years. They all disbanded 
after an existence of a few months. In the winter of 1899 
there were a number of new unions organized and old ones 
again put into working order in the carbonate camp. In 
March, 1899, the present Trades Assembly was organized. 
It is a thriving organization and is composed of delegates 
from the Clerks', TailorsV Typographical, Barbers', Miners', 
Carpenters' and Cigarmakers' Unions. It is chartered by 
the State Federation of Labor. 

CRIPPLE CREEK TRADES ASSEMBLY. 

The several unions of Cripple Creek, Altman and Ana- 
conda met in the form of a convention, with three delegates 
each, and organized as a central body. Cripple Creek Trades 
Assembly, November, 1894. Each union affiliating does not 
surrender any of its local autonomy. It is necessary, in any 
dispute which may arise between any of the crafts and their 
employers, that the grievance complained of be approved by 
the central body before they will give such dispute their en- 
dorsement. It has jurisdiction over all trade questions which 
may be submitted to it by connected unions. Being in the 
center of the most thoroughly unionized district in Colorado, 
its action has always commanded respect. It is chartered by 
the State Federation of Labor. The following extract from 
the declaration of principles says : "We declare it to be the 
duty of every laboring man to use his utmost endeavor to se- 
cure the amelioration of the condition of the laboring classes 
generally, and to accomplish this we believe that a central 
organization should exist, whereby all branches may prove 
allies to the particular one that may be oppressed by capital. 



BUREAU OF LABOR- STATISTICS. 33 

We hereby pledge ourselves to assist each other in securing 
fair wages and fair treatment to the laboring classes by all 
honorable means, and we shall withdraw, and use our influ- 
ence to have others withdraw, all patronage from any unfair 
employer." 

VICTOR TRADES ASSEMBLY. 

Victor Trades Assembly was organized in May, 1896, 
and has affiliated with it every labor union in that city, 
which includes the barbers, carpenters, cooks and waiters, 
federal labor, painters and decorators, retail clerks and the 
printers. It is a thoroughly live body and takes an active 
interest in everything pertaining to the good of labor. The 
following extract from the preamble adopted is indicative 
of its purpose: "We are in favor of arbitration whenever 
differences exist between employer and employed. We favor 
the self employment of labor, as only complete independence 
can be obtained when the laborer is no longer dependent 
upon other individuals for the right to work, and especially 
do we recommend that whatever trades intend striking for 
the accomplishment of any just purpose, if the funds of the 
organization will not allow it, the resistance, instead of being 
passive, should become active and aggressive by using the 
funds productively instead of unproductively." 

BUILDING TRADES COUNCIL. 

The organization of the Denver Building Trades Coun- 
cil was the result of a feeling which had been growing for 
several yearp among journeymen workmen employed in the 
building trades, that the interests of all would be better safe- 
guarded if a close organization of all these unions could be 
effected. In November, 1897, this council, composed solely 
of unions engaged in the building industry, was organized. 
All the building trades unions in the city of Denver are affil- 
iated save one or two. One of the rules established and which 
has been in effect since March, 1898, is that no union man 
can work with a man who is not a member of the union of 
his craft. The council is composed of three delegates from 
each associated union. Cognizance is taken of air disputes 
arising between contractors and builders and their work- 
men, and the council usually succeeds in settling these diffi- 
culties in a way that avoids strikes or serious friction of 
any kind. 



34 - BIENNIAL BEPORT 

THE ALLIED FEINTING COUNCIL. 

The Allied Printing Trades Council of the city of Den- 
ver was organized in June, 1896. It is composed of all the 
unions that are in any way connected with the printing craft, 
or who are employed around printing offices. Typographical 
Union No. 49, Stereotypers' Union No. 13, Mailers' Union No. 
8, Printing Pressmen's Union No. 40, Photo Engravers' 
Union No. 18, Job Pressmen's Union No. 1, Press Assistants' 
Union No. 14, Bookbinders' Union No. 29, Bindery Girls' 
Union No. 58, are the unions which comprise this trades 
council. 

Each one of these unions has a label of its own, but in 
cities where an allied council exists, each separate label is 
withdrawn and the Allied Printing Trades label is substi- 
tuted for them all, to be used in the establishments which 
conform to the requirements. The council is composed of 
three representatives from each affiliated union, irrespective 
of membership. The label is the property of the entire coun- 
cil and printing offices are allowed its use who employ at 
least one member of each union represented. The unanimous 
consent of the council must be secured in each case where the 
use of the label is granted. 

TELEGRAPHERS. 

The Order of Railway Telegraphers has^ two lodges in 
this state, located at Denver and Pueblo. Owing to the fact 
that telegraph operators are scattered and but few are to be 
found in one locality, they maintain but two organizations, 
with jurisdiction over the entire state. The membership of 
these two branches includes nearly all the railroad teleg- 
raphers employed in Colorado. While this order has usually 
gotten along agreeably with the railroad companies, within 
the last year the telegraphers have waged a boycott against 
the Colorado & Southern. The order aims to raise the stand- 
ard of efficiency among operators and to improve the service 
in every way. It has the usual system of benefits which 
characterize the other railroad orders. 

TAILORS. 

The Journeymen Tailors' Union of America has four 
branches in Colorado. The tailors of Denver were the first 
workmen in the state to follow the example of the printers 
in the matter of organization. Tailors were paid very good 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 35 

wages in early days. They suffered a reduction in 1877, 
which was restored in 1881. Certain customs, such as pay- 
ment of seat rent, fuel and light, have been established by the 
employers, although such customs are unheard of in other 
trades. This the tailors are trying to change. Most of the 
labor in this trade is piece work. Nearly all of the tailoring 
establishments in the cities of Colorado where the journey- 
men are organized employ union labor and pay the regular 
union scale. 

The "sweating system" has found its way among the 
tailors to a greater extent than among the tradesmen of al- 
most any other craft. One of the objects of the Tailors' 
Union is to obtain respectable wages for women. Under the 
sweating system the proprietor of the shop contracts with a 
middle man to furnish him with a given number of articles 
of wearing apparel. The middle man contracts with the sew- 
ing woman to do the work., The proprietor holds the con- 
tractor responsible, and the contractor looks to the sewing 
woman, who is the sweater, for the efficient performance of 
her contract. The smaller the wages paid to the sewing 
woman, the larger the profits of the middle man. Many of 
these women take their work home and, by working twelve or 
fourteen hours per day, earn very small wages. 

Some who are very skilful with the needle and in the use 
of the sewing machine make very good wages, but they set the 
pace for less swift and skilful women whose earnings are 
very small. The journeymen tailors strive to gain their 
share of the benefits which accrue to society from the changes 
which progress introduces. To prevent, or at least to lessen, 
the evils of "sweating," the journeymen tailors' unions seek 
to have all work done in shops provided by the employers, 
with fixed hours of labor and healthy surroundings, and at a 
living wage for all the workers. The sweating system has 
been practically destroyed in this trade in Denver. 

UPHOLSTERERS. 

Denver Upholsterers' Union No. 22 is the only one of this 
craft in Colorado. It was organized in 1891. For a time it 
was affiliated directly with the American Federation of 
Ijabor, but soon after the formation of the Upholsterers' In- 
ternational Union of North America, at Chicago in 1892, it 
received a charter from that body, which it still retains. The 
' membership of No. 22, while not large, comprises nearly all 



3t) BIENNIAL REPORT , 

the journeymen upholsterers actively working at the trade in 
the city of Denver. While the work of the upholsterers has 
been largely educational, they have established and main- 
tained a uniform scale of prices for work and in various ways 
advanced their interests. 

WAITERS. 

There are two unions composed exclusively of waiters 
in this state. No. 24, of Cripple Creek, was formed in the 
summer of 1900 by a division of the cooks and waiters of that 
district into two distinct unions, each with exclusive juris- 
diction over all those working as cooks or waiters. 

Waiters' Union No. 14, of Denver, was organized No- 
vember, 1891. But few unions in the state have brought so 
many and such distinct benefits to its membership as has this 
one. The wages of waiters was formerly f 9 per week, four- 
teen hours per day. After a great deal of agitation and hard 
work, in 1894 the union secured a scale of ?10 per week for 
men and ?8 per week for girls and eleven hours work per day. 
This scale of wages is still operative. The union also suc- 
ceeded in securing a six-day working week without reduction 
of wages. Denver is the only city in the country where the 
waiters have secured the six-day working week. The imme- 
diate benefits may be summarized by comparison : Seven 14- 
hour days, ninety-eight hours' labor, f 9, as against f 10 for a 
66-hour week, and |8 per week for girls as against |6 for the 
seven-day week. This union is strong and flourishing and 
has most of the waiters in Denver upon the roll of member- 
ship. 

WOODWORKERS. 

As the result of an active agitation among the wood- 
workers of Denver, the Machine Woodworkers' Union of that 
city was organized in May, 1890. It collapsed in 1895, but 
was reorganized in April, 1897. It is now known as No. 3 of 
the Amalgamated International Woodworkers, which was or- 
ganized at Chicago in September, 1896, by combining the 
Furniture Workers, the International Varnishers and the 
Woodworkers into one organization. 

The Denver union embraces all the woodworkers in the 
city in its membership. The woodworkers are an especially 
skilled and competent class of workmen, thoroughly devoted 
to the cause of unionism and always ready to do something 
to advance it. This union has been successful in establish- 



BUREAU OF LABOa STATISTICS. 37 

ing trade rules and regulations among the craft in Denver, 
uniformity of wages has been secured and the membership 
benefited in many ways. 

ELECTRICAL WORKERS. 

The Electrical Workers' Union No. 68, of Denver, was 
organized February 21, 1898. Before the local was organized 
electrical w^orkers were receiving from f 1.75 to f2.25 for a 
day of ten hours. Since organization the wages of electrical 
workers have been advanced from time to time until they are 
now f3 for an eight-hour day. Much has been accomplished 
during the last year to raise the standard of the membership 
and to secure a better quality of workmanship. This union 
has a board of examiners to pass upon the qualifications of 
each applicant before be is admitted to membership. It is 
chartered by the National Brotherhood of Electrical 
Workers. 

LINEMEN. 

Local Union of Linemen No. 121 of the U, B. of E. W. 
was organized in Denver in May, 1900. It is composed ex- 
clusively of electrical workers wiio are employed at outside 
work, putting up poles, cross arming, stringing of wires and 
all work outside of buildings and pertaining to electricity. 
The regular w^ages of linemen is |2.85 for an eight-hour day, 
having been increased from $2.65 within the last few months 
by the voluntary action of the companies. The Linemen's 
Union is in a healthy and flourishing condition with a mem- 
bership in good standing of 110, which number is steadily 
being increased. 



38 BIENNIAL REPORT 



TABULATION OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS 
IN COLORADO* 



In the following table is presented as accurate and com- 
plete a roster of the labor organizations of the State of Colo- 
rado as it has been possible to secure. The inquiry has been 
careful and painstaking, and is, we think, substantially 
correct in every particular. The information upon which 
the tables are based has been obtained from the secretaries of 
locals and from other authentic sources, and is reliable. 

The third biennial report of this bureau, covering the 
years 1891-92, contained a statement of the labor organiza- 
tions in existence in Colorado at that time. No detailed 
compilation of the organization of labor in this state has been 
given to the public since the one of 1892. 

The rapid growth of unions, the marked increase in their 
membership, the important part which they have taken in 
the growth and development of the state, renders the present 
inquiry at once instructive, necessary and interesting. 

A careful inquiry into the organization of labor in the 
other states of the union has disclosed the fact that there is 
a larger percentage of the wage workers of Colorado enrolled 
in the ranks of its labor organizations than of any sister state. 
The state standing next to Colorado in the proportion of its 
wage workers who are members of labor unions is probably 
Montana. 

That the higher wage scale in operation in this state is 
due in large measure to the influence of these unions no in- 
telligent, observant person will dispute. A glance at the dif- 
ferent rates of wages paid in the same industries in the organ- 
ized and unorganized camps and districts will fully confirm 
it. That the presence of these unions is the obstacle in the 
way of a reduction of wages in many localities is well known. 
It is to them that is to be credited such laws as have been se- 
cured in the interest of the industrial classes. It is to a 
general appreciation of the truth that through unionism can 
the interest of labor be most effectively safeguarded that the 
past year has witnessed the formation of a larger number of 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 39 

unions in Colorado than any preceding year in the history 
of the state. * The next two years will undoubtedly largely in- 
crease the membership of labor unions here. 

Necessarily the membership of a union is dependent 
largely upon the size of the town in which it is located, and 
the number of workmen employed at that particular in- 
dustry. The strength and influence of a union in a locality 
is determined by the proportion of those engaged at that 
vocation which is included in its membership. The larger 
the per cent, of those emploj-ed in a given trade or in a given 
locality, who are union men or women, the greater the in- 
fluence of the organization. Thus a town or trade small in 
the actual membership of its unions may be very strong for 
the local purpose of such organizations. 

An interesting question in this relation is what propor- 
tion of all the wage workers of Colorado are members of labor 
unions? As there are no statistics published giving the total 
number of persons in the state who can be called wage 
earners, this can only be approximated. Another question 
of interest in this connection is, which trade and locality is 
best organized? While there may be some room for difference 
of opinion upon these points, it is quite certain that the 
printers and the allied printing trades include in their unions 
a larger proportion of those actually employed as journeymen 
in that craft than any of the others. 

The Cripple Creek district, which includes all the camps 
in that vicinity, is undoubtedly the most thoroughly or- 
ganized section of Colorado from a union labor point of view. 
There are few, indeed, craftsmen in this district who do not 
belong to the union of their trade. Ordinary laborers and 
tradesmen who are not sufficiently numerous to have a union 
of their own usually belong to the Federal Labor Unions, a 
miscellaneous body of workingmen. 

In 1892 there were, according to the compilation made 
by Commissioner Bodine, 15,789 members of the labor or- 
ganizations of Colorado. There are at the present time 284 
organizations of labor in the state, with an aggregate mem- 
bership of 28,089. There are a few who belong to more than 
one organization and are consequently reported twice in the 
enumeration. This class of members is not a Large one, and 
probably five hundred would be a liberal estimate of the 
number of persons who belong to two labor organizations. 
Deducting this number, however, from the total membership 



40 BIENNIAL REPORT 

as enumerated in the table leaves the membership of organ- 
ized labor in Colorado. 

While it is impossible to arrive at numerical exactness 
in this statement, the proportion of organized wage workers 
in the state is about 25 per cent, of the entire number. 

The laws of the Knights of Labor prohibit the exposure 
or publication of the names and addresses of secretaries and 
other officers and members of the order, as well as the loca- 
tion of assemblies and other facts relating to the local organ- 
ization. Therefore the names of the secretaries and the loca- 
tion of the several assemblies is not given in the following 
table. Aside from the local assemblies, there is an individual 
membership which is scattered widely over the state. Ac- 
cording to the October report of this year 1900, the twenty- 
one Knights of Labor Assemblies in the state have a member- 
ship of one thousand three hundred and sixty-nine, not count- 
ing the individual membership just referred to. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 



41 



TABULATION OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS IN COLORADO. 



NAMR 



Town or City 
Where 
Located 



Name of Secretary 



Barbers' Union 

Barbers* Union 

Barbers' Union 

Barbers' Union.. 

Barbers' Union 

Barbers' Union... 

Barbers' Union 

Barbers* Union 

Bootblacks' Union 

Bartenders' Union 

Bricklayers' Union 

Bricklayers' Union 

Bricklayers & Masons' Union . 

Bricklayers & Masons' Union . 

Bricklayers' Union 

Bricklayers' Union 

Building Laborers' Union 

Bnildin If Laborers' Union 

Bnildins Laborers' Union 

Bnildinsr Laborers* Union 

Baildinsr Laborers* Union 

Beer Drivers' Union 

Brewers & Maltsters' Union 

Brewers & Maltsters* Union 

Brickworkers' Union 

Brickworkers' Union 

Brickworkers* Union 

Brickworkers' Union 

Bindery Womens' Union 

Bookbinders' Union 

Bakers & Confectioners' Union 

Bakers & Confectioners' Union 

Bicycle Repairers' Union 

Blacksmiths' Union 

Boilermakers' Union , 



42 

205 

1 

1 

208 

1 

92 

3206 

1 

2 

4 

6 

1 

3 

5 

1 

1 

3 

1 

6 

56 

150 

44 

44 

1 

1 

1 

58 
29 
26 
191 
1 
143 
44 



Pneblo 

Colo. Springs .. 

Denver 

Florence 

Ouray 

Leadville 

Pueblo 

Cripple Creek.. 

Denver , 

Cripple Creek.. 

Pueblo 

Colo. Springs.. 
Cripple Creek. 

Denver 

Canon City 

Florence 

Boulder 

Canon City 

Colo. Springs. 

Denver 

Florence 

Denver 

Pneblo 

Denver 

Pueblo 

Denver 

Florence 

Canon City 

Denver 

Denver 

Denver 

Victor 

Denver 

Denver 

Pueblo 



Ed. Benson 

G. C. Majors 

George Weaver . . . 

Ray Larimer 

C. A. Walker 

J. W. Barnes 

Richard Graves... 
Al. Kempthom ... 
George Fryerson.. 

P. A. Anderson 

H. C. Bdmonston. 
Chas. N. Wheeler . 
Thos. F. Gorman. 
R. H. Nicholson .. 

O. G. Whipple 

A. McCullom 

Prank Ltngham . . 

W. C.Thompson.. 
P. J. Whitford.... 

L. J. Frjillo 

Louis Meyer 

Arthur Oleaott 

John Kennel 

W. Cuyler 

K. W. Feller 

H. H. Pople 

Le^A. Paula 

Cornelia Reenan.. 

Adolph PaulH 

Wm. Schroeder... 

L.J. Holly 

Chas. Bils 

Geo. Cofiman 

Gus Adolphson .. 



8 

So. 



612 



36 

64 



419 



' 415 

100 
[- 275 

' 2T0 

I 
J 

75 
45 

Y IM 



55 
50 



42 



BIBNNIAL REPORT 



TABULATION OP LABOR ORGANIZATIONS IN COLORADO— Continued. 



NAMS 



I 



Town or City 
Where 
I^ocated 



Name of Secretarf 



L 

f 



dgarmakerB* Union , 

Cigarmaken' Union 

Cigarmakers* Union 

Cooks' Union 

Cooks' Union 

Cooks and Waiters' Union . . 
Cooks and Waiters' Union .. 
Carriage and Wagon Makers' 

Coremakers' Union 

Composition Roofers' Union 

Carpenters* Union 

Carpenters' Union 

Carpenters* Union 

Carpenters' Union , 

Carpenters; Union 

Carpenters' Union 

Carpenters* Union 

Carpenters' Union 

Carpenters' Union 

Carpenters' Union 

Carpenters' Union 

Carpenters* Union 

Carpenters* Union 

Carpenters* Union 

Carpenters' Union 

Clerks* International P. A.... 
Clerks* Internatioiial P. A.... 
Clerks' IntemaUonal P. A.... 
Clerks' International P. A.... 
Clerks' International P. A.... 
Clerks' International P. A.... 
Clerks' International P. A. . . . 
Clerks' International P. A.... 
Clerks' International P. A.... 
Clerks' International P. A.... 
Clerks' International P. A.... 
Clerks' International P. A... 



129 

806 

397 

18 

92 

90 

9 

5 

8 

1 

264 

489 

417 

515 

547 

55 

475 

244 

178 

496 

284 

362 

287 

584 

597 

99 

198 

167 

150 

238 

7 

299 

308 

S46 

124 

244 



Denver 

Pneblo , 

Cripple Creek 

Denver 

Cripple Creek 
Colo. Springs 

Victor 

Denver 

Denver 

Denver 

Boulder , 

Canon City.... 
Colorado City 
Colo. Springs . 
Cripple Creek. 

Denver , 

Florence 

Grand June. . 
Independence 

Leadville 

Ouray 

Pueblo 

Telluride.... 

Victor 

Rocky Ford... 

Aspen 

Boulder , 

Colo. Springs . 
Cripple Creek. 
Cripple Creek. 

Denver , 

Florence 

Grand June. . 

Leadville 

Victor 

Salida 

Denver 



John A. Christman 
T. C. Maloney.... 

CarlPfefferle 

H. Nightingale ... 

R. E. Croaky 

James Cook 

Agvese Barrett 

W.L.Williams... 

P. J. Sullivan 

Chas. Bmsdi. 

J. C Jetmore 

B. B. Bvans 

J.W. Geddes 

D.R. Blood 

M. L. Prestage 

D.M.Woods 

C.G.Hitchcock... 

W.C. Strain 

T. W.Reed 

W. J. Benning 

P. H. Shne 

W.L. Smith 

Geo. Bdwards 

C. M. Briedentfaal. 

M. H. Adams 

Paul Walker 

Arthur Picket 

Henry Dwinell 

Robt. Scott 

Mollie Murphy.... 
Joseph Korsoski . . 

I«ee Holland 

Chas. A. Smith... 

Sol Garret 

Alice Watson 

C. K. Hampson ... 
J. A. Van Schaack 



378 



108 



110 



30 
36 



1794 



805 



BUBBAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 



43 



TABUIvATlON OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS IN COLORADO— Continued. 



■ 


i 






i 


I^AMB 


1 
1 


Town or City 
Where 
Located 


Name of Secretary 




Electrical Workers' Union 


12 


Pueblo 


John White 


] 


Electrical Worker** Union 


70 


Cripple Creek.. 


J.C.Hart 


U 


Blcctrical Workers* Union 


68 


Denver 


W.8. Barhart 


I 

1 


Federal Labor Union 


104 
0875 


Telluride 

Boulder 


J. J. Weigman .... 
A.G.Baker 




Federal l>ibor Union 




Federal Labor Union 


19 

1 

87 
64 

1 


Cripple Creek.. 

Canon City 

Pueblo 

Victor 

Denver 


W.L. Smith 

Chas. Rocker 

Bd. Vieno 




Federal Labor Union 




Federal Labor Union 


2547 


Federal Labor Union 


J. T. Reagan 

John L. Compton . 




Federal Labor Union 




Federal Labor Union 


1 


Florence 

Silverton 


O.D. Smith 




Federal Labor Union 




Garment Workers* Union 


113 


Denver 


N. R. Zinetow .... 


85 


Garment Workers' Union 


ISO 
1 

29 


Denver 

Denver 

Denver 


Minnie Hills 

J.W.Mitchell.... 
Rhody Kenehan . . 


95 


Granite Cutters' Union 


120 


Horseshoers* Union 


35 


Hardware Clerks' Union 


75 


Cripple Creek. . 


Arthnr L. Wright. 


25 


Iron Monlders* Union 


188 
192 
45 


Denver 

Pueblo 


C. Summers 

A. G. Lindberry .. 
W.H Pechmao... 


^ 


Iron Moulders' Union ,. 


196 


Job Printing Pressmen's Union 


Denver 


34 


Twenty-one Knights of Labor Assemblies 










1309 


Lathers* Union.. _ 


49 

48 
1 
1 

25 
121 

47 


Pueblo 

Colo. Springs .. 

Denver 

Cripple Creek.. 

Denver 

Denver 

Denver 


James A. Kelly.... 

W. S. Smith 

Robt. Meyer 

H.B. Keer 

W.B. Lynch...: 

A. McMullin 

H. B. Seaton 


1 


Lathers' Union 




Lathers* Union 


113 


leathers* Union 




Leather Workers' Union 


60 


Linemen's Union 


110 


Letter Carriers' National Association.... 




Letter Carriers' National Association.... 


179 


Trinidad 


B. G. Hower 




Utter Carriers* National Association ... 


204 


Colo. Springs... 


T.L. Stanley 




Letter Carriers' National Association.... 


229 
324 
508 


Pueblo 


N.C. Smith 




Letter Carriers* National Association.... 


Greeley 

Leadville 




Letter Carriers* National Association.... 


Jeff Collins 


140 


Utter Carriers' National Association.... 


613 


Cripple Creek.. 


Fred A. Rose 




Letter Carriers' National Association.... 


642 


Boulder 


Fred W. Waite.... 




Letter Carriers' National Association 


678 
687 


Canon City 

Victor 






Utter Carriers* National Association 


••- 











44 



BIENNIAL REPORT 



TABULATION OP LABOR ORGANIZATIONS IN COLORADO— Continued. 



MINKRS\ MINING STATIONARY BNGINEBRS' AND SMELTERMEN'S UNIONS IN 
COLORADO. AFFILIATED WITH THE WESTERN FEDERATION OF MINERS. 



NAME 



Town or City 
Where 
Located 



Name of Secretary 



S 

V 

o 
H 



AUroan Stationary Engineers. 

Miners' Union 

Miners' Union 

Battle Mountain Unioa 

Bryata Union 

Cloud City Union 

Miners' Union 

Stationary Engineers 

Denver Smeltermeu's Union .. 
Mill and Smeltermen's Union. 

Miners' Union 

Excelsior Engineers' Union... 

Millmen's Union 

Free Coinage Union 

Mill and Smeltermen's Union. 

Miners' Union 

Miners' Union 

Miners' Union 

Miners' Union 

Miners' Union 

Miners* Union , 

Sky City Union 

16 to 1 Union 

Ten Mile Union 

Miners' Union 

Miners* Union 

Miners* Union 



Independence. 

Anaconda 

Baldwin 

Oilman 

Ophir 

Leadville 

Cripple Creek. 
Cripple Creek. 

Denver 

Durango 

Eldora 

Victor 

Florence 

Altman 

Gillette 

Lawson 

Louisville 

Ouray 

Rico 

Rockvale 

Silverton .._'... 
Red Mountain 

Telluride 

Kokomo 

Victor 

Vulcan 

Aspen.: 



D. C. Copley 

R.Mitchell 

W. A. Triplet 

E. E. Mooberry... 

John C. Prim 

Chas. R. Burr 

Ed.J. Campt>ell.. 

E. L. Whitney 

P.B.Smith 

Prank Wride 

C. W. Stewart 

Thos. F.Callahan. 
Marion Farley 

D. P. McGinley ... 

E. S. Timmons 

M.O'Hagan 

Thos. Thirieway.. 
John M. Hogue... 
Thomas C. Young. 

John Williams 

E.U. Fletcher.... 
Logan Summers.. 
O. M. Carpenter... 
W. P. Swallow.... 

Jerry Kelly 

J'. H.Thomas 

R.K. Sprinkle.... 



1^7377 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 



45 



TABUI.ATION OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS IN COLORADO— Continued. 



MINBRS* AND SMBLTBRMEN'S UNIONS. NOT AFFILIATED WITH THE WESTERN 


FEDERATION OF MINERS. 






u 






1 


NAME 


a 
1 


Town or City 
Where 
Located 


Name of Secretary 


So. 


Mill Men's Union 


1 


Colorado City .. 


P.M.Stevens 


^ 


Ifiners* Union 




Lafayette 


E.E. Beckett 




Miners' Union 


54 


Langford 


Jos. Kallhoffer 




Miners* Union 


3 


Crested Butte.. 


Geo. Miller 


1466 


Mill and Smeltermen's Union 


1 


Pueblo 


W. E. A. Innes 




Miners' Union - 


42 


Superior 


Fred Bockhaus 




Mill and Smeltermen's Union 


1 


Florence 


Marion Farley 


^ 


Musicians' Union 


28 


Leadville 


CarlStoll 




Musicians* Union 


20 
69 


Denver 

Pueblo 


A. W. White 

J.A.Schwer 




Musicians' Union 


" 497 


Musicians' Union . 


49 
26 


Cripple Creek.. 
Denver 


C.E. Lohrstorfer.. 
F. C. Fridbom.... 




Musicians* Union, Local 


54 


Machinists' International Association. . . . 


47 


Denver 


Geo. S.Wells 


1 


Machinists' International Association 


13 


Pueblo 


E. J.Nugent 


295 


Machinists* International Association 


2.'^5 


Colorado City.. 


C. U. Congdon 




Mailers' Union 


8 
58 


Denver.... 

Colo. Springs .. 

Pueblo 

Victor 

Denver 


A.E.Schlueter.... 

John Gilbert 

William Worlum.. 

F.Thatcher 

Thomas Chandler. 
A.R. Hooton 


24 


Plumbers' Union 




Plumbers* Union 


3 

20 

158 

7056 




Plumbers' Union 


358 


Plumbers* Union 




Plumbers, Laborers and Drain Layers ... 


92 


Painters and Decorators' Union 


94 


Cripple Creek.. 


W.T.Sherman 




Paintersand Decorators' Union 


171 


Colo. Springs .. 


Julius C. Bishop... 




Painters and Decorators' Union 


79 


Denver 


G.D. Bncker 


628 


Paintersand Decorators' Union . 


19 
40 
32 
149 


Pueblo 

Victor 

Denver 

Colo. Springs .. 


P.G.Kay 

E. H. Nelsoif 

J.P.Butler 

J. R. Cavenaugh .. 




Painters and Decorators' Union 




Plasterers' Union , _., 




Plasterers' Union 


158 


Plasterers* Union 


73 


Victor 


Jerry Ryan 


Plasterers' Union 


52 


Cripple Creek.. 
Denver 


Harry Ricketts.... 
J. A. Payree 




Printing Pressmen's Union 


40 


I es 


Printing Pressmen's Union 


• 83 
18 


Victor 

Denver 


J. A. Straub 

K.C. Shivlock 


Photo Engravers' Union 


30 


Printing: Press AssistanU* Union 


14 


Denver 


W.W.Scott 


53 


Ptost Office Clerks ,... 


66 


Denver 


J. W. Fields 


29 







46 



BIENNIAL EEPOET 



TABULATION OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS IN COLORADO— Continued. 



NAMB 


i 

1 


Town or City 
Where 
I^ocated 


Name of Secretary 


i 

I 

r 


Postal Railway Clerks* Union 


7 


Denver 


J. F. Calterlin 


40 


Street Railway Employees' Union 


19 


Colo. Springs... 


C. E. Edwards.... 


f" 


Street Railway Employees' Union 


18 


Pueblo 


James Carpenter.. 


Sheet Metal Workers' Union 


9 


Denver 


Jas. A.Feeny 


62 


Sign Writers' Union 


1 


Denver 


F, R. Leon 


26 


Steam Engineers' Union 


1 


Denver 


Gus Newman 


}- 


Steam Engineers' Union 


21 


Pueblo 


T.J. Ramage 


Stonecutters' Union 


1 


Denver 


P. H.Graham 




Stonecutters' Union 


1 


Colo. Springs... 


W. A. Ogden 


180 


Stone Cutters' Union 




Pueblo 

Denver 


Wm. McMurphy.. 
Geo. Petrie 




Stonemasons' Union 


74 


Steam and Hot Water Fitters a n d (. 
Helpers' Union S 


163 


Denver 


John Tennicl 


48 


Stereotypers' Union 


13 


Denver 


W. A. Whitmeyer. 


30 


Stenographers and Typewriters' Union.. 


1 


Denver 


Wm. A. Connolly. . 


100 


Theatrical SUge Employees' Union 


7 


Denver 


C. N. Burgreen 




Theatrical Stage Employees' Union 


47 


Pueblo 


J. E. Calloway.... 


. 120 


Theatrical Stage Employees' Union 


52 


Cripple Creek.. 


F. Chilcott 




Theatrical Stage Employees' Union 


62 


Colo. Springs... 


E. L. Hubbard.... 




Teamsters and Drivers' Union 


1 


Denver 


D. H.Walker 




Teamsters and Drivers' Union w 


1 

1 


Pueblo 


J. C. Grover 

W. H. Snyder 




Teamsters and Drivers' Union 


Colo. Springs... 


423 


Teamsters and Drivers' Union 


1 


Florence 


B. F. Nichols 


. 


Team Owners' Union 


1 
90 


Denver 


FredGowar 

Henry Lang 


105 


Tin, Sheet Iron and Cornice Workers' 1 
Union / 

Tin. Sheet Iron and Cornice Workers' > 
Union j 


Victor 


1 


1 


Pneblo 


T. W. Allen 


• 65 


Typographical Union, International 


82 


Colo. Springs... 


J. F. Jonea 




Typographical Union, International 


227 


Cripple Creek.. 


W. R. McCrae 




Typographical Union, International 


49 


Denver 


Homer Dunn 




Typographical Union, International 


179 


Leadville 


M. V. Devor 


589 


Typographical Union. International 

Typographical Union, International. ... 


909 


Ouray 


Grant Tnmer 


175 


Pueblo 


J. A. Connor 




Typographical Union, International 


275 


.Victor 


Geo. Kirchner 




Typographical Union , International 


379 


Florence 


CN.Bissel ^ 


J 



BUREAU OP LABOU STATISTICS. 47 

I 
TABULATION OP LABOR ORGANIZATIONS IN COLORADO— Continued. 



NAMS 


1 
1 


Town or City 
Where 
Located 


Name of Secretory 


B 


Tailors* Union, Jonmeymen 


3 

21 

280 

22 
14 
24 
3 


Denver 

LcadviUe 

Victor 

Ouray ._ 


A.F. Ceander 

PanlKabisch 

John Nelson 

Albert Gochel 

Wm.Voght 

S.B.Smith 

J. A. Cody 

Benton S.Craig... 




Tailors* Union, Journeymen 

Taik>rs* Union, Journeymen 

Tailors* Union , Journeymen 


241 


Upholsterers* Union 

Waiters* Union 


Denver 

Denver 

Cripple Creek.. 
Denver 


28 


Waiters' Union 

Woodworkers' Union 


260 

285 


Total 


232 






24,968 











RBPRESBNTATIVE BODIBS. 



NAME 


Town or City 
Where 
Located 


Name of Secretary 


Building Trades' Council 

Federated Trades' Council 

Trades* Assembly 


Cripple Creek 

Colorado Springs . 

Cripple Creek 

Denver 

Leadville 

Pueblo 

Victor 


G.H.Goodrich 

..James Cook 

P. J. Devault 


Trades' and Labor Assembly , 


Wm. Morgan 


Trades* Assembly 

Central Trades' and Labor Union 

Trnd<»fi' Asi*e"»bly. . . , 


!...M. V. Devor 

M. J. McGrath 

O'Dell Carson 







SUMMARY. 

Number of labor organisations 232 

Total memberahip of organizations enumerated.. 24.968 



48 



BIENNIAL BEPOET 



TABULATION OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS IN COLORADO— Continued. 



NAMB 


i 
1 


Town or City 
Where 
Located 


Name of Secretary 


§ 


Bngineers, Bro. of Locomotive 

Bngineers, Bro. of Locomotive 


515 
385 
186 
451 
546 
488 
505 
258 

29 
199 
4S0 
503 
218 
256 

77 
273 
488 
475 
328 
196 
323 

sa 

244 
480 
140 
344 
36 
44 
63 
132 
244 
247 
252 
825 


Basalt 

Colorado City .. 

Denver 

Denver 

Florence 

Grand June. ... 

La Jnnu 

Leadville 

Pueblo 

Salida 

Trinidad 

Basalt 

Colorado City.. 

Como 

Denver 

Denver 

Florence 

Grand June. ... 

La Junta 

Leadville 

Mintum 

Pueblo 


James T. May 

Wm. Walker 

Geo. MorrcU 

Wm. Jenniss 

Geo. B. Korn 

G A. Oleson 

Walter H. Bragg.. 

J. B. Phelan 

J. B. Miles 

A. G. Rogers 

J. F. Kirchgraber. 

J. A Brittain 

C.N. Snyder 

W. S. Pariin 

J. A. Ryner 

W.B.Smith 

P. G. McCreary... 

J. B.Barnicle 

E.H.Chambers... 
W. F. Holmes 

F. C. Graham 

E. W. Wells 

Frank Glene 

J. W. Somers 

G. F.Rogers 

Walter Lincoln.... 

F.H. Stoufer 

C H. Gardner 

R. H. Lowe 

D. P.Cook 

W.S. Steele 

Geo. C. Bateman.. 
L. J. Cummings... 
J.F.Wood 




Bagineers, Bro. of T«ocomotive.. 

Bngineers, Bro. of Locomotive 




Bngineers, Bro. of Locomotive 




Bngineers, Bro. of Locomotive . . 


y 648 


Bngineers, Bro. of Locomotive 




Bngineers, Bro, of Locomotive 




Bngineers, Bro. of Locomotive 


1 


Bngineers, Bro. of Locomotive 




Bngineers, Bro. of Locomotive 




Firemen, Bro. of Locomotive 




Firemen, Bro. of Locomotive 




Firemen, Bro. of Locomotive 




Firemen, Bro, of Locomotive 




Firemen, Bro. of Locomotive....^ 

Firemen , Bro. of Locomotive 




Firemen, Bro. of Locomotive 




Firemen, Bro. of Locomotive 




Firemen , Bro. of Locomotive . 


-844 


Firemen, Bro. of Locomotive 








Firemen, Bro. of Locomotive . 


Pueblo 

Rico 

Salida 

Trinidad 

Pueblo 

Denver 

Durango 

Salida 




Firemen , Bro. of Locomotive 




Firemen , Bro. of Locomotive 




Firemen, Bro. of Locomotive 




Conductors, Railway Order of 

Conductors, Railway Order of 

Conductors, Railway Order of 




Conductors, Railway Order of 




Conductors, Railway Order of 

Conductors, Railway Order of 

Conductors, Railway Order of 


Colo. Springs .. 

Trinidad 

Leadville 

X^rand June. ... 


616 


Conductors, Railway Order of 











BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 



49 



TABULATION OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS IN COLORADO— Concluded. 



NAME 


1 

1 


Town or City 
Where 
I<ocated 


Name of Secretary 


1 
a 


Trainmen, Bro. of Railway 

Trainmen, Bro. of Railway 

Trainmen. Bro. of Railway 

Trainmen, Bro. of Railway 

Trainmen, Bro. of Railway 

Trainmen, Bro. of Railway 

Trainmen, Bro. of Railway 


401 

30 

446 

349 

220 

S2 

464 

31 

191 

406 

46 

99 

49 

64 
77 
49 


Alamosa 

Denver 

Denver 

Grand June. ... 

Leadville 

Pueblo 

Rico 

Salida 

Trinidad 

Colorado City . . 
Colorado City . . 

I^adviUe 

Pueblo 


W. K. Newcomb . . 

P.Moore 

B.G. Voight 

J. F. Sorrels 

E.M.Smith 

E. J. Taubman ... 

Forest White 

C.T. Allen 

C.J. I/>mblot 

C. W. Jeonigan.... 

W.L.Dick 

John Griffin 

W.I,. Wood 

James A. Healy... 

W. A. Allison 

CM. Hurlbut 

L. A. Parkhurst... 


7.^ 


Trainmen, Bro. of Railway 




Trainmen, Bro. of Railway 




Trainmen, Bro. of Railway 




Switchmens' Union 

Switcfamens' Union 

Switchmens* Union _ 


1 
381 


Switchmens' Union 

Switchmens* Union 

Telegrapher, Order of Railway 


Denver 

Victor 

Denver 

Pueblo 


I 378 


Telegrapher, Order of Railway 







SUMMARY. 

Total Number of Railroad Organisations 51 

Total Membership of Railroad Organizations 3,621 



50 



BIENNIAL REPORT 



RECAPITULATION. 



ORGANIZATIONS 


Number 

in 

8Ute 


Total 

Membership 

in State 


Trades Assemblies 


7 
232 
51 




I^ocftl labor organizations _ 


24,968 


Railway organizations 


3,621 


Total 


283 


28.589 


Estimated number belonging to more than one organization 


500 








Total membership 


28.069 









Trades Assemblies consist of delegates from local organizations and their membership 
is induded in the totals reported by the sereral organisations enumerated in the tables. 



Total membership of organized labor in Colorado in 1888 8,894 

Total membership of organized labor in Colorado in 1892 15,780 

Total membership of organized labor in Colorado in 1900 28,069 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 51 



WAGE EARNERS^ STATISTICS. 



One of the most important duties imposed upon this de- 
partment is that of obtaining all the information possible 
relating to the industrial and wage working classes. Sev- 
eral years have elapsed since an inquiry for the purpose of 
securing such data as they were able to give has been ad- 
dressed to the workers of Colorado. Believing that many 
valuable statistics' could be gathered^ and for the further 
purpose of securing an expression of opinion upon questions 
of state and national interest, was the preparation and dis- 
tribution of a blank form undertaken by the Commissioner. 

The following is a copy of the letter sent out and a list 
of the questions accompanying it : 

REQUEST FOR LABOR STATISTICS. 
To the Person Receiving this Letter: 

WAGE EABNEBS' SCHEDULE. 

Under the law by which the Bureau of Labor Statistics was created 
in this state, among other things it was made the duty of the Commis- 
sioner of Labor "to collect, assort, systematize and present in biennial 
reports to the legislature statistical details relating to all departments of 
labor, such as the hours and wages of labor, cost of living, amount of 
labor required, the operation of labor-saving machinery in its relation to 
hand labor, etc." And further, in section 12, "all such other Information 
in relation to labor as the Commissioner may deem essential to further 
the objects sought to be attained by this statute." It is desired by this 
office, through answers received to questions asked upon the attached 
blank, to obtain such a consensus of data and opinion from wage workers 
of both sexes, representing every trade and calling, that it will fairly 
and accurately reflect the condition, the thought and conviction along the 
social, Industrial and economic lines suggested, of the tollers who have 
built up this Centennial State, the Eldorado of the West. 

It will be borne in mind that the informati9n thus given will not 
interfere at all with the vocation or interest of the person giving it. The 
Commissioner gives positive assurance to all persons answering that he 
will protect their Identity, and that their names will not be revealed 
under any circumstances to any employer or other person — no names ap- 
pearing in the report. 



52 BIENNIAL REPORT ,. . 

I hope to make, next year, a very complete and extended report upon 
the condition of labor and all related subjects. 

A very important duty of this Bureau is to present, through carefully 
prepared statistics, the actual conditions, wants and wishes of the laboring 
classes, that their interests may be more efPectiyely promoted by legisla- 
tion. 

The gathering together of information that will give a more perfect 
knowledge of the fairest and most equitable method of dividing the re- 
wards of industry. 

That the report may be given its highest degree of efficiency it is 
absolutely necessary that you make answer to the largest possible number 
of questions upon the following blank and return the same to this office 
as soon as you can conveniently do so. 

JAMES T. SMITH, 
Deputy Labor Commissioner. 
Denver, Colorado, June 30, 1899. 



1. Your name and age? 

2. Your sex? 

3. Your residence? Give P. O. and County 

4. Where were you bom? 

5. What is your present occupation? 

6. How long have you been following your present occupation? 

7. Have you a trade or vocation aside from the one at which you are 

now engaged? 

8. What is your dally, weekly or monthly wages when employed? 

9. About how .many days in the last year did you work? 

10. About what were your total earnings for year ending June 30, 1899? 

11. Do you belong to a labor organization? 

12. If not, why? 

13. Are you married or single? v 

14. If married, how many in family? 

15. If married, does your wife or children by wage labor contribute to 

the family maintenance? 

16. Are you the father or mother of children over 12 years of age? 

17. If so, are you having your girls instructed in cooking, sewing or any 

trade? 

18. Are your boys learning trades or becoming skilled in the use of tools? 

19. Do your children between the ages of 6 and 16 attend school? 

20. If so, do they attend regularly for the school year? If not, for how 

many weeks? 

21. Give total monthly cost of living for yourself and family, if married; 

the last year as nearly as you can determine 

22. Is the cost of living more or less than in 1896-97, and how much? 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 53 

23. Is the price of labor more or less than in 1896-97^ and how much? 

24. Do you own a home or rent? 

25. If you rent a home, what monthly rental. do you pay? 

26. If you own a home, is it mortgaged? 

27. If so, in what amount? 

28. How much have you paid on your home? 

29. If mortgaged, what rate of interest do you pay? 

30. Have you been able to save any money above the cost of living? 

31. Do you carry life insurance, or are you a member of a beneficiary 

organization? " 

32. Are you in favor of the contracting or farming out of convicts? 

33. In what manner would you suggest the employment of this labor to 

the leaat injury of free labor? 

34. Would you favor the employment of convicts exclusively at hand 

labor, and the abolition of all kinds of complicated machinery in 
connection therewith? 

35. Are you opposed to the product of convict labor being sold in the 

open market in competition with the product of free labor? 

36. Would restriction or suppression of immigration be helpful to you? 

37. Would the establishment of a bi-weekly pay-day be beneficial to you? 

38. Are you in favor of an eight-hour day for all classes, established by 

law? 

39. Are you in favor of national, state and municipal ownership of public 

utilities, railroads, telegraphs, telephones, electric light, water 
and gas plants, street car lines, etc? 

40. Are you in favor of granting pensions to aged persons in want, broken 

down and incapacitated for future labor through service in the 
army of wage workers? 

41. Are you in favor of a usury law limiting the rate of interest to 6 per 

cent, per annum, with severe penalties for its violation? 

42. Are you in favor of free public employment agencies? 

43. Are you in favor of an amendment to the Constitution of Colorado 

that will permit the adoption of the single tax by law? 

44. Are you in favor of a constitutional amendment allowing the voters 

of each county the right to derive their local government revenue 
by a single tax upon land values? 

45. Are you in favor of state ownership of coal mines? 

46. Are you in favor of municipal ownership of coal yards where coal will 

be sold to consumers at cost of production? 

47. Are you in favor of the initiative and referendum? 

48. Would you favor the abolition of the contract system upon public 

works? 

49. Are you in favor of a state institute for feeble-minded and idiotic 

persons? 

50. Are you in favor of postal savings banks? 



54 BIENNIAL BBPOBT 

51. Are you in favor of free public bath houses? 

52. In your judgment what is the most prolific cause of poverty, idleness 

and crime? 

53. Are trusts contrary to the spirit of American institutions, and should 

they be forbidden by law? 

54. Is labor-saving machinery used in your vocation beneficial or hurtful 

to you? 

55. Are you in favor of amending the arbitration law in a manner that 

will enable the State Board of Arbitration to enforce Its de- 
cisions? 

56. Would prohibition be a good thing for wage workers? 

57. If not, would you favor the exclusive state ownership and manage- 

ment of the production and sale of spirituous and malt liquors 
fpr all purposes whatsoever? 

58. Or would you favor the abolition of all laws taxing the production 

and sale of spirituous and malt liquors? 

59. Are you in favor of a graduated tax upon incomes and inheritances? 
Remarks 

Two thousand copies of this blank were printed. Of this 
number 1,800 were used. About 1,200 copies were mailed 
from this office to secretaries of labor organizations through- 
out the state and to other persons whom we believed would 
distribute them wisely and judiciously. About 600 copies 
were distributed and handed directly to wage workers by the 
Commissioner himself, while traveling around the state upon 
business connected with this inquiry and gathering data to 
be used for other purposes. Each schedule was sent out in a 
self-addressed and stamped envelope, at an expense of four 
cents each where addressed individually, and somewhat less 
than that when a number were sent to one address, as was 
usually the case. All the expense for postage incident to 
this inquiry was paid out of the expense fund appropriated 
for the maintenance of this department. No attempt was 
made to reach members of any political party nor craftsmen 
of any special vocation. However, the utmost care possible 
was exercised to place the schedules in the hands of those 
whom I believed would take sufficient interest in the subject 
to fill out and return the schedule to this office. Of the 1,800 
schedules sent out, 768 were returned. While this was not 
as large a number as I had expected, nevertheless the per- 
centage returned is much larger than that attending similar 
inquiries made by labor bureaus in other states. In some in- 
stances the persons replying seemed to be afraid that their 
personal affairs would be given to the public in a manner 
that would reveal their identity, although positive assurance 



BUREAU OF LABOfi STATISTICS. 55 

was given that such would not be the case. Twenty-three re- 
plies were received from women. Of the 768 persons sending 
in schedules^ all gave a vocation. Two hundred and twenty- 
four replies were received from metalliferous and twenty- 
one from coal miners. From smelter employes forty-six re- 
plies were received. Mining and smelting labor are distinct- 
ive occupations^ surrounded by conditions peculiar to them- 
selves. No other class of workers contribute more to the 
wealth and prosperity of the state, and none other perform 
their labor with greater fidelity of purpose and intelligence 
of action than do the workers in these callings. Apprecia- 
tion of the services of this important class of laboring men 
can be best manifested through the legislative departments 
of the commonwealth. 

It will be noted that a number of questions asked upon 
the foregoing blank were for the purpose of securing an ex- 
pression of opinion upon certain sociological questions that 
are now prominent in the public mind, many of which are 
legitimate subjects for legislative consideration. 

The following is the result of the voting upon a number 
of subjects, several of which may, with great advantage to 
the people of Colorado, be crystallized into law by the legis- 
lature of 1901 : 

Question No. 11. Yes 601, no 163, not answering 4. 

Question No. 36. Yes 464, no 251. 

Question No. 37. Yes 423, no 219, expressing them- 
selves as already having a weekly pay day 78. 

Question No. 38. Yes 657, no 82. 

Question No- 39. Yes 681, no 47. 

Question No. 40. Yes 603, no 132. 

Question No. 41. Yes 628, no 62, opposed to the rec- 
ognition of interest in every form and all laws legalizing 
it 42. 

Question No. 42. Yes 662, no 44. 

Question No. 43. Yes 596, no 107. 

Question No. 44. Yes 608, no 105. 

Question No. 45. Yes 598, no 104. 

Question No. 46. Yes 604, no 111. 

Question No. 47. Yes 713, no 19. 

Question No. 48. Yes 607, no 99. 

Question No. 49. Yes 729, no 3. 



56 BIENNIAL EEPOBT 

Question No. 50. Yes 692, no 31. 

Question No. 51. Yes 621, no 74. 

Question No. 54. Beneficial 284, hurtful 324. 

Question No. 55. Yes 535, no 159. Fifty-eight affirm- 
ative replies to this question were qualified with the proviso 
that the arbiters should be elected by the people. 

Question No. 56. Yes 358, no 341. 

Question No. 59. Yes 548, no 147. . 

With reference to questions 43 and 44 many expressed 
themselves as being undecided, or as not having given the 
single tax theory sufficient consideration to answer intelli- 
gently. 

In the chapter of this report, entitled "Remarks of Cor- 
respondents," will be found many valuable suggestions. An- 
swers to questions 32, 33, 34, 35, 52, 53 and 59 are, in a meas- 
use, included in this part of the report. 

While the answers returned to all the foregoing ques- 
tions are significant, the Commissioner wishes to specially 
invite the attention of legislators to an analysis of returns 
to questions 38 and from 41 to 49, and question 55, as being 
particularly worthy of careful consideration and coming 
within the province of immediate legislation. 

Schedules were returned from thirty-nine counties in 
the state. The largest number of replies were received from 
Arapahoe and Teller counties, ninety-seven and sixty-eight 
resi)ectively. The smallest number from Yuma, two. 

It will be noticed that the number of answers recorded 
affirmatively and negatively to each one of the questions just 
considered, that the total number of replies falls considerably 
short of the total number of schedules returned. While a 
very large number of the papers returned were full and com- 
plete and supplemented with remarks, many of them omitted 
to make answer to some of the questions altogether. 

I am conscious of the fact that nothing short of a vote 
of all the qualified electors upon a given question will accur- 
ately and exactly represent public thought with reference to 
it. However, the opinions of a large number of people of 
more than average intelligence, coming from more than two- 
thirds of the counties in the state, and representing many 
different occupations and conditions in life, may be accepted 
as showing, in large degree at least, what measures the masses 
desire to promote in the upward, onward advance of the state. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 57 

It is true that the vast majority of those making the replies 
which are being considered in this chapter are wage earners. 
But are not the wage earners of Colorado as truly interested 
in her success^ honor and prosperity as any other class of 
her citizens? Should not their opinions be carefully consid- 
ered? 

The question to which the largest number make reply is 
that relating to the granting of old age pensions. While it 
is not expected that the state will take up this question at 
the present time and in the present condition of state 
finances, a large part of those answering are favorable to this 
measure as a matter of principle. New Zealand has such a 
law, and it is meeting with general approval in that country. 
Is not the citizen who has become incapacitated and broken 
down through service in the industrial army as worthy as the 
one in a like condition through service in what is known as 
the regular army? 

The vote of 681 to 47 in favor of state and national own- 
ership of franchises and public utilities of every kind proves 
quite clearly that the people are ready for the nationalization 
of all monopolies which are in their nature public necessities. 

The overwhelming expression of opinion in favor of an 
eight-hour day by law evidences that such a proposition is a 
popular one. It is evident that the laborer is not afraid that 
such a measure will take away any of his liberties or curtail 
any of his rights. I would recommend the submission to the 
voters of the state of a constitutional amendment providing 
for a general eight-hour day for all classes of labor. 

Many of the states of the Union have a usury law limit- 
ing the rate of interest. By 628 to 62 those making response 
are favorable to the enactment of such a law in this state, and 
it would unquestionably meet the approval of all people who 
recognize that there is no equality in position between the 
borrower and the lender. 

The subject of free public employment offices is treated 
in another place in this report. It is, however, favored by 
a vote of 15 to 1. 

That form of the land question which is generally re- 
ferred to as the single tax was divided into two questions for 
the purposes of this investigation. The proposition as pre- 
sented in both questions was endorsed by considerably more 
than five to one, as may be seen by reference to the list. To 
the student who realizes that the land question is fundamen- 



58 , BIENNIAL SBPOBT 

tal, and that through the single tax a readjustment of indus- 
trial conditions can be most easily and permanently secured, 
this showing is extremely gratifying. It proves conclusively 
that the masses are giving a good deal of careful, intelligent 
thought to this the most important of all economic reforms. 
It was quite evident from the tone of the replies of those who 
were opposed to the single tax that they had not given the 
subject the benefit of careful consideration. 

The state ownership of coal mines and the municipal 
ownership of coal yards are measures in which the people are 
sufficiently interested to cause these two propositions to be 
approved by 598 and 604 respectively, with 104 and 111 hold- 
ing to contrary opinions. 

With 732 making reply, only 3 express themselves as be- 
ing opposed to the establishment of a state home for feeble- 
minded persons. All the others are favorable to such action. 

The initiative and referendum, or direct legislation by 
the people, has for a number of years been rapidly gaining, 
ground among members of all political parties. With the 
initiative and the referendum in operation, each proposed 
law will come before the people and be determined upon its 
own merits. A representative or republican form of govern- 
ment is a great improvement over a monarchy, but a democ- 
racy pure and simple, government directly by, from and of 
the people, is something better yet. The vote of 713 as against 
19, or more than 37 to 1, would indicate unmistakably that 
the people are ready for a change from a representative to 
a democratic form of government. 

I would most earnestly recommend that a constitutional 
amendment providing for the initiative, the referendum and 
the imperative mandate be submitted by the Thirteenth Gen- 
eral Assembly to the voters of Colorado. 

The abolition of the contract system upon public works 
is largely favored. The belief that the state and general gov- 
ernments should do all its work under its own direction by 
day's pay, and not through contractors, is one that has been 
making great headway of late years. Yielding to public sen- 
timent, some of the states have commenced the performance 
of all public work under its own management. 

As to the most fruitful causes of poverty, idleness and 
crime, the subject is treated and the question answered in a 
way that does not admit of tabulation. The replies give the 
opinion of each writer and the thoughts expressed have been 
largely included in the chapter, Remarks of Correspondents. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 59 

The questions relating to conyict labor usually received 
elaborate answers. The need of employing convicts at useful 
and elevating toil was generally recogniz^. The difficulties 
in connection with the subject of convict labor were clearly 
perceived. Any plan which proposes to introduce a system of 
contract convict labor, or a system of prison manufacture 
for outside use, was condemned in uncompromising terms. 
The subject has been treated elsewhere under the head of 
Convict Labor. 

A pay day every two weeks is favored by a considerable 
majority, and it would undoubtedly be of advantage to the 
wage earner by enabling him to purchase for cash. 

The yes and no replies received to the subject, the restric- 
tion or suppression of foreign immigration, were accompan- 
ied with many qualifications. Many who answered "yes" in- 
cluded a statement to the effect that while such legislation 
would be a denial of a natural right, that it was necessary 
under the present social system to prevent those already here 
from being crowded out of employment. Many who an- 
swered "yes" expressed themselves to the effect that under 
a better industrial system there could not be an excess of 
population and such laws would be uncalled for. 

As to the effect of the use of labor-saving machinery 
upon the writer in particular and the wage earner in general, 
there are many explanatory remarks thrown in by those who 
consider it hurtful. All recognize that such machinery in 
itself is good, as it enables greater wealth to be produced 
with the same amount of work. They deem it harmful, how- 
ever, because it throws men out of work, builds up great for- 
tunes, and because its benefits go to the employing class. All 
are agreed that under a better industrial system such ma- 
chinery would be a very great blessing. 

As to whether the prohibition of the liquor traffic by law 
would be beneficial to the wage earner, the vote was very 
evenly divided. Many expressed very bitter antagonism to 
the liquor traffic and a small majority favored its suppres- 
sion by law. Several who were opposed to prohibition an- 
nounced themselves as total abstainers, but failed to see that 
their economic condition would be improved by such a meas- 
ure. One man, a miner, stated that he had been aji abstainer 
for more than twenty years, and believed that his social and 
industrial condition had been much improved as a result, 
but that his class condition as a wage worker had not. 



60 . BIENNIAL* KBPOBT 

A graduated tAx upon incomes ahd inheritances was 
favored largely. 

A law X>T a constitutional amendment which will conf ei» 
Upon the State Board of Arbitration authority to settle dis- 
putes between labor and capital was endorsed in the ratio 
of more than three to one. This question is discussed in 
the chapter upon "Arbitration, Voluntary and Compulsory." 

As to trusts, the general sentiment is one of opposition, 
but a very considerable number of the writers look upon the 
trust as the natural evolution of industry, and the inevitable 
outcome of the competitive system is to destroy competition 
through the pooling of common interests. That line after 
line of industry will be trustified. This will proceed until 
the system reaches its fullest development. Then the people, 
under the plea that the interests of the whole is greater than 
that of any one of the parts, will come forward and under 
proper conditions nationalize the trusts. 

Some of the answers received were considerably out of 
the ordinary. Some were amusing that were intended to be 
serious, and others were serious which were intended to be 
funny. Of the first class a correspondent from the northern 
part of the state stands at the head. To the query, "Would 
you favor state ownership and management of the manufac- 
ture and sale of spirituous liquors?" he replied, "Yes, if the 
taxes upon whisky was discontinued, but I would like to 
know, sir, who would pay the taxes?" 

Are trusts contrary to the spirit of American institu- 
tions? was replied to by this same philosopher as follows: 
"I don't think so. If a man is just in hard luck and has a 
job, or if he's on his uppers and ain't got no job, and can get 
somebody to trust him, I think he ought to have a right to 
get all the goods he could on trust. I don't see anything not 
American about it." 

The questions pertaining to the single tax elicited this 
reply : "No sir, I am not. Just because a man's single, and 
ain't got no family, I don't think he ought to pay taxes on 
his land, and the married man not pay any. You bet I 
don't." 

The question. Would prohibition be a good thing for 
wage workers? was responded to by one man in a way that 
is peculiarly illustrative of a certain phase of industrial life : 
"No indeed it would not. I don't drink but I am opposed to 
prohibition, it is hard enough to get a job now, and what 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 61 

would all the people who are now working in the liquor bus- 
iness do but starve if they were to close the saloons and go 
out hunting for work. And if some of them did get work, 
wouldn't tnefy be taking our jobs? and then some of us 
would be on the bum." 

The query, Would suppression of immigration be help- 
ful to you? brought this reply from a man in a mountain 
town : "Indeed it would. My wife is still in the old coun- 
try; if congress don't hurry up I am afraid that she will 
drop in on me next summer." 

One man returned the schedule with the interrogatory, 
"If there's anything in it for me, return and I will fill it up." 

In the following classification is given such facts as 
were secured from the schedules returned and covering the 
first thirty-one questions. Each class is grouped separately. 

There is given the number of persons replying ; the num- 
ber of counties represented ; the number that are native and 
foreign born. Average length of time employed at present 
occupation, and number having other occupations; weekly, 
monthly or daily wages received ; average length of time em- 
ployed during preceding year; average individual earnings 
for the year ; number married and single ; number of children 
and size of families; average monthly cost of living. Also 
the number of house owners and renters, monthly rentals, 
etc. The increase or decrease in cost of living since 1896-97. 
Number of homes mortgaged. Number of those who have 
and who have not been able to save money. Number who 
carry insurance, and such other information and facts per- 
tinent to this inquiry, as was gleaned from an examination 
of the schedules returned. 

BARBERS. 

Reports were received at this office from twenty-two 
barbers residing in six different counties of the state. Of 
this number 17 are American born, while 5 are of foreign 
birth. Their ages average 35.6 years. The average length 
of time employed at present occupation is 12.3 years. Twelve 
have no other occupation aside from the one at which they 
are now engaged, eight have another occupation and two not 
reporting. The average weekly rate of wages received for 
the last year was f 15.65. The average length of time for 
which they were employed during the preceding year was 45 
weeks. The average individual earnings for the year was 



62 BIENNIAL BEPOBT 

1704.25. Twelve are married and nine are single, one not 
reporting. Of those married, nine have children in family. 
The average size of families is 4.6 persons. The average 
monthly cost of living with those having families and re- 
porting, is ^3.71. Four own their own homes. In two in- 
stances the home is mortgaged. Of the entire number, 16 
report the cost of living to be more than in 1896-97. Four 
report it to be the same, and two do not report. Fifteen re- 
port their earnings to be the same as in 1896-97, four re- 
port being able to earn from 10 to 16 per cent, more work- 
ing on commission, and three do not answer this question 
at all. Five report being able to save some money, and four- 
teen express their inability to do so. With 20 reporting, 16 
carry insurance of some kind, fraternal or otherwise. 

BLACKSMITHS. 

Reports were received from eighteen blacksmiths resid- 
ing in eight different counties of the state. Their average 
age is 40 years. Twelve are American born, while six are of 
foreign birth. The average period of time at which they have 
been engaged at their present occupation is 20.2 years. Only 
three have trades or vocations aside from the one at which 
now engaged. The average monthly wages received during 
the year referred to was |84.80. The average period of time 
employed at trade was 9.5 months. The average annual earn- 
ings were |805.60. Fifteen are married and three single, all 
reporting. The average size of families, with 13 replying, 
is 5.3 persons. The average monthly cost of living is $56.65. 
Eight report that they have been able to save some money, 
and nine report that they have not been able to save any- 
thing above the cost of living. Ten report the cost of living 
as having increased since 1896-97, six report it as being the 
same, and two do not reiK)rt, With 17 reporting, 11 give 
their earnings as having increased since 1896-97, and six 
report earnings to be the same. Seven own their own homes. 
Three homes are mortgaged. Fifteen are protected by some 
kind of insurance. All who express themselves are opposed 
to the contracting or farming out of convicts. 

BOOKKEEPERS. 

Reports were received at this office from six bookkeepers 
residing in three counties of the state. Five are Americans 
and one is of foreign birth. Their average age is 42.5 years. 
The average length of time at which they have been employed 



BUBBAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 63 

at present vocation is 14.7 years. Four have occupations 
aside from that at which now engaged. The average monthly 
wages received for past year were f 104.50. Average length 
of time employed during the preceding year was 11.2 months. 
Average wages earned during year were f 1,170.40. Pour are 
marri^ and two are single. None of their wives contribute 
to the maintenance of the family. The average size of fam- 
ilies is 4 persons. The average cost of living, per family, is 
176.45. Five report the cost of living to have increased from 
10 to 25 per cent, as compared with 1896-97, and one reports 
it to be the same. Two report increased wages as compared 
with 1896-97, two report a decrease, and two that their wages 
remain the same. Three own their own homes. All report 
being able to save some money. All carry life insurance. 

BRICKLAYERS. 

Schedules were returned signed by ten bricklayers resid- 
ing in four counties in the state. Their average age is 41.2 
years. The average length of time at which they have worked 
at present occupation is 14.2 years. Eight are Americans 
and two are of foreign birth. With all reporting two have 
vocations aside from their present one, all the others have 
not. The average daily wages received while working at trade 
during the past year were f4.75. The average earnings of 
each for the year covered by the report were |969.00. Eight 
are married and two single. The average size of families 
among the married men is 5.8 persons. None of their wives 
contribute to the support of the family. The children of all 
are attending school. The average monthly cost of living 
among those with families is f67.24. Six give the cost of 
living as being more than in 1896-97, three the same, and one 
does not report With nine reporting, 5 report an increase 
in the rate of wages received, and 4 report wages as being 
the same as in 1896-97. Four report owning their own 
homes. One of the homes is mortgaged. Six report that they 
have been able to save small sums of money, and four that 
they have not. Eight are protected by some kind of insur- 
ance. All are opposed to the farming or contracting of con- 
victs. 

COOKS. 

Reports were received from twenty-four cooks residing 
in 5 different counties of the state. Nineteen are Americans 
and 5 are of foreign birth. Their average age is 38.2 years. 
Two of those reporting are women. The average length of 



64 BIENNIAL REPORT 

time that they have been followiBg their present occupation 
is 17.2 years. With 22 reporting, 19 have no other vocation 
than the one at which they are now employed. The 
average weekly wages received during the preceding year 
were $15.93. The average number of weeks worked was 
43.9. The average yearly earnings were $699.33. Eighteen 
are married and 4 are single, 2 not reporting. The average 
size of families, with 17 reporting, is 3.9 persons. The av- 
erage monthly cost of living of those with families is reported 
as being $45.30. Eighteen report the cost of living to be more 
than in 1896-97, while 6 report it as being the same. Five 
report their wages as being less than in 1896-97, 12 report 
their wages to have been increased, and 5 report their wages 
to be the same. With 23 reporting, 20 are protected by insur- 
ance, either in beneficiary societies, labor unions or old line 
insurance. Five report that they have been able to save small 
sums of money, and 17 that they have not been able to ac- 
cumulate anything. All but 3 rent the houses in which they 
live. The average monthly rental is $8.27. 

CLERKS AND SALESMEN. 

Reports have been received at this office from 8 clerks 
and salesmen residing in four different counties of the state. 
Their ages average 31.4 years. Seven are American born, 
while 1 is of foreign birth. The average length of time at 
which they have been following their present occupation is 
7.3 years. Six have vocations aside from the one at which 
they are at present engaged, 2 have not. The average weekly 
rate of wages is $10.23. The average length of time worked 
during the last year was 47.2 weeks. The average earnings 
for the year were $482.86. Four are married and 4 single, all 
reporting. Three are w^omen. The average size of the fam- 
ilies of the married ones is 4.5 persons. In three instances 
other members of the family contribute to its support. The 
average cost of family maintenance is $37.65 per month. Five 
report cost of living as having advanced from 10 to 20 per 
cent, since. 1896-97, and three that it is the same as then. 
Four report wages increased, 2 that they are less, and 2 that 
they are the same as in 1896-97. Of the four married ones, 
3 rent and one owns his home. Two have been able to save a 
little money and six have not. The average monthly rental 
paid for house or rooms in which to live is $7.80. All but one 
carry insurance. All are opposed to the contracting or farm- 
ing out of convicts. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 65 



COAL MINERS. 



Schedules were received from twenty-one coal miners 
residing in six different counties of the state. Four are 
Americans and seventeen were born in foreign lands. Their 
ages average 42.3 years. The average length of time at 
which they have been employed at coal mining is 22.7 years. 
Three have trades or vocations other than the one 
of digging coal, while eighteen have no other occu- 
pation. The average daily earnings are $2.39. The 
average number of days worked in the past year is 155. The 
average yearly earnings were |3T0.45. Fifteen are married 
and six are single. The average size of families is 5.1 per- 
sons. Ten receive assistance from wages of wife or children, 
or both. The average cost of supporting family is $34.23 
per month. Seventeen report the cost of commodities as 
having increased since 1896-97 and four report that they are 
the same. Three state that their earnings have been less 
than in 1896-97. Ten report their earnings as being more, 
and eight that earnings are the same. Three own the houses 
in which they live, which they value at |50, |100 and $150, 
respectively. The average house rental paid is $5.26. All 
report that they have been unable to save any money. The 
only kind of insurance that any of them report having is 
such as membership in the union will afford. All are op- 
posed to convicts being worked in competition with free la- 
bor. The entire twenty-one are in favor of public ownership 
of coal mines. None have been able to save any money. 

CIVIL ENGINEERS AND SURVEYORS. 

Reports were received from six civil engineers and sur- 
veyors residing in three different counties in the state. All 
are American born. Their average is 45.6 years. The aver- 
age length of time engaged at present occupation is 21.4 
years. None have other occupations than the one at which 
DOW engaged. The daily wages range from $6 to $10 per day. 
The average is $8.25. The average number of days worked 
in year was 140. The average yearly earnings were $1,155. 
All are married and have families of an average size of 4.5 
members. None of the wives or children contribute to the 
support. All the children of school age are attending school. 
The average monthly cost of living was $71.28. The cost of 
living is reported to be more than in 1896-97 in five cases 
and to be the same in one. The increase is given as being 



66 BIENNIAL REPORT 

from 10 to 30 per cent. The price of their labor is given as 
being the same as in 1896-97, but five of them report their 
earnings as having increased and employment more plen- 
tiful. Four own their homes. All report being able to save 
some money. All carry life insurance. All are opposed to 
convict labor being worked to the injury of free labor. 

GI6ARMAKERS. 

Reports were received from thirty cigarmakers residing 
in five different counties of the state. Their average age is 
37 years. Twenty-three are native born Americans, while 
seven are of foreign birth. The average length of time that 
they have been following this trade is 19.2 years. Pour have 
vocations other than that of cigarmaking, while twenty-six 
have no other trade or calling. All work by the thousand, 
the rate of wages earned depending upon the skill of each 
individual workman. The average weekly rate of wages 
earned during the preceding year was |14.95. The average 
number of weeks worked during the same period was 47. The 
average yearly earnings of each one were |726.15. Eighteen 
are married and twelve are single, all reporting. The aver- 
age size of families is 4.2 members. The average monthly 
cost of living of those with families is f 51.38. Twenty-five 
report the cost of living as being more than it was in 1896-97 
and five report it as being the same. Eighteen report the 
weekly scale of wages as being unchanged since 1896-97, nine 
report it as being more, two less, and one not reporting. 
Twelve reported that, while their wages were the same, 
their yearly earnings were more, as they had worked more 
steadily. The cjgarmakers was one of the three trades of 
which every member sending in a report was a member of 
the union of his craft, the other two being the railroad unions 
reporting and the printers. 

Five own their own homes, one home is mortgaged, the 
others rent and board. The average monthly rental for house 
is |7.68. Seven report that they have been able to save some- 
thing during the last year and twenty-three that they have 
not saved anything. All are protected by insurance in the 
Cigarmakers' Union and nine carry insurance in old line 
companies. All are opposed to the contracting or farming 
out of convicts. 

CARPENTERS. 

Schedules were returned to this office from sixty-three 
carpenters residing in fourteen different counties of the state. 



BURBAU OF LABOR 8TATISTI0S. 67 

Their average age is 39.6, with every one reporting. For- 
ty-seven are Americans by birth, while 16 were born abroad. 
Thirty have trades or occupations aside from their present 
one, and 33 have no other trade or vocation. The average 
length of time during which they have worked as carpenters 
is 16.5 years. The average number of days worked during 
the preceding year was 221. The average daily wages were 
93.07. The average yearly earnings were f 678.47. Fifty- 
one are married and twelve single, with all reporting. The 
average size of families was 5.1 persons. With 49 reporting, 
4 receive assistance from their wives or children as wage 
earners in maintenance of the family. The average monthly 
cost of living with the married men is {48.51, with 48 out of 
51 making estimates. With 61 reporting, 48 give the cost 
of living as having increased since 1896-97. Eleven give it 
as being unchanged and 2 report that it was less. With 62 
reporting, 47 report their earnings to have been greater than 
they were in 1896-97, and 15 report them as being the same. 
None give their earnings as being less. With 50 reporting, 
17 own their own homes and 33 live in rented dwellings. 
Three of the homes are reported as being mortgaged. The 
average monthly rental paid was f 7.93. With 58 reporting, 
23 state that they saved something above the cost of living, 
and 35 reported that they saved nothing. Fifty-three report 
that they carry insurance either in old line companies or in 
fraternal societies or both. Fifty-seven express themselves 
as being opposed to convicts being worked in competition 
with free labor. 

DRUG CLERKS AND PHARMACISTS. 

Beports were received from nine drug clerks and phar- 
macists residing in three counties in the state. Their average 
age is 33.2. Seven are Americans and two are of foreign 
birth. The average length of time that they have followed 
their present occupation is 14.5 years. Four are single and 
five are married, all reporting. None have trades or voca- 
tions other than their present one. Their average monthly 
earnings are 171.65. The average length of time worked 
during the past year was 11.5 months. Their average annual 
income was f 823.98. The average size of families was 3.8 
members. The average monthly cost of living with those 
having families was |58.63. Five report that they have saved 
some money, and four that they have not. With nine report- 
ing;, they all carry insurance. Seven report cost of living as 



68 BIENNIAL REPORT 

having increased and two that it is unchanged. All report 
earnings to be about the same. Three own their homes. 

ENGINEERS, STATIONARY. 

Schedules were returned signed by twenty-one stationary 
engineers, residing in eight different counties of the state. 
Their average age is 39.5 years. Fifteen are Americans and 
six are of foreign birth. The average length of time at which 
they have worked as stationary engineers is 14.4 years. 
Eighteen have occupations other than their present one, with 
the entire number reporting. The average daily wages re- 
ceived was f 3.20. The average number of days worked dur- 
ing the year was 262. The average yearly earnings were 
$838.40. Eighteen are married and three are single. The 
average size of families is 4.6 members. None of the wives 
or children contribute by wage labor to the family mainten- 
ance. All the children of school age are reported to be at- 
tending school. The average cost of living for each family 
was $51.83. All but two report the cost of living to have been 
greater than it was in 1896-97. With 20 reporting, 7 report 
that wages have been increased; 6 report that while their 
daily wages have not been advanced, their earnings were more 
than in 1896-97, by reason of the fact that they worked a 
larger number of days ; 6 report that their wages remain the 
same, and 1 reports both wages and earnings to be less. Fif- 
teen of those reporting are employed around mines, and a 
number of them state that they have not worked regularly 
as engineers for the number of years given, but that in the 
meantime they have worked occasionally as miners. With 
18 reporting, 12 live in rented dwellings and 6 own their 
homes. The average monthly rental of dwelling house was 
110.40. With 20 reporting, 12 are saving some money. Five 
report that they are paying for homes, two of which are 
mortgaged, and investing small sums annually in this way. 
With 19 reporting, 17 are protected by insurance in unions, 
fraternal societies or in old line companies. All who report 
are opposed to working convicts in competition with free 
labor. 

ENGINEERS, LOCOMOTIVE. 

Beports were returned from eleven locomotive engineers 
residing in three counties of the state and employed upon 
three railway systems. Their ages average 44.7 years. With 
all reporting, 10 are American born and one is of foreign 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 69 

birth. With 11 reporting, one states that he has another oc- 
cupation aside from his present one; the other 10 have no 
occupation other than railroad work. The average length of 
time at which they had been engaged as engineers was 12.8 
years. All of them reported as having worked throughout 
the preceding year the regular number of days in each month 
which constitutes a month's labor as a railroad engineer. 
They all report being paid by the mile, the mileage differing 
according. to the part of the state in which they were em- 
ployed, and whether they were working upon passenger or 
freight trains. The basis of wages paid to locomotive en- 
gineers is f 4 for a day's work, 105 miles being considered a 
day's work for passenger and 85 miles for freight trains. 
This, reduced to a mileage rate, is a trifle less than 4 cents 
per mile for service upon passenger and .047 cents per mile 
for freight trains. Aside from this, in the mountain districts, 
whenever the grade is more than 200 feet to the mile, it is 
on the mountain classification, and 44 miles upon both pas- 
senger and freight trains constitute a day's work. When the 
grade for part of a division is more than 200 feet to the mile 
and for the balance is less, as is the case in many parts of the 
state, the pay of the engineer for making the run is fixed in 
accordance with the classification given above. This is the 
wage schedule which obtains upon the D. & R. G. system, 
and is probably a trifle higher than that paid by the others, 
but the rates paid by the other roads do not differ materially. 
The average monthly earnings were ?128.75. The average in- 
dividual earnings for the preceding year was $1545.00. With 
11 reporting, 9 are married and 2 are single. The average 
size of family is 5.8 members. None of the wives or children 
of those with families contribute by wage labor to the fam- 
ily maintenance. With 8 reporting, all state that their chil- 
dren of school age are attending school regularly. The aver- 
age monthly cost of living, with 9 reporting, is $67.50. With 
10 reporting, all give the cost of living as having increased 
since 1896-97. Seven report their earnings to have increased, 
as employment has been more regular. With 10 reporting, 
6 own their own homes. None report the home as being mort- 
gaged. With 11 reporting, 10 state that they have been able 
to save some money. All carry insurance in the Brotherhood 
of Locomotive Engineers, and four report carrying insurance 
in old line companies. All are opposed to the contracting or 
farming out of convicts. 



70 BIBNNIAL BBPOBT 

FABMBBS. 

Beports were received from 23 farmers residing in 10 
counties of the state. Their average age is 44.5 years. With 
all reporting, 20 are native born Americans^ and 3 are of 
foreign birth. Not being wage workers within the usual 
meaning of the term, earnings are not given. The average 
length of time during which they have been engaged at farm- 
ing or ranching is 15.2 years. Fourteen of. them have occu- 
pations other than farming. All report that they were em- 
ployed constantly during the preceding year. With 22 re- 
porting, 17 are married and 5 are single. The average size 
of family is 5.1 persons. With 21 reporting, 18 own the 
farms and ranches upon which they live; 8 of the farms are 
mortgaged. With 18 reporting, 14 expressed themselves as 
being in favor of the single tax by giving affirmative replies 
to questions 43 and 44. 

GBAVEIL BOOFEBS AND CBMBNT WOBKEBS. 

Reports were received from seven gravel roofers and 
cement workers residing in two counties of the state. Their 
average age is 45.2 years. Five are Americans and two are 
of foreign birth. The average length of time worked at pres- 
ent occupations is 8.7 years. All but one have a trade or 
calling different from the one at which now employed. The 
average daily wages received is |2.48. The average number 
of days worked in the last year was 195. The average yearly 
income was f 483.60. With all reporting, 5 are married. The 
average size of family is 4.9 persons. The average monthly 
cost of family maintenance is |41.15. Three receive help in 
family maintenance by wage labor from wife or children. 
All report the cost of living as having increased since 1896-97. 
Four report wages as being the same and three report an in- 
crease. None of them own the houses in which they live. 
None of them report having saved any money. None of them 
carry life insurance of any kind. 

LABOBEBS. 

Reports were returned from thirty-two persons who 
signed themselves laborers. In some instances the particular 
kind of labor at which they were employed was given and in 
other cases it was not. They reside in 11 counties of the 
state. Their average is 38.7 years. Twenty-three are Amer- 
icans and 9 are of foreign birth. All have different occupa- 



BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS. 71 

tion than their present one. The average length of time at 
which they have been engaged at various kinds of laboring 
work is 20.6 years. The average daily wages received was 
1.47. The average number of days worked was 239. The 
average yearly earnings are f351.33. The average monthly 
cost of living was ^31.58, with 24 reporting. With 32 report- 
ing, 25 are married and 7 are single. The average size of 
family is 5 persons. With 23 reporting, 14 receive aid by 
wage labor from wife or children in maintenance of the fam- 
ily. Some of the children are attending school, others are 
not. With 28 reporting, 20 give the cost of living as having 
increased since 1896-97, while 8 give it as being unchanged. 
With 27 reporting, 17 report their wages to be the same as 
in 1896-97. Eight reported that their wages and earnings 
are more and 2 give their wages as being less. With 24 re- 
porting, 21 rent the dwellings in which they live. The aver- 
age monthly rental for dwellings is f 5.45. Out of 32 report- 
ing, only 2 have been able to save any money. With 29 re- 
porting, 2 carry insurance other than that which may be 
afforded by membership in societies. Three own the dwell- 
ings in which they live. 

LAWYERS. 

Schedules were received from thirteen lawyers residing 
in six counties of the state. Their average age is 45.6 years. 
All are native born Americans. The average length of time 
at which they have been engaged at the practice of law is 19.3 
years. Four have another vocation than that of lawyers. 
Their average annual income is $1,350. Ten are married and 
three are single. The average size of families is 3.7 persons. 
The average monthly cost of living per family is f 85.35. All 
report the cost of living as having increased since 1896-97. 
The average income is reported as being the same as in 
1896-97 in 8 cases and 5 report an increase. With 9 report- 
ing, 5 own their own homes. Five report that they have been 
able to save some money. With 11 reporting, all carry life 
insurance. 

METALLIFEROUS MINERS. 

By far the largest number of schedules returned to this 
oflBce representing the workers in any single industry was 
sent in by metalliferous miners. From this class 224 reports 
were received, coming from 26 counties in the state. Six 
reports were from foremen, superintendents and shift bosses 



72 BIENNIAL REPORT 

in mines. Their salaries ranged from f 150 to f200 per 
month. Their average monthly salary is |170.83. The aver- 
age monthly cost of family maintenance for the fonr of this 
class with families is |102.50. All the other averages in this 
table are based upon the entire number of ianswers made to 
each question. With 223 answering, their average age is 41.4 
years. With 224 reporting, 161 are native born Americans, 
while 63 are of foreign birth. The average length of time 
at which they have been engaged as miners is 16.7 years. 
With 221 reporting, 135 have no other occupation than work- 
ing in and around mines, while 86 have other vocations. The 
daily wages received, 215 reporting, is as follows : 172, $3 per 
day; 30, $2.50 per day; 7, $3.25 per day; 3, f3.50 per day, and 
3, f 4 per day. The average daily wages are $2.96. The aver- 
age number of days worked is 235.8. The average yearly 
earnings were f 697.97. The number of days worked during 
the preceding year ranges from 60 to 350. With every one 
reporting, 115 are married and 109 are single men. The aver- 
age size of family is 4.93 members. With 98 reporting, 27 
receive help by wage labor from wife or children in support- 
ing the family, usually a statement to the effect that the 
boy or boys are employed in some capacity. With 103 re- 
porting, the average cost of living per family, excluding the 
four families already mentioned, was |53.90. With 209 re- 
porting, 147 give the cost of living as having increased since 
1896-97, all the way from 5 to 25 per cent., 62 report it as 
being the same. With 212 reporting, 194 give their 
wages as being the same as in 1896-97, 15 report an 
increase of wages and 3 report their wages to be 
less. With 113 heads of families reporting, 34 own their 
own homes and 79 rent the dwellings in which they live. With 
70 reporting, the average monthly rental is |9.85. With 
213 reporting, 69 report that they have been able to save 
something above the cost of living, either by way of invest- 
ment in homes or in money, while 135 assert that they have 
not saved anything. With 207 reporting, 91 carry life insur- 
ance in old line companies or in fraternal societies. All 
who report express themselves as being opposed to the con- 
tracting or farming out of convicts, though the remarks upon 
this subject are qualified in various ways. Seventy-four re- 
port that they have children attending school. Only four 
make mention of the home being mortgaged. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 73 

MACHINISTS. 

Seven schedules were returned by seven machinists and 
coming from three different counties in the state. Their 
ages average 47.3 years. Five are native born Americans 
and two are of foreign birth. The average length of time 
during which they have been working as machinists is 18.3 
years. Two have another occupation and five have not* 
Three dollars and twelve cents per day are the daily wages 
r^eived when employed. The average number of days 
worked during the preceding year was 225.5. The average 
yearly earning&i for the same period was f 703.56. Five are 
married and two are single. Five give the cost of living as 
being more than in 1896-97, and two report it as being the 
same. All give the daily rate of wages received as being un- 
changed. The average number of persons in family is 5.5. 
Four rent the houses in which they live and two are owners 
of homes. The average monthly cost of living with those 
having families is $53.85. Four report that they have saved 
something and three that they have not. All are members 
of beneficiary societies in which they carry insurance. 

MISCELLANEOUS WORKERS. 

[Analysis and explanatory information upon table of 
Miscellaneous Workers.] 

Schedules were returned, signed by 37 persons, residing 
in thirteen different counties of the state and representing 
promiscuous callings ranging from soap makers, with earn- 
ings given at f 1.25 per day, to manager for coal contractor, 
with salary of $115 per month, and with yearly earnings 
varying from $300 to |l,380. There not being enough of any 
one occupation to classify them separately, they are grouped 
together in a miscellaneous table. With 34 reporting, their 
average age is 41.5 years. With all reporting, 30 are native 
born Americans and 7 are of foreign birth. In the different 
occupations reported, the employes are engaged daily, weekly 
and monthly, and the wages are computed in the same man- 
ner. With every one reporting, 24 have a trade or calling 
beside the one at which they are now engaged. With all re- 
porting, 28 are married, 1 is a widower and 8 are single. 
With 25 heads of families reporting, the average number of 
children in family is 2.52. With 24 reporting, the children of 
18 are attending school, while 6 report their children to be 



74 BIENNIAL EEPOET 

under school age. With 21 reporting, the average monthly 
cost of family and individual maintenance is f 55.48. With 
33 reporting, 10 give the cost of living as being the same as 
in 1896-97, 22 report an increase and 1 a decrease. The rate 
of increase as given ranges from 5 to 30 per cent. With 33 
reporting, 22 report their wages as being the same as in 
1896-97. Five report their wages as being more and 6 report 
a decrease. With 31 reporting, 13 own their own homes and 
18 rent. Of the 13 homes owned, 5 are mortgaged. The aver- 
age monthly rental is f 12.32. With all reporting, 21 report 
that they have been able to save some money. With all re- 
porting, 27 carry life insurance of some kind. 

PEINTEBS. 

Twenty-three replies were received from printers resid- 
ing in eight counties of the state. Their average age is 36.4 
years. With the whole number reporting, 16 are native born 
Americans and 7 are of foreign birth. With every one re-; 
porting, only two have another occupation than that of 
printer. The average length of time engaged at present oc- 
cupation is 15.3 years. The average weekly wages earned 
during the preceding year was f 19.38. The average number 
of weeks worked was 47.4. The average yearly earnings were 
1918.67. With all reporting, 19 are married and 4 are sin- 
gle. The average size of families is 3.85 members. With 18 
reporting, 3 receive assistance from wife or children. The 
average monthly cost of living, with 18 heads of families re- 
porting, was 158.76. With 21 reporting, 18 give the cost of 
living as having increased since 1896-97, and 3 give it as 
being the same. With 22 reporting, 14 give their earnings 
to have been the same as in 1896-97, six give them as being 
more, and two less. With 18 reporting, 16 rent and 2 own 
the houses in which they live. The average monthly rental 
for house is $10.50. With 22 reporting, 18 state that they 
have been unable to save any money, and 4 that they have 
saved small sums. Twenty-one either carry life insurance or 
belong to a fraternal society of some kind, or both. Eleven 
report that they have children attending school. All are op- 
posed to the contracting or farming out of convicts. 

PAINTEES AND PAPER HANGERS. 

Schedules were returned signed by sixteen painters and 
paper hangers who are residents of four counties in the state. 
Their average age is 37.5 years. With all reporting, 14 are 



BUBBAU OF LABOB STATISTICS. 75 

native born Americans and 2 are of foreign birtli. The aver- 
age length of time that they have followed present occiipar 
tion is 17.7 years. None have any other trade or calling. 
The average daily earnings for preceding year was $2.1i2. 
The average number of days employed was 174.5. The aver- 
age annual income from wage labor was |509.54. All report- 
ing, 12 are married and 4 are single. The average size of 
families is 3.87 members. None of their wives or children 
contribute to the support of family by wage labor. The aver- 
age cost of living per family was f 41.23. All reporting, 11 
give the cost of living as having increased since 1896-97, and 
5 give it as being the same. With 15 reporting, 12 give their 
earnings to have been the same as in 1896-97, two state that 
they have been more, and one that they were less. With 11 
reporting, 9 rent and 2 own the houses in which they live. 
The average monthly rental paid for dwelling is |8.25. With 
14 making reply, 3 state that they have been able to save a 
little money, and 11 answer no. All but three have some 
kind of insurance. 

PHYSICIANS. 

Sixteen schedules were returned by physicians residing 
in five counties of the state. All but one are native born 
Americans. With all reporting, 13 have families. Questions 
from 32 to 59, inclusive, are for the most part answered in a 
very intelligent manner. Questions from 8 to 32, inclusive, 
so generally remain unanswered that it was thought inad- 
visable to attempt a tabulation of them or to strike any 
averages. 

PUMPMEN IN MINES. 

Reports were received . from eight pumpmen in mines, 
residing^ in three counties of the state. Three of them occa- 
sionally perform other duties in addition to that of pump- 
man. Their average age is 40 years. All reporting, 6 are na- 
tive born Americans and 2 are of foreign birth. The aver- 
age number of years at which they have been employed at 
present occupation is 5.1. All reporting, 7 have occupations 
other than their present one. The average daily wages re- 
ceived for the preceding year was $3.83. The average num- 
ber of days worked was 302. The average yearly income from 
labor was |1,156.66. All reporting, 6 are married and 2 are 
single. The average size of families is 5.4 members. Two 
heads of families have boys working for wages. No other 
assistance from family is mentioned. The average cost of 
family maintenance is |62.40. With 7 reporting, 5 give the 



76 BIENNIAL BBPOET 

cost of living as having increased since 1896-97, and 2 rep- 
port it as the same. With 8 reporting, all give their wages 
as the same that they were in 1896-97, but three state that 
their earnings were more, as they were more steadily em- 
ployed. Four report their children of school age to be at- 
tending school throughout the school year. Five report own- 
ing their own homes, in two cases the home is mortgaged. 
To the question, "Have you been able to save any money?" 
5 answer "a little," 2 answer "no," and one does not reply. 
All carry some kind of insurance, either in fraternal socie- 
ties or old line companies. All are opposed to the employ- 
ment of convicts in any manner that will be to the injury of 
free labor. 

PLUMBERS. 

Reports were received from eleven plumbers and gas 
fitters, residents of four different counties of the state. Their 
average age is 36 years. Nine are Americans by birth and 
two are foreign bom. The average length of time at which 
they have been engaged at present occupation is 16.3 years. 
With all reporting, only 2 have another trade than that of 
plumbing and gas fitting. With all reporting, 7 give their 
wages as $4.00, three give |3.50 and one, |3.00 for a day of 
eight hours. Average daily wages, $3.77. Average number 
of days employed was 197. Average yearly earnings were 
$742.69. With all reporting, 8 are married and 3 are single. 
The average size of families, with 8 reporting, is 3.3 members. 
None report receiving aid from wife or children in support- 
ing family. Five report their children to be attending school 
regularly. With 8 heads of families reporting, the average 
monthly cost of living is $52.28. With 10 reporting, 8 give 
an increase in the cost of living as compared with 1896-97, 
and 2 report it as being the same. With 11 reporting, all 
give their wages as being the same as they were in 1896-97. 
Four report more work and a consequent increase of earn- 
ings. With 8 reporting, 4 own their own homes and 4 rent. 
Two report the home as being mortgaged. The average 
monthly rental is $11.85. With all reporting, 4 state that 
they have been able to save small sums of money, and 7 that 
they have saved nothing. With all reporting, 8 carry life 
insurance in old line companies or in fraternal societies. 

RAILROAD CONDUCTORS. 

Reports were received from five railroad conductors em- 
ployed upon two- of the railroad systems in Colorado, and 



BUREAU. OF LABOR STATISTICS. 77 

residing in two counties of the state. Their average age is 
41.7 years. All are American born. The average length of 
time during which they have been employed as railroad con- 
ductors is 8.9 years. All report having no other occupation 
than railroad work. Four reporting are conductors upon 
passenger trains, salary J125 per month, one Pullman car 
conductor receives a monthly salary of f 75. Average length 
of time worked during preceding year was 10.6 months. 
Average yearly earnings of passenger conductors were $1,- 
325. All 5 reporting are married. None of their wives or 
children contribute to family support. The average size of 
families is 3.6 members. Four heads of families report chil- 
dren attending school. The average monthly cost of living 
is 182.50. The 4 who report give the cost of living as having 
increased since 1896-97. The entire 5 give the rate of wages 
as being unchanged. With all reporting, 4 own their own 
homes. None of the homes are mortgaged. All state that 
they have been able to save some money. All carry life in- 
surance of some kind. 

RAILROAD FIREMEN. 

Schedules were returned signed by six locomotive fire- 
men residing in two counties in the state. Their average age 
is 32.3 years. All are American born. Average length of 
time working at present occupation is 9.2 years. With all re- 
plying none have another occupation. The wage rate the 
mile — the mile being the unit upon which wages are com- 
puted — is fixed upon a basis of 60 per cent, that paid to en- 
gineers on narrow gauge engines, and 66i per cent, of en- 
gineers' wages upon standard gauge. 

The average monthly earnings for the time employed 
was f 76.96. The average time employed during the year was 
10.9 months. The average yearly earnings were f838.86. 
With 6 reporting all are married. The average size of fam- 
ilies is 2.6 persons. With all reporting none receive assist- 
ance by wage labor from wife or children. 

Three report children attending school. With 6 report- 
ing the average monthly cost of living is f 58.60. Four report 
the cost of living as having advanced since 1896-97, and place 
the increase at from 5 to 25 per cent. All report wages un- 
changed, but earnings increased slightly. With 6 reporting 
all rent the houses in which they live. The average monthly 
rental is $10.40. Three report that they have saved some 
money and 3 that they have not. All are protected by in- 
surance in fraternal societies or otherwise. 



78 BIBNNIAL BBPOBT 

STBNOGRAPHEBS AND TYPBWBITEBS. 

Reports were returned from five stenographers and type- 
writers, residing in two counties in the state. Their average 
age is 27.8 years. Three of the reports are from women. All 
are Americans by birth. The average length of time at which 
they have been employed at present occupation is 8.3 years. 
Two report having another occupation than their present 
one, and 3 that they have none other. The average length of 
time for which they were employed in preceding year was 
11.5 months. The average monthly earnings were f66.50. 
The average yearly income was f 753.25. With all reporting 
only 1 is married, although 2 report that they have others de- 
pending upon them for maintenance. All report the cost of 
living as being substantially the same as in 1896-97, and the 
price of labor in their vocation as having neither increased or 
decreased. With 6 reporting none are home owners. Four 
rent the dwellings in which they live at an average monthly 
rental of f 12.50. To the question, "Have you been able to 
save any money?" 3 reply "no" and 3 reply "a very little." 
One lady answers "About the cost of a funeral or a short 
sp^U of sickness." Two of the 6 reporting carry life insur- 
ance. 

SMELTEBMEN. 

Reports were received from 46 workmen employed in 
and around smelters, and residing in four different counties 
of the state. Those replying were idle at the time of making 
the report, but had been working in the smelters of the state 
up to the time that they were closed, June 15, 1899. Their 
average age is 38.7 years. With all reporting 32 are native 
bom Americans and 14 are of foreign birth. The average 
length of time that they have been working in smelters is 8.4 
years. Twelve stated that they had been working in smelters 
irregularly during the period of years given. With 44 re- 
porting 37 have occupations other than that of working in 
smelters. The average daily wages is |2.21. The average 
number of days worked in year is 223.2. The average yearly 
earnings were $493.27. With 44 reporting 37 are married 
and 7 are single. With 38 making reply, 12 report that they 
receive aid in supporting their families from the wage labor 
of wife or children. The average size of families with 37 re- 
porting is 4.69 members. With 38 reporting 28 give the cost 
of living as having increased since 1896-97, and 10 give it as 
being the same. The average cost of living per family is 



BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS. 79 

f40.75. The rate of increase in the cost of commodities 
ranges from 5 to 30 per cent. All give the price of labor as 
being t^e same during the preceding year as before, but 14 
refer to the fact that wages have recently been advanced 10 
per cent. All those reporting upon the subject of hours give 
the number of hours constituting a day's work as being 10 
and 12. With 39 reporting 6 own the dwellings in which they 
live and 33 rent. The average monthly rental is f 7.10. To 
the question, "Have you been able to save any money above 
the cost of living?" with 45 replying 41 answer no, 1 yes, and 
3 "a little." With 44 reporting 2 carry life insurance and 5 
carry insurance in fraternal societies. All who report state 
that they receive hospital privileges for sickness or injury re- 
ceived while at work, and that they pay a monthly considera- 
tion, which is deducted from wages, for such protection. 
Twenty-one report that their children of school age are at- 
tending school. All who report are opposed to convicts being 
worked in any manner that will be to the injury of free labor. 

STONE CUTTERS AND STONE MASONS. 

Reports were received from 9 stone cutters and stone 
masons, residing in two counties of the state. Their average 
age is 38.8 years. With all reporting 5 are Americans by 
birth and 4 are of foreign birth. The average length of time 
at which they have been engaged at present employment is 
18.3 years. Only 1 with all reporting has any other occupa- 
tion aside from the present one. With every one answering 
7 give their wages as being f 4 for eight hours' labor and 2 
give their wages as f3.60 for an eight-hour day. Average 
daily wages, f 3.91. With 9 reporting the average number of 
days worked in the last year was 197. The average yearly 
earnings were |770.27. With 9 reporting all are married. 
The average size of families is 4.8 persons. Four have chil- 
dren over 12 years of age. All report them to be attending 
school during a part of the year. Two report receiving some 
aid from the labor of wife or child. The average monthly 
cost of living is f43.50. With 9 reporting 6 own their own 
homes, 3 report the home to be mortgaged. The average 
monthly rental paid by the 3 who rent is $9.33. Seven report 
the cost of living to have increased from 5 to 25 per cent, 
since 1896-97, and 2 give the cost of living as being the same, 
7 report their wages as having been the same as in 1896-97, 
and the other 2 do not report in this particular. With 8 re- 
porting 5 answer that they have been able to save some- 



80 BIENNIAL REPORT 

thing above the cost of living. With 9 reporting all carry 
some form of insurance. 

SCHOOL TEACHERS. 

Reports were received from 6 school teachers, residing 
in three different counties of the state. Their average age is 
41.4 years. All are Americans by birth. The average length 
of time during which they have been engaged in teaching 
with varying regularity is 18.6 years. All have occupations 
aside from that of school teacher. All report having been 
employed at teaching for the period of nine months during 
the preceding year. The average monthly rate of wages re- 
ceived was $54.80. The average yearly income from teaching 
was 1493.20. With all reporting 5 are married. None of 
their wives or children are reported as contributing by wage 
labor to the support of family. All wlio have children of 
school age report them as attending school. Five report the 
cost of living as having increased since 1896-97, and 1 srives 
it as being the same. Average size of families, 5.3 persons. 
All report their wages as being substantially the same as in 
1896-97. With 5 reporting all rent the houses in which they 
live. The average monthly rental is $11.25. Three report 
that they have been able to save some money, and 3 that they 
have not accumulated anything. All are opposed to the em- 
ployment of convicts in any manner that will be to the injury 
of free labor. Two have insurance and belong to fraternal so- 
cieties. Average cost of family maintenance is $44.60. 

TELEGRAPH OPERATORS. 

Schedules were returned signed by seven telegraph oper- 
ators residing in four counties in the state, and in the employ 
of two railroad companies operating in Colorado. Their av- 
erage age is 35.7 years. Six are American born and one is 
of foreign birth. The average length of time at which they 
have been working as telegraphers is 14.3 years. With all 
reporting, none have another occupation. The monthly rate 
of wages earned, with all reporting, range from $67 to $80 
per month. One a monthly salary of $75, two $67, one $80, 
and three $70 each. The average is $71.28. The average 
length of time worked during the period covered by the re- 
part was 11.6 months. The average yearly earnings were 
$826.85. With all reporting, 4 are married and 3 are single. 
The average size of families is 3.35 members. Two of the 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 81 

four heads of families have children of school age, and they 
are rei)orted to be attending school regularly. The average 
monthly cost of family maintenance is |47.50. With 7 re- 
porting, 5 represent the cost of living to have increased since 
1896-97 and 2 give it as being the same. Six report their 
wages as unchanged and one that his wages have been in- 
creased as compared with 1896-97. With 6 reporting, none 
are home owners, 2 rent and 2 live in the station house. 
With all replying, 5 answer "Yes" to the question: "Have 
you been able to save any money?" and 2 answer "A very 
little." All are members of fraternal societies and four carry 
insurance in old line companies. All express themselves as 
being opposed to the employment of convicts in a manner 
that will be hurtful to free labor. 

V7AITBRS. 

Reports were returned from eighteen waiters in hotels 
and restaurants, residing in four counties of the state. Their 
average age is 31.2 years. With all reporting, 14 are Amer- 
ican born and 4 are of foreign birth. Average length of time 
employed at present vocation, 8.7 years. With 18 reporting, 
11 have no other vocation and 7 have other kinds of employ- 
ment. The weekly rate of wages ranges from f 6 to f 17.50. 
The average weekly wages were |9.85. This includes board. 
The average number of weeks employed during the year was 
39.2. The average yearly earnings for preceding year were 
f386.12. With all reporting, 13 are married and 5 are sin- 
gle. The average size of families is 2.84. Two receive help 
by wage labor from their wives, with 13 reporting. The aver- 
age monthly cost of living, with 12 out of the 13 heads of fam- 
ilies reporting, was |31.83. With 15 reporting, 11 state that 
the cost of living has advanced as compared with 1896-97, 
and 4 report it to be the same. With 17 reporting, 6 give the 
rate of wages as the same that they were in 1896-97 and 11 
report an advance. With 14 reporting, all rent the dwellings 
or rooms in which they live. The average monthly rental is 
17.60. All report that they have been unable to save any 
money. Life insurance is carried by one; three report mem- 
bership in fraternal societies. Twelve express themselves as 
being opposed to convicts being worked in a way that will 
enable their product to be sold in competition with that of 
free labor. 



82 



BIENNIAL BBPOBT 



STATISTICS OF WAGE EARNERS 



OCCUPATION 


If 


1 

li 


Ill 


t 

a 

p 




Barbers 

Blacksmiths 

Bookkeepers . . 


22 
18 

6 
10 
24 

8 
21 

6 

90 
63 

9 
21 
11 
23 
32 

7 
218 

7 

37 
23 
16 

8 
11 

5 

6 

5 
46 

9 

6 

7 
18 

6 


6 
8 
3 
4 
5 
4 
6 
S 
5 

14 
3 
8 
3 

10 

11 
2 

26 
3 

13 
8 
4 
3 
4 
2 
2 
2 
4 
2 

3 
4 
4 
2 


35.6 

40. 

42. S 

41.2 

38.2 

31.4 

42.3 

45.6 

37. 

39.6 

33.2 

39.5 

44.7 

44.5 

38.7 

45.2 

41.4 

47.3 

38.6 

36.4 

87.5 

40. 

36. 

41.7 

32.3 

27.8 

38.7 

38.8 

41.4 

35.7 

31.2 


17 

12 

5 

8 

19 

7 

4 

6 

23 

47 

7 

15 

10 

20 

23 

5 

161 

5 

30 
18 
14 
6 
9 
5 
6 
5 

32 
5 
6 
6 
14 


17 

16 

3 
9 
2 

63 
2 
7 
7 
2 
2 
2 

14 
4 

1 
4 


Bricklayers 

Cooks 

Clerks and Saletmen 


Coal Miners 




Cigarmakers 


Carpenters 

Drug^ Clerks and Pharmacists ^ 


Stationary Engineers 


I^ocQmotive Bngineers 


Farmers . .--.- 

Laborers 

Gravel Roofers and Cement Workers 


Metalliferous Miners* 


MachiniaU 

Miscellaneous Workers _ ,. .. 


Printers _ _ 

Painters and Paper Hangers. . .... 


Pumpmen in Mines 


Plumbers _., 

Railroad Conductors 


Railroad Firemen . 




Smeltermen _ 

Stonecutters and Stonemasons 


School Teachers 


Telegraph Operators 


Waiters 

Bosses in Mines* ... ...... 






Total 


739 


39 




548 


191 






Average 







38.84 







BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS. 



83 



IN COLORADO, BY OCCUPATIONS. 





II 


Average Monthly, Weekly 
or Daily Wages 


Average I^ength of 

Time Smployed in 

Past Year 




1 


< 


P 






< 


a 
1 


12.3 


8 


Month 


Week 
115 66 


Day 


Mo. 


Wks. 
46. 


Days 


1 704 25 


12 


20.2 


3 


1 8480 






9.5 







806 60 


15 


14 7 


4 


104 50 






11.2 






1,170 40 


4 


14.2 


2 






1 475 







204. 


969 00 


8 


17.2 


8 
6 
3 




15 93 
10 23 


239 




43.9 
47.2 




155. 


699 33 
482 86 
870 46 


18 
4 

16 


7.3 




22.7 




21.4 








825 






140. 


1,155 00 


6 


19.2 


4 

3D 




14 96 


307 




47. 


221. 


702 65 
678 47 


18 
51 


16.5 





14.5 




7166 






11.5 






828 98 


6 


14.4 


18 






820 






262. 


888 40 


18 


12.8 
15.2 
20.6 


1 

14 
32 


128 75 






12. 






1,545 00 


9 
17 
26 






147 







2S9. 


36133 


«.7 


6 






248 






196. 


483 60 


5 


16l7 


86 






296 






236.8 


897 97 


U5 


18.3 


2 






3 12 






225.5 


708 56 


5 


ia2 


24 


• 












768 31 


28 


15.3 


2 




19 88 


292 




47.4 


174.5 


918 61 
509 96 


19 
12 


17.7 




6.1 


7 






383 






802. 


1,156 66 


6 


16.3 


2 






8 77 






197. 


742 69 


8 


8.9 




125 00 






10.6 






1,825 00 


5 


9.2 




76 96 






10.9 






888 86 


6 


8.3 


2 


65 50 






11.6 






753 26 


1 


8.4 


87 






221 






223.2 


49S27 


37 


18.3 


1 






391 







197. 


770 27 


9 


18.6 


6 


54 80 






9. 






498 20 


5 


14.3 




7128 






11.6 






826 86 


4 


8.7 


7 




985 






39.2 




886 12 


13 










310 
















503 




14.39 
















$ 772 49 





• .See Miscellaneous Table. 



84 



BIENNIAL REPORT 



STATISTICS OF WAGE EARNERS 



OCCUPATION 


1 


o 

V 
N 

fa <■> 

< 


5i 

< 


111 

III 
z 


lis 


Barbers 


9 
3 
2 
2 
4 
4 
6 

12 
12 
4 
3 
2 
5 
7 
2 
109 
2 
9 
4 
4 
2 
3 

4 

7 

1 
3 
5 


4.6 

5.3 

4. 

5.8 

8.9 

4.5 

5.1 

4.5 

4.2 

5.1 

3.8 

46 

5.8 

51 

5. 

4.9 

4.93 

5.35 

4.51 

3.85 

3.87 

5.4 

3.3 

3.6 

2.6 

4.69 
4.8 
5.3 
335 

2.84 


1 53 71 

56 65 
76 45 
67 24 
45 30 
37 65 
34 23 
71 28 
51 38 
48 51 
58 63 

51 83 
67 50 

31 58 

41 15 
53 90 
53 85 
55 48 
58 76 
4123 
62 40 

52 28 
82 50 
58 60 

40 75 

43 50 

44 60 
47 50 
31 83 


5 
8 
6 
6 
5 
2 

6 
7 

23 
5 

12 
10 

2 

69 
4 

21 
4 
3 
5 
4 
5 
3 
3 
4 
5 
3 
7 


14 
9 

4 
17 

6 
21 

28 
35 

4 
8 

1 

30 
7 
135 
3 
16 
18 
11 
2 
7 

3 
2 
41 

3 

18 


Blacksmiths 

Bookkeepers 

Bricklayers 

Cooks 

Clrrks mii'I AaW<neti 


Coal Miners 


Civil Engineers and Surveyors 

Cigarmakers 

Carpenters 

T>nxg ClM'ks and Phmrm ncistf 


Stationary Engineers 


Locomotive Engineers. 


Farmers 

tAborers 

Gravel Roofers and Cement Workers 


Metalliferous Miners* 


MachinUts 

Miscellaneous Workers _ 


Printers 

Painters and Itaper Hangers _ 


Pumpmen in Mines 


Plumbers 

Railroad Conductors 

Railroad Firemen 


Stenographers and Typewriters _ 


Smeltermen 

Stonecutters and Stonemasons 

School Teachers * 


Telegraph Operators 


Waiters 

Bossesin Mines* 




ToUl 


230 






237 


438 


Average 




4.49 


1 52 42 







BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 



85 



IN COLORADO, BY OCCUPATIONS— Concladcd. 



I? 



.^•5 



Z 






16 

10 

5 

6 

lii 

5 

17 

Ti 

25 

48 

7 

19 

10 

20 
7 

147 

5 
22 
18 
11 

5 

8 

4 

4 

28 

7 

5 

5 
11 

496 






tiff 
g aaua 



4 
6 
1 
3 
6 
3 
4 
1 
5 
11 
2 
2 



62 
2 

10 
3 
5 
2 
2 



5 

10 
2 

1 
2 

4 

106 



189 




17 

4 

194 

7 

22 
14 
12 
5 
11 



5 

42 
7 
6 
6 
6 

4.>3 






2 



141 



,1 



29 




16 
15 
6 
8 
20 
7 

6 
9 
53 
9 
17 
11 



91 
7 

27 
21 
13 
8 
8 
5 
6 
2 
2 
9 
2 
7 
4 



29 



80 



BIENNIAL BBPOBT 

TABLE OF WORKERS REPRESENTING 



COUNTY 



Ajre 



Nativity 



\ 

NewY^k.... 

Colorad^ 

Pennsylvania 
nilnois..j... 
Pennsylvatiia 

Indiana 

Connecticut .. 

Germany 

Wisconsin 

Iowa 

Kansas 

New York.... 

Illinois 

Illinois 

Bnfl^land 

Ireland 

Missouri 

Wisconsin 

New York.... 

niinob 

Pennsylvania 

Ohio 

Canada 

Ohio 

Missouri 

Wyoming 

Nebraska .... 

Ohio 

Canada 

niinois 

Wisconsin 

New York.... 



Occupation 



Arapahoe ... 
Clear Creek . 

I.ake 

SI Paso 

Pueblo 

Pueblo 

BlPaso 

Lake 

KlPaso 

Rio Grande . 

Pueblo 

Arapahoe... 

Gilpin 

Arapahoe... 

Pueblo 

Mesa 

El Paso 

Arapahoe ... 
Arapahoe ... 
Arapahoe ... 
Arapahoe ... 
Rio Grande . 
Arapahoe... 

Boulder 

Teller 

Montezuma. 
Arapahoe... 

BlPaso 

Weld 

Mesa 

Bagle 

TeUer 



87 
30 
3S 
85 
30 

50 
29 
37 
51 
32 
44 
45 

29 
83 
42 
27 
29 
42 
82 
42 
80 



Photographer , 

Driver of delivery wagon 

Musician 

Minister 

Copper weigher and sampler 

Letter Carrier 

Servant Girl 

Midwife 

Housewife 

Harnessmaker 

Tinner, foreman of shop 

Saddler 

Blectridan, supt. Light Works. 

Woodworker 

Moulder, not working at trade. 

Soapmaker 

Foreman of Milk Dairy 

Bookbinder _ 

Paper Box Maker 

Brickyard man 

Justice Court clerk 

Real Estate agent 

Upholsterer 

Plour Miller 

Laundry Worker 

Draughtsman 

Landscape Gardener 

Scflling Ranges 

Cowboy 

Shoemaker 



BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS. 



87 



MISCELLANEOUS CALLINGS. 



£0 

a ^ 
•4 






r 



& 



8 

PS 



27 years . 
lyear... 
14 years . 
5 years .. 
4 years .. 
Syears .. 
10 years. 
26 years . 

17 years . 
9 years .. 

18 years . 
3 years ... 
3 years ... 
20 years.. 
31 years . . 
25^ years. 
2% years . 
6 years , . 
Syeara ... 
2 years ... 



11 years . 
16 years . 
21 years . 
3 years .. 



Syears .. 
10 years . 
4 years . . 
lyear ... 
3 years., 
years .. 



Yes. 
Yes. 
No.. 
Yea. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
No.. 
No.. 
Yes. 
No.. 
No.. 
Yes. 
No.. 
Yes. 
No.. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
No.. 
No.. 
No.. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
No-. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes. 
Yes.. 



Weekly.... 

Daily 

Monthly... 

Dally 

Monthly... 
Monthly... 
Annaally.. 
12 months . 
Weekly.... 
Weekly.... 

Daily 

Weekly.... 

Daily 

Daily 

Daily 

Monthly... 
Monthly... 

Weekly 

Weekly.... 
Monthly... 
Monthly... 

Daily 

Weekly.... 

Daily 

Daily 

Daily 

Daily 

Daily 

Monthly... 
Monthly... 
Daily 



15 30 

350 

100 00 

200 

70 83 

25 00 



15 00 

aooo 

1 50 
30 00 
250 
200 

1 25 
60 00 
35 00 
10 00 
18 00 

100 00 

100 00 

250 

18 00 

2 50 
2 50 
300 

2 00 

3 00 
50 00 
30 00 

300 



I 45000 

1,277 50 

1,200 00 

588 00 

850 00 

300 00 

1.300 00 

720 00 

1,010 00 

300 00 

1,440 00 

475 00 

500 00 

300 00 

720 00 

420 00 

500 00 

648 00 

1.000 00 

1,200 00 

687 50 

900 00 

675 00 

750 00 

900 00 

300 00 

1.000 00 

600 00 

270 00 

900 00 



SO weeks.. 
365 days... 
12 months . 
294 days... 
12 months . 
12 months . 
12 months . 

48 weeks . . 
52 weeks .. 
200 days... 
48 weeks .. 
190 days... 
250 days... 
240 days... 
12 months . 
12 months . 
50 weeks . . 
36 weeks .. 
10 months . 
12 months . 
275 days ... 
50 weeks . . 
270 days... 
300 days... 
300 days... 
160 days... 
333 days... 
12 months . 
9 months.. 
300 days... 



*No wasres as the word is generally used. 



88 



BIBNNIAL BEPOBT 

TABLE OF WORKERS REPRESENTING 



COUHTY 


1 

o 

1 


1 

1' 


b 

a" 


1 


Arapahoe 

Clear Creek 


Married 

Single 

A^arried 

Married 

Married 

Married 


4 

3 
2 

1 
2 

1 

1 
2 
2 

1 
2 
& 
1 
2 
4 

2 
4 

2 
2 

1 
8 



2 


Yes 


$ 6000 

75 00 
100 00 
' 3B00 

eooo 


Lake 

Bl Paao 


Too young 

Too young 

Too young 

Yes 


Pueblo 

Pueblo ... 


BlPaao 


Single 

Married 

Married 

Married 

Married 

Single 

Married 

Married 

Married 

Widower 

Married 

Married 

Married 

Single 

Single 

Married 

Married 

Married 

Married _. 

Single 

Sin^rle 

Married 

Married 

Married 


Lake 

BIPa«) 


Yes 

Yes 

Too young.... 
Yes . 


55 00 
50 00 
40 00 
70 00 


Rio Grande 


Pneblo 


Arapahoe 




Gilpin 

Arapahoe 


Too young 

Yes 


50 00 
40 00 
60 00 
25 00 
5000 


Pueblo 

Mesa 

Bl Paao 


Yes 

Yes 

Too young 


Arapahoe 


50 00 1 


Arapahoe 




90 00 


Arapahoe 






Arapahoe 






RioGrande 

Arapahoe 

Boulder 

Teller 

Montezuma 


Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Tooyounf 


85 00 
58 00 
60 00 
50 00 
40 00 
50 00 
S5 00 
83 00 
40 00 


Arapahoe 




Bl Paso •. 


Yes 

Yes 


Wdd 

Mesa 


Bagle 


Single 

Married 


Teller 


Yes 


7S00 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 



89 



MISCELLANEOUS CALLINGS— Concluded. 



°s 


a 








o 


^u'c 


4» ° 


08 

V CO 

1^ 


a 
1 

a 

1 


3 
& 

1 


1 

;5 




T O V „ 

m 


Same 


Same 


Rent .. 


117 00 




No 


...Yes 


Increase 10 per ct. 


Same 








No 


... No 


Same 


Same 


Rent .. 
Rent .. 


15 00 
12 50 




Yea 

No 


...Yes 


Same 


Same 


..Yes 


Increase 15 per ct. 


Increase 10 per ct. 


Own... 





No .... 


A little.... 


...Yes 


Increase 10 per ct. 


Same 


Own... 




No .... 


A little.... 


...Yes 






Own... 
Own... 





No .... 
No .... 


Yes 

Yes 


No 


Increase 20 per ct. 


Same 


...Yes 


Increase 


Less 


Rent .. 


10 00 




No 


... No 


Same 


Same 


Own... 




Yes... 


Yes 


...Yes 


Increase 10 per ct. 


Same 


Own... 




Yes.... 


A little.... 


...Yes 






Rent .. 


15 00 




No 

Yes 


No 


Same _ 


Increase 10 per ct. 


...Yes 


Same 


Same 


Rent . . 


850 




No 


...Yes 


Increase 10 per ct. 


Same 


Own... 





No .... 


Yes 


... No 


Increase 15 per ct. 


Same 








No ..* 


... No 


Increase 10 per ct. 


Same 


Own... 




Yes.... 


A little.... 


...Yes 


Increase 15 per ct. 


Less 


Rent . . 


10 00 




No 


...Yes 


Same 


Same 


Rent .. 


600 




Yes 


... No 


Increase 20 per ct. 


Increase 8 per ct. 








No 


...Yes 


Increase 


Same 








No 


...Yes 


Increase 


Same _ 


Rent .. 


12 00 




Very little. 


...Yes 


Increase 25 per d. 


Same 


Rent .. 


10 00 




No 


...Yes 


Increase 10 per ct. 


Same 


Rent .. 


17 50 




Very little. 


... No 


Increase 


Same 

Same 

Same 


Rent .. 
Own... 
Rent .. 


800 
20 00 


No .... 


A litUe.... 

Yes 

Yes 


...Yes 


Increase , 


...Yes 


Increase 20 per ct. 


...Yes 


Leas 


Same 

Less 20 per ct 

Increase 


Rent .. 
Rent .. 
Own... 

Own... 


825 
20 00 


Yes... 

No .... 


No 

No 

A little.... 
A little.... 
No 


... No 


Same 


. . . Yes 


Same 


... No 




...Yes 


Same 


Less 


...Yes 







Ui) 



BIENNIAL BEPOBT 

TABLE OF WORKERS REPRESENTING 



COUNTY 


Age 


Nativity 


Occupation 


Pueblo 


45 
47 
45 
50 
39 


Prance 

Indiana >..... 

Indiana 

Scotland 

North Carolina 


Window Trimmer 


Pueblo 


Furniture Worker 


Boulder 

Lake 


Superintendent Water Works 

Mineral Water Bottler 


Arapahoe 


MgT. Coal Contractor 






Counties 13 


38.6 
Yrs. 


Poreiffn 7 

Native 30 









BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 



91 



MISCBLLANBOUS CALLINGS. 



Ungth of Time at Pres- 
ent Occupation 


1 

i 


1 


5 


i 
1 


-1 

II 


25 years 

Gyears 

4 months 

17 years 

7years 


Yes 

Yea 

Yes 

No 

No 


Weekly 

Weekly 

Monthly .... 

Daily 

Monthly .... 


$ 2000 

12 00 

68 33 

800 

115 00 


$ 1,040 00 

624 00 

700 00 

936 00 

1,380 00 


52 weeks 

52 weeks 

12 months.. 

312days 


12 months 


Average, 

10 years 


Yes. 124 

No, 13 






Average, 
$768 81 









92 



BIBNNIAL REPORT 

TABLE OP WORKERS REPRESENTING 













U 






a 




•o 


T 


COUNTY 




1 




< 

n 


1 




g 


s 




t 






11 






1 




S 


r 




1 


Paeblo 


lUiricd 


5 


Yea. 




175 00 


Pneblo 


Married 

BUrried 

Married 

Married 


6 
3 


Yes. 




52 00 
42 00 
50 00 
75 00 


Boalder 


Lake 




Arapahoe 


Yea 




Married 28 

Single 9 


Average 
4.61 


Yes. 

No . 


17 

7 


^srs' 





BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 



93 



MISCBLLANEOUS CALLINGS— Concluded. 



Increase or Decreaae in 
Cost of Living Since 
1896-97 


a 
Si 

P 


1 

1 

a 
O 


s 

a 

1 


1 
i 


2 

1 


Do You Carry Ufelnsur- i 
ance or Are You a Mem- 
ber of a Beneficiary 
Organization 


Increase 25 per ct. 
Increase 30 per ct. 
Increase 5 per ct. 

Increase 10 per ct. 


LesaTper cent 

Same 

Less 8 per cent 

Increaae 


Rent .. 
Rent .. 
Rent .. 
Own... 
Own... 


1 1100 
12 00 
900 


No .... 
Yea.... 


No 

No 

A little.... 

Yes 

Yea 


...Yea 
...Yea 
...Yea 
...Yea 
...Yea 


Same 10 

Increase 22 

Decrease 1 


Same 22 

Increaae 5 

Decrease 6 


Own.lS 

Rent.18 


Average 
$12 82 


Yes. ..5 

No.._.8 


Yea 21 

No 16 


Ye8.27 
No..l(> 



94 BIENNIAL REPORT 

ANALYSIS OP THE TABLE. 

In order that the descriptive statements concerning each 
class ot craftsmen considered in this inquiry might be more 
easily understood by the readers, the preceding table sum- 
marizing the result was prepared. In this table such part of 
the statistics obtained as are susceptible of tabulation have 
been arranged in a way to show at a glance the more import- 
ant facts relating to each class of workers and to show aver- 
age general results. 

The schedules returned by lawyers and physicians are 
not included in the table, as the members of these two profes- 
sions are not wage earners as that term is usually under- 
stood. All other returns tabulated are included. 

The average age of those making reply is 38.84 years. 
With every one reporting, 548 are Americans by birth and 
191 are natives of other countries. The average length of 
time at which they have been employed at their present oc- 
cupation is 14.39 years. Three hundred and ten have other 
trades or occupations besides the one at which they are now 
working. 

As the scale of wages with each class of workers is 
given in accordance with the usages, customs and trade rules 
prevailing in that craft, it is impossible to determine from 
the table either the daily, weekly or monthly wages of the 
entire number reporting for the time actually employed. In 
the same way the several crafts reporting gave the time 
worked the preceding year in days, weeks and months. 

In the column of annual earnings the locomotive engin- 
eers lead with an annual income of $1,545. Immediately fol- 
lowing them may be found the laborers, who, with 32 report- 
ing, have an annual average of f 351.33, or less than one dol- 
lar per day for every day in the year. Enough coal miners 
reply to give a fair idea of their average annual earnings, 
which are |370.45, or a trifle more than a dollar a day for the 
entire year. The smelter employes are also a poorly remun- 
erated class of workmen, according to the average reached 
from the returns reported, although their wages at present 
are somewhat higher than they were for the period covered 
by the report. 

The average annual earnings for the thirty occupations, 
considered collectively, is 1772.49. As a monthly average 
for the year this would be f 64.39. Estimating twenty-six 



BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS. 95 

working days in the months the average daily wages would 
be something like |2.48. While the figures used in this table 
have been compiled with care and are accurate, an examina- 
tion of the occupation column will convince the reader that 
the daily, monthly and annual earnings here given are higher 
than the average wages paid to all the labor in Colorado. 

A very large proportion of those replying are mechanics 
and skilled workers, who command the highest rate of wages 
paid in their craft. It may be safely assumed that they are 
all of more than average intelligence and capability. It will 
be noticed, too, that 601, or more than three-fourths of the 
schedules returned, were signed by members of organized 
labor, who invariably are more highly paid for their labor 
than are the unorganized workers. One hundred and sixty- 
seven replies were received from union men and women, 
counting those who did not reply at all upon this point as 
belonging in this class, as was probably the case. As about 
25 per cent, of the wage workers in Colorado are organized, 
it will be seen that the averages arrived at come more nearly 
to representing the average earnings of the organized crafts- 
men in Colorado than they do the entire number of wage earn- 
ers in the state. 

The number of those sending in reports in some occupa- 
tions is not enough to form a real good average of the wages 
paid and the earnings among that class of workmen, while in 
other crafts the returns are ample for that purpose. 

It will be seen by reference to the column of annual earn- 
ings that in the well organized crafts the wages are fairly 
good, while in those that are either not organized at all, or 
ineffectually so, the earnings are pitifully small. 

Upon the whole it is safe to say that the average rate of 
wages paid to labor in Colorado is higher than that paid to 
the workers of any other state, with the possible exception of 
Montana. 

With 733 reporting, 503 are married and 230 are not. 
The average size of families is 4.49 persons. With 29 classes 
included in the classification, the average monthly cost of 
living is f 52.42. In a few instances it will be noted that the 
average monthly cost of living is in excess of the average 
montUy earnings. Where this occurs the difference is made 
up by the earnings of wife or children. 

With 675 reporting, 237 have made some accumulations. 
In this number is included all those who answer "yes,*^ "a 



96 BIENNIAL. REPORT 

little," or a "very little" to the question, "Have you been 
able to save any money?" Four hundred and thirty-eight re- 
port that they have been unable to save anything above the 
cost of living. With 669 reporting, 498 report the cost of 
living as having increased since 1896-97. The rate of increase 
is variously estimated and runs from 5 to 30 per cent. One 
hundred and sixty-six give the cost of living as being the 
same that it was in 1896-97, and 5 report it as being less. 
From this it is quite evident that there has been a general 
increase in the cost of the necessaries of life during the past 
three years. 

With 671 reporting, 189 report increased wages or earn- 
ings, while 453 report earnings as being the same, and 29 
report them to be less than they were in 1896-97. From this 
the general inference would be that so far as wages have 
moved in one direction or the other, the tendency has been 
to advance. One hundred and forty-one report owning their 
own homes. Of this number 29 report the home as being 
mortgaged. 

The number who rent and the average monthly rental 
for each class is given in the group statement making refer- 
ence to such class. 

Three hundred and ninety-one report carrying life in- 
surance or membership in a beneficiary organization. 

COLLECTION OP WAGES. 

While the duties of the Bureau of Labor as defined by 
the statute creating the office are of a statistical nature, in 
addition to the work thus prescribed, custom, precedent and 
common humanity have made it necessary for the Commis- 
sioner to attempt the collection of debts incurred for labor 
performed. By reference to the records of this office, it may 
be seen that while complaints upon the part of wage earners 
who are unable to secure payment of wages due have not been 
nearly so frequent during this biennial period as they were 
in 1893-1894, they are still numerous enough to occupy a con- 
siderable part of one man's time. 

Between the 6th of April, 1899, and November 30 of 
the same year, 201 complaints were filed, representing a total 
amount of |5,433.12. Of this amount, (2,089.95 was paid by 
the employers. In the interval between December 1, 1899, 
and November 1, 1900, a period of eleven months, 278 claims 
have been filed, representing an aggregate of $8,445.12. Of 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 97 

this amount, f 5,238.25, or about 62 per cent, of the amount 
claimed, has been paid by the employers. A very large num- 
ber of those filing claims have been women. The amounts 
ran from 30 cents to f 187.50. Every complaint filed has been 
carefully investigated, many letters written and numerous 
personal calls made in the effort to secure an equitable and 
fair settlement of these claims. These efforts have been at 
least moderately successful. While the amounts have usu- 
ally been small, they have meant much to the men and women 
receiving them. 

In 1891 the Rev. Myron W. Reed, John Hipp, Rev. 
Thomas Uzzell, Hon. Henry R. Wolcott and others, through 
popular subscription, established a Bureau of Justice in Den- 
ver. This bureau established a regular legal department 
with a paid attorney for the purpose of collecting wages due 
to wage workers who could not undertake the expense of 
litigation, but who could illy afford to lose the amounts due 
them for service. This movement was of great benefit to the 
working classes in Denver while it lasted. It was in exist- 
ence for a little more than two years, but became defunct 
during the panic of 1893. During the continuance of the 
Bureau of Justice Hon. Henry R. Wolcott contributed most 
of the money for its support. 

At present it is necessary for the claimant to employ an 
attorney at the customary fee, which they usually can not 
afford to do. The statute makes provision for suing as a 
poor i)erson, when judgment is obtained and the defendant 
appeals to the higher court. The case usually ends, as the 
claimant is unable to employ an attorney and advance the 
necessary court expenses. It is this class of cases that is 
frequently brought to the attention of the Bureau of Labor. 
The people who apply are usually poor, and, not being able 
to protect themselves, need the protection of the state to a 
greater extent than any other class of citizens. 

The Commissioner at present has no authority whatever 

in the matter of collecting wages due. I would recommend 

that the law governing this bureau be changed in a way to 

confer such authority upon the Commissioner and that a 

small appropriation be made for the purpose of defraying 

the expenses, attorney's fees, etc., incident to the collection 

of labor debts. This appropriation to be paid out upon 

vouchers, properly certified to, as is other state money. 



98 BIENNIAL REPORT 

Sections 1378 and 1379, Mills' Annotated Statutes, pro- 
vides that any person who shall obtain money, goods, chat- 
tels, credit, etc., through false representations or by false 
pretenses shall be deemed a common swindler and cheat and 
shall be fined and imprisoned as is set forth in the sections 
referred to. The labor of the workman upon which he and 
perhaps a family is dependent for a living is more important 
and means more to him than does the goods of the merchant 
to that individual or the claim of the hotel proprietor against 
a guest. 

From my experience while in this office with the class 
of cases that have been brought here, I am as well satisfied 
as I can be of any fact which I do not absolutely know, that 
there is a class of employers in the state who make a busi- 
ness of employing laborers for the purpose of cheating them 
out of their earnings. Saw mill men are frequently offend- 
ers of this kind, though they have by no means a monopoly 
of the practice. 

The Commissioner would recommend to the legislature 
the passage of a law providing that any employer of labor 
who engages help under false representations as to his abil- 
ity to make payment of wages earned, or who wilfully cheats 
workmen out of money due them for labor, shall upon con- 
viction be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and punished 
accordingly. 

As a rule the employers of labor in Colorado are fair- 
minded, honorable men, who pay their workmen cheerfully. 
This rule, like most others, has exceptions. Many of the 
differences which have come to the notice of the bureau have 
been caused by an honest difference of opinion as to the 
amount really due. 

The possession of authority to enforce the collection of 
labor debts, such power to be exercised only after moral sua- 
sion has failed and where an investigation has convinced the 
Commissioner that the claim is meritorious and just, would 
have a most excellent moral effect. The very existence of 
such authority vested in that official would cause unscrupu- 
lous employers to pause and hesitate before attempting an 
act of injustice upon the defenseless poor. 



BUBBAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 99 



REMARKS OF WORKING MEN AND WOMEN. 



In sending out the schedule to wage workers, under the 
head of "Remarks,'' we intentionally left considerable blank 
space to enable the person making reply to give his views 
upon any subject that in his opinion was germane to the pur- 
pose of the inquiry. We believe that in this way the writers 
have been enabled to give expression to many thoughts and 
convictions that will not only be of interest and advantage 
to the general reader, but that will afford legislators an op- 
portunity to leam how the wage earners of Colorado feel 
with reference to the evils with which our social system is 
affected, and the best method of bringing about desired re- 
forms. 

Many of the replies received are of a character that in 
point of excellence in literary composition would do credit 
to authors of national renown. They give ample evidence of 
the earnestness, the directness and the intelligence with 
which the hard-fisted toilers of (Colorado discuss sociological 
questions. 

Many useful and valuable suggestions may be found in 
these "Remarks.^' 

Almost every question now before the public comes in 
for consideration. 

Among the subjects discussed may be mentioned : Grant- 
ing pensions to aged persons, the single tax, state socialism, 
occupancy and use as constituting the sole title to the use 
of land, compulsory arbitration, free public employment of- 
fices, state and municipal ownership of public utilities, rail- 
roads, telegraphs, telephones, electric light, water and gas 
plants, etc. The eight-hour question, employer's liability 
laws, more rigid insi)ection of coal and metalliferous mines, 
convict labor in competition with free labor, restriction of 
immigration, the abolition of the wage system, necessity for 
the more perfect organization of labor, labor organizations 
and politics, opposition to Sunday labor, corporations black- 
listing nien upon account of membership in organized labor, 
denunciation of the Supreme Court for its decision in the 



/ 



100 BIENNIAL REPORT 

eight-hour case, the labor exchange and co-operative move- 
ments generally, weekly and bi-weekly pay days, opposition 
to contract labor upon public works, the good and bad effects 
of strikes^ the liquor question in its various phases, payment 
of wages in scrip, a constitutional convention. 

It will be noted that each of the subjects touched upon 
in the following letters forms an interesting topic for discus- 
sion wherever labor organizations are found, and are fairly 
indicative of the trend of thought along the lines suggested. 
Among the best letters received is one from a lady in Colo- 
rado Springs. 

"An eight-hour day is of great importance to miners and smelter 
employes. I favor an eight-hour day for all wage earners. Voluntary 
arbitration has been weighed in the scales and found wanting. We want 
a board of arbitration with power to do something. The arbitrators 
should be elected by the people. If the corporation would not respect 
the decision, the state should go forward and operate the industry it- 
self. Am opposed to the liquor traffic, and believe that prohibition would 
be a good thing for all classes. Trusts can't be stopped, but they should 
be turned over to the state for the benefit of all the people. Crime is 
produced by poverty, and poverty is produced by the scarcity of money, 
private ownership of land, and unjust laws. We need moral courage 
In this weak, sickly civilization of ours, where so many men have a purse 
string for a backbone and a stomach which they imagine is a conscience. 
Another John Brown must die to make the wage slave free. We need 
another Cromwell to teach the Supreme Court that they are the people's 
servants and not their masters. They should be taught obedience. What 
is the use of a legislature if the Supreme Court can nullify any laws 
that they enact?" — Miner, Lake City. 

"Every aged person without means is entitled to a pension, and I 
think the legislature should provide for it. But there should be no 
necessity for poor people at all. Every one has produced enough to main- 
tain him in comfort if he had not been robbed of it in one way or another. 
Saloons are an abomination, and it is the duty of the people to protect 
themselves from all forms of degradation. For the state to license 
saloons and then fine men for drinking, is adding insult to injury. Enact 
the single tax into law, have the state own all public utilities, abolish 
the damnable whisky traffic, aboUsh the Supreme Court and establish 
the initiative and referendum, and we will have moved a long way for- 
ward toward a better order of living. All interest is robbery. I am in 
favor, though, as the next best thing, of a law making the rate of in- 
terest as low as possible." — Miner, Eagle County. 

"One of the most important matters affecting the citizens and 
miners outside the cities of Denver and Pueblo, is the excessive freight 
and passenger railroad rates. The old method of freighting by wagons 
cost more in one sense, but left the money in the country. The railroads 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 101 

take theirs out of the state, and are almost prohibitive in their charges. 
We should get public ownership of railroads just as quick as possible. 
In the meantime, there should be a commission appointed by the state 
to regulate the charges of all railroads. All members of the legislature, 
state and county officials, should be prohibited by law from riding upon 
passes or receiving other favors from railroad companies. How laws 
can be enacted doing either or both of tnese things, by a legislature, 
every member of which has a pass in his pocket, is something I cannot 
explain. I presume, though, that the Supreme Court would say that 
such a law was unconstitutional or give some other fool excuse for set- 
ting it aside if it was enacted. I think we had better either abolish the 
Supreme Court or else abolish the legislature. I would prefer the for- 
mer. The state owes it to its poor people to establish free public em- 
ployment offices, in order that they may get work without taking the 
last cent" — ^Miner, Lake City. 

"Whether we acknowledge it or not, most, if not all, men are so 
selfish that ihey must be restrained by law which prohibits their sel- 
fishness. All business and commercial laws restrain the lawless, those 
whose sense of Justice, equity or morals is so low as to make them ob- 
livious of the natural rights of others. It would be a great advance if 
we could do exactly as we would be done by. Our sense of Justice to 
others needs enlightment, then enforcement. A good law well enforced is 
purifying to a community. Law should reflect enlightened sentiment. 
It is what the masses say they want, and will bring the unenlightened up, 
A trust is the condensed selfishness of its members, and is only or- 
ganized for the purpose of evading and destroying the rights of outside 
parties. Compulsory arbitration is desirable, but care should be taken 
that the arbitrators should be elected by the people and that they should 
be fair-minded and Just men. I have been a member of organized labor 
for many years and know that the unions have done a great deal of 
good in educating and enlightening the people, as well as to keep up the 
standard of wages. All public work should be by day's pay. No contract- 
ing should be allowed." — Carpenter, Denver. 

"Trusts are the natural and inevitable outcome of the competitive 
83rstem, and the idea of suppressing them by legislation is about as rea- 
sonable as a statute to annul the law of gravitation would be. Further- 
more, when we consider the fact that organized wealth controls the legis- 
lative, executive and Judicial departments of the government in almost 
every state, and makes political parties of the old line servile by threats 
of withholding the 'sinews of war,' the old party talk about suppress- 
ing the trusts becomes pitiable and contemptible, and would be ludicrous 
were It not so serious. Trusts are natural to the evolution of society. 
They are simplifying the organization of industry to such an extent 
that when the people get ready for collective ownership, the matter will 
be very easy to what it would have been in the past There is municipal 
ownership aJid municipal ownership. The distinction being made be- 
tween the municipality controlled by workmen imbued with the Socialist 
spirit and eager for the emancipation of the worker, and that controlled 



102 BIENNIAL REPORT 

by the dying middle class, who use its benefits for their own presenra- 
tion. Private ownership in the means of production and distribution, 
coupled with the lack of education in the masses, such a system of so- 
ciety necessarily implies, is the cause of poverty, idleness and crime. 
The collective ownership and management, with the elimination of the 
profit element, is the only solution of the liquor problem, as indeed it is 
of all others. As a Socialist I am opposed to anything that stops short 
of aiming at the abolition of the competitive system entirely." — Oil 
Pumper, Williamsburgh. 

"We ought to have a constitutional convention. The Constitution 
of this state needs revising very badly. I want a chance to vote for a 
constitutional convention, and hope that the next legislature will afford 
me an opportunity. The single tax would go farther than anything I 
know to benefit the condition of the working classes." — Miner, Aspen. 

"I regard the graduated income and inheritance tax as one of the 
most important measures ever proposed. Such a tax so graduated that 
the massing of a million would be impossible, would prevent the gigantic 
combinations of capital which must eventually crush the wage workers. 
It would also tend to governmental ownership of great enterprises by 
limiting the wealth of individuals. A very important matter is the un- 
limited issuing of stock by corporations. The efforts of corporations to 
pay interest on over-capitalization is one of the most prolific causes of 
strikes and low wages. Trusts cannot be forbidden by law. Voluntary 
arbitration is of no account because capital will not arbitrate. I am 
in favor of compulsory arbitration. I am a cigarmaker and belong to 
the union of my craft." — Trinidad. 

"It seems to me that the labor exchange is a step in the right di- 
rection, and ought to be encouraged. It enables the producer to exchange 
his products for the things he needs, and does away with the necessity 
for money. I would like to see prohibition established and enforced. 
Usury is a great evil. I would like to see the rate of interest limited 
to 6 per cent" — Laborer, Montrose. 

"I am not in favor of the state owning the coal mines while the 
present politicians remain In control, but under different conditions 
would like to see the coal mines so owned. The initiative and referen- 
dum is one of the most important things that could be brought about 
It makes all other reforms easier. I am very much opposed to Sunday 
labor and would like to see a law closing up everything in the shape of 
labor on Sunday." — Carpenter, Denver. 

"I am sure that the arbitration law of the state should be changed 
in order that the Board of Arbitration could do more than to simply 
decide how controversies should be settled between employer and em- 
ploye. Prohibition would not do any good, though I don't drink. I think 
labor should go Into politics and vote for what they want Would like 
to see convicts worked at something that would not compete with free 
labor." — Salida, Colo. 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 103 

*'I am a Socialist and at present am working in the Pinon co- 
operative colony, where the wages for all adult persons, male and fe- 
male, is twenty cents per hour, payable in credits only. I see no solu- 
tion short of nationalizing all industries upon a national coK>perative 
basis. Trusts cannot be abolished, but they should be owned by the 
whole people/' — Sawyer, Pinon, Colo. 

"I think compulsory arbitration would be all right. It comes pretty 
near being compulsory anyhow so far as the workmen are concerned. 
I worked at the Grant smelter for several years before the strike. Was 
leaded twice. Went back after the strike was over and am working there 
at present. If Governor Grant knew that I belonged to the union I would 
be discharged instantly. We were compelled to accept the terms given 
us by the bosses. The law didn't compel us to, but our necessities did. 
If arbitration had been compulsory and not voluntary we would have been 
all right. No man should work in a smelter more than eight hours. We 
are slowly giving up our lives to the greed of the smelter trust that divi- 
dends may be larger. If the judges of the Supreme Court would have 
spent one day around the furnaces and roasters, inhaling the poison and 
sulphur that almost knocks one down at times, they would have Under- 
stood that work in a smelter is very different from work upon a farm or in 
other places." — Smelterman, Elyria. 

'* About two years ago I was forced, through sickness in my family, 
to mortgage my household goods to secure a loan of $75, which I ob- 
tained from one of the loan companies in this city. They charged me 
$6 for making out the loan, and 8 per cent, per month, payable in advance. 
I received |64 in money and paid interest at the rate mentioned upon |75. 
It was more than a year before I got it paid off. The amount paid in 
interest was nearly equal to the principal. What do you think of that for 
daylight robbery?" — Painter, Denver. 

"I am in favor of taxing land values and deriving sufficient revenue 
therefrom for ail purposes whatsoever. Land should never be made 
private property. Coal land should always be owned and worked by the 
state. Pensions ought to be granted to aged persons without means, 
though if the single tax were in operation they would not be needed. 
Neither will we need employment offices, either public or private, when 
that time comes." — Carpenter, Colorado Springs. 

"I am quite sure that a law strictly forbidding usury would be an 
excellent thing. Make 6 per cent, the legal rate, and forfeit the whole 
thing if more is taken. I am very much in favor of state * ownership of 
coal mines. The contract system upon public work is very hurtful to 
labor and should be abolished. I am in favor of the restriction of immi- 
gration until such time as we have a social system that will permit us to 
take care of our native bom citizens." — Buena Vista. 

"While labor-saving machinery is beneficial to me personally, I be- 
lieve it is hurtful to the average wage worker of Colorado. I would like 
to see the single tax established. Interest is robbery. I can not bring 



104 BIENNIAL EEPOET 

myself to favor any rate whatever. Six per cent, is less hurtful than 12 
per cent, but I don't like to temporize with wrongdoing at all. Every 
man should be amply provided for in his old age, not as a matter of 
charity, but justice." — Carpenter, Plnon. 

"Labor-saving machinery ought to be beneficial because it produces 
more wealth with the same amount of labor. The effect of it now is to 
throw some poor fellow out of a job. We must restrict immigration and 
devise some means so that the workman will get the benefit of labor-saving 
machines. There ought to be laws to compel arbitration between em- 
ployer and employe, and to prohibit convict labor in any way that would 
be to the injury of free labor. I would like to see a law prohibiting the 
sale of intoxicating liquors of all kinds. Also a law prohibiting mine 
owners or managers from requiring or having work performed in or around 
mines upon Sunday." — Durango. 

"We should legislate less and better, have just, equitable laws, and 
enforce them. We already have laws to prevent the poor from robbing 
the rich; we should have laws to prevent the rich from robbing the poor. 
We should educate more and better, a practical education, teaching how 
to apply what we know. No religious teaching in the narrow sense, but 
the ethics of life should be taught in school. Most children get little or 
none of that at home, and the little is so mixed with superstition, which 
is not religion, that it is of no practical value in forming character. 
What we need is the ethics of now, not hereafter. Public money should 
be spent to properly train and educate the young into good, capable, self- 
respecting citizens, instead of allowing them to become paupers, tramps 
and criminals, and then using public money to punish them for having 
fallen into the pit dug by the so-called better class, which their ignorance 
of themselves and the conditions by which they are surrounded prevented 
them from seeing. The rich are not all good or refined, the poor are not 
all bad or gross, hence the state should have the power and the capacity, 
with officers and teachers properly trained and empowered to take 
the viciously inclined, whether they be rich or poor, put them under 
proper restraint, and this restraint should continue until they give proof 
that they have learned the lesson that good is the only foundation upon 
which to build a life. Parties applying for marriage license should be 
required to answer questions in addition to those already propounded. 
They should undergo an examination. Such questions and examination 
should touch such subjects as the presence of insanity, immorality or crime 
in the family; also as to the understanding of the parties respectively 
concerning the duties of the man as a husband and father, of the woman 
as a wife and mother. It would at least arouse them to think upon these 
points and so help to educate. 

"I would favor a law governing cases where the husband spends his 
wages for drink, allowing the wife to collect one-half of wages, and if 
there are children two-thirds. As trusts are being operated now they are 
a menace to American institutions. If they were operated, as they will be 
in the near future, for and by all the people, they will be a great blessing. 



BUEEAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 105 

Old ase pensions should be granted without the odium usually attached to 
charity. He or she who has faithfully done their part during life should 
be well cared for whether they have laid by in store for the 'rainy day' or 
not. For the good of the state we should exclude all criminal, diseased, 
deformed or weak-minded persons. I am a member of a labor organiza- 
tion, and believe that every workingman and woman should." — House- 
wife, Colorado Springs. 

"An income tax is a very great improvement over a tarifP tax. I 
have long considered the tariff taxes as among the most unjust used by 
capital to oppress labor. I would favor an income tax until such time as 
we can get the single tax established. After that time I think all such 
taxes will be unnecessary. Private ownership of land, keeping men from 
using and occupying the soil, is the most prolific cause of poverty and hard 
times." — Blacksmith, Colorado Springs. 

'*I am utterly at a loss to understand how any one can claim to see 
any marked prosperity in this state. I fail to see how we have improved 
any. Wages are the same here as they have been, and goods of every kind 
are from 10 to 50 per cent, higher than they were a year or so ago. Eight 
hours is enough for any man to work underground amid foul air and 
powder smoke. I think that the smeltermen need the eight-hour law 
more than we do. Sunday work should be stopped. Six days in a week 
is plenty for any one to work. A law with a heavy fine ought to be im- 
posed upon Sunday work except in emergencies. Companies want the 
miners to give them notice if you wish to quit, but if they wish to dis- 
charge you they won't give you a minute's notice. The miners of this 
camp are most of them in favor of the single tax and believe it would be 
a great advantage to labor. We want a constitutional convention, too. 
If God will forgive me for voting for two of the members of the Supreme 
Court, I will promise Him on my bended knees that I will never repeat 
the offense." — Miner, Silverton. 

"I am in favor of the absorption by the government of all franchises 
national in their character. By the state and municipalities of all fran- 
chises local in their character. I think we ought to have an educational 
qualification for voters. A law to punish all officials who become intox- 
icated while in the employ of the people. The labor organizations have 
been the saviors of American liberty. Had it not been for them the few 
rights that we still have left would be gone. I am in favor of the single 
tax as an experiment, and have no doubt but what it will help some, but 
the death of the competitive system and nationalism along the lines laid 
down in 'Looking Backward' is the real thing to bring relief." — Ranchman, 
Buena Vista. 

"The state has no right to turn a convict out at the end of his term 
without a dollar to start life with. If the convict has' no money and work 
can not be obtained, he may drift back into crime, no matter how honest 
his intention might be to reform. Without money, without work, there is 
nothing left to do but steal. Convicts are not half so much to blame for 



106 BIENNIAL REPORT 

being such as is the social system which forces them to lives of crime. A 
law establishing compulsory arbitration is nonsensical. There is no board 
can compel me to work for $2 if I want |3. Also, there is no board can 
compel me to pay $3 if I can afford to pay but |2 and can hire men at 
that price. Here is a question you forgot to insert: What plan would you 
advise to abolish the Supreme Court of the state?" — P. F. M., Oilman. 

"The social space between the classes is unnaturally and unrea- 
sonably wide. The differences between the capabilities of people does 
not warrant it The application of the single tax would compel a great 
many lawyers and other non-producers to get to work and produce some- 
thing useful. The largest part of litigation springs from private land 
ownership. The application of the single tax would make land free/and 
reason tells me that people in large numbers would improve it I am 
personally acquainted with many people who would build houses right 
away if they could get the land free. With the single tax in operation, 
poverty, idleness and crime would disappear." — Carpenter, Denver. 

"A tax upon incomes and inheritances is better than most taxes 
we have. But a tax upon land values is the only Just and natural tax. 
Then, and not until then, will each person receive all that he produces. 
Trusts will disappear, for the single tax will make them impossible." — 
Carpenter, Denver. 

"If workingmen would invest their spare time and a little money 
in building up their labor organizations, it would profit them much. 
If they would do their own thinking it would profit them more, and if 
they would vote as they think it would be about all profit." — Hod Car- 
rier, Victor. 

"I certainly hope to live to see the day when this country will be 
governed by the will of the majority, intelligently expressed at primary 
and ballot box. I believe that this would greatly improve the condition 
of wage workers. 

"I believe that drink causes more misery than any other one thing; 
with that and the avarice of capital, labor cannot keep up with the 
progress of our time. Shut up the saloons and gambling houses, give 
the working people more time to rest and think, and the future will be 
brighter. Eight- hours per day, less whisky, and more organization among 
wage workers, is what we want." — Blacksmith, Leadville. 

"The so-called free labor is little better than convict labor. It 
only imagines itself free. No man is free who is compelled to beg of 
another the privilege of working to live. Give us free trade, single tax, 
national ownership of public utilities, said there will be no convicts, 
nor will there be trusts of any kind." — Stationary Engineer, Victor. 

"The unequal distribution of wealth, produced by labor, is one of 
the causes of such intense poverty as may be seen. If workingmen would 
avoid saloons and take a more active interest in their unions, they would 
learn how to secure redress of wrongs through the ballot box. Nothing 



BUUEAU OF LABOtt STATISTICS. 107 

is better calculated to raise the standard of life among wage workers 
than constant attendance at the meetings of your union. The wage 
question is not of paramount importance. The real thing is how to get 
rid of the wage system entirely. I am not prejudiced in favor of one 
organization or against another. They are all good. I was for fifteen 
years a member of the Knights of Labor, and a better organization never 
existed. The great majority of the union men in Colorado received their 
first lessons in the assemblies of the grand old Knights of Labor.** — 
Miner, TeUuride. 

''I do not believe that the ownership of public utilities is in har< 
mony with the spirit of free institutions, as it restricts individual en- 
terprise and tends toward a paternal form of government I don't be- 
lieve in the single tax theory. The most equitable form of taxation is 
the income tax. Not only because it is in line with the just distribution 
of wealth, but equally because it will have some restraint upon monopo- 
lies and force the millionaire bondholder to pay his pro rata with oth- 
ers. The Initiative and referendum are the fundamental principles of a 
free government, and the surest and safest way to preserve the rights 
and liberties of the people. Prohibition would suppress the spirit of 
self-reliance among the masses. Trusts are a menace to the spirit and 
existence of our institutions, and one or the other must go down." — Car- 
penter, Leadville. 

"I am in favor of compulsory arbitration for the reason that owners, 
once they make up their mind to not treat with their present workmen, 
will not abide by the decision of a voluntary board. They will shut 
down first. I believe that the state should have the power to not only 
enforce its laws, but force commercial institutions to either leave the 
state or comply with them. Compulsory arbitration would have pre- 
vented the smelters from locking out their men in the present unpleas- 
antness. I would favor a plan whereby cessation from operation for a 
period of ninety days by a smelter, mine, or other like institution, would 
forfeit charter, when appraisers should sell the property to the best 
bidder, so that if the Grant Smelter should shut down you or I could buy 
it and run it He ought not to be allowed to hold it in idleness to the 
detriment of others who would have the labor power to run it I am 
in favor of abolishing the saloon, and am opposed to all licenses. I think 
prohibition would be a good thing for the wage worker. At any rate, 
it would be a great benefit to his children. I am in favor of old age 
pensions; it would leave more places open to those who are physically 
able to perform better work. Am opposed to usury in every form. I 
am opposed to putting the convict at work at anything whereby the state 
may get a profit from his labor. I am opposed to the state realizing a 
profit from the labor of any one." — Printer, Pueblo. 

"Trusts are wrong and damaging as now organized. But we want 
one great trust — the government itself. I would abolish trusts by for- 
bidding the units composing them, the corporation. Abolish interest, 
rent, and the present system of taxation. Give us the single tax and 



108 BIENNIAL REPORT 

an abundant medium of exchange, and well prosper/' — ^Ranchman, As- 
pen. 

"I have belonged to the Miners' Union for several years, and have 
known miners to be refused work in the mines because they were mem- 
bers, but would be given employment if they would withdraw from the 
union. It is evident that the employer had nothing against the men in- 
dividually, but was after the Western Federation of Miners. Labor has 
the same right to organize that capital has. One great detriment Is 
the large class of ignorant foreigners that is constantly streaming }nto 
our state. If you cannot speak the English language your chance of 
getting a Job in the mines here is better than if you are American bom. 
Pay days every two weeks would enable the worker to buy for cash, and 
would benefit him very much." — Miner, Telluride. 

"The fault is with the laboring classes themselves; they should 
organize and stand together. All officials should be elected by direci 
vote of the people. An injury to one is the concern of ail, •but in the 
attempt to benefit one we should be careful not to injure all." — ^Brick- 
layer, Canon City. 

"Private land ownership is unjust. I am in favor of the single 
tax. Laws should be enacted to provide better for those engaged in 
mining and all industries. Indemnities to working people through lack 
of necessary safeguards. Laws should be passed compelling employers 
and employes to arbitrate all differences and enforce the decision of the 
arbitrators. The state should take possession of all railroads, telegraphs, 
telephones, water plants, electric lights and everything of that kind. 
They should be run on a paying basis, but not for profit It should be 
made a criminal offense to either give or receive a pass. I believe in 
co-operation and in the abolition of competition and wage slavery. Equal 
pay for equal work, without reference to sex." — Printer, Leadville. 

"With the single tax in operation the teeth of the trust will be 
pulled. Trusts are teaching us a valuable lesson. A large concern can 
do business cfieaper than several small ones. When we get the single 
tax, old age pensions will be unnecessary. The intentions of those who 
favor the income tax is good, but it can be shifted and will not attain 
the desired result. The burden would ultimately fall upon labor. Tax 
dodging would be encouraged by the income tax. The best that can be 
said for It is that it would be better than the present system." — Dairy- 
man, Colorado Springs. 

"I hope that the next legislature will submit to the people an 
amendment to the Constitution, making eight hours a day's labor. Also 
one establishing the single tax. Land monopoly and long hours are 
crushing the workingmen to dust." — Barber, Pueblo. 

"Every city ought to have free bath houses, free public libraries, 
and free gymnasiums. Restriction of immigration, I think, would be 
very helpful. Most of the reforms, like the income tax and the eight- 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 109 

hour law, are mere palliatives. The single tax goes to the very root of 
the disease, and in its application is to be found the cure of disease." — 
Baker, Georgetown. 

**There is no doubt in my mind but what labor saving machinery 
has been and now is by all odds the greatest cause of the enforced idle- 
ness which is so prevalent. The machine is usurping the place of the 
man. There are two ways, and only two, by which the evil effects of 
machinery can be remedied: To decrease the hours of labor by law, or 
to have the state own and operate the means of production and exchange. 
I can't say that trusts are contrary to the spirit of American institu- 
ions, but I do say that they are woefully detrimental to the American 
people, and should be forbidden by law." — School Teacher, Colorado 
Springs. 

"I am a single taxer upon principle, and therefore cannot favor the 
income tax proposition. The income tax is better than the tariff tax, 
but what is the use of accepting a poultice when we have a remedy 
guaranteed to cure? Under an improved social system I believe that 
the product of eight hours' labor, or even less (Sunday excepted), will 
keep the race in much better condition in every respect than we are now. 
There were about forty men employed in the quartz mill where I worked 
last summer, and three-fourths of them were rendered unable to work 
for a period of from one to four months on account of sickness caused 
by using impure water and unhealthful surroundings." — Smelter Hand, 
lioadville. 

"The curse of our times is the concentration of wealth in the hands 
of the few, through whose manipulations absolute necessities are made to 
become almost luxuries. Another great evil is the demonetization of 
silver, which action has reduced the price of all labor and commodities, 
enhanced the price of gold, thus doubling the purchasing power, while it 
reduced the earning capacity one-half. In other words, if the dollar buys 
twice as much labor and product of labor, real earnings is one-half what 
it formerly was. The Introduction of labor-saving machinery has over- 
crowded other occupations, thus bringing down the price of labor, because 
the supply is greater than the demand, making it impossible for labor to 
purchase, causing under consumption, which in itself causes stagnation in 
business, causing workmen to be dispensed with, and adding to the ever- 
increasing army of idlers, paupers, tramps and criminals. People in one 
state bum com and wheat because they are too poor to buy coal. Miners 
die of starvation because they can not buy bread." — ^Window Trimmer, 
Pueblo. 

"In regard to labor-saving machinery, I am a mechanic and believe 
that the prosperity of our country depends in large measure on its manu- 
factures and commerce. Every labor-saving machine should be a benefit. 
It often proves injurious in a limited field, but will prove an advantage 
in the end. Its effect must be to decrease the hours of labor. Our great 
superiority over other nations lies in our superior mechanism and hand!- 



110 BIENNIAL EEPOBT 

craft The income tax is one of the most important measures of them 
all. This great accumulation of wealth In the hands of a tew Is becoming 
very dangerous. A graduated income tax would come nearer remedying 
the evil than anything yet proposed. In regard to the trusts, it is kill or 
be killed. Consider the industry of a state crippled and paralyzed by the 
action or inaction of a combination. Then the corrupting of our judiciary, 
from the Supreme Court down, is most deplorable. The system of black- 
listing by our railroad companies is another serious evil and should be 
remedied. Yes, I know there is a law against it, but it might as well not 
be on the statute books at all. It exists from one end of the country to the 
other and causes great hardship. Perhaps, on the whole, 'Man's inhuman- 
ity to msm' is the greatest evil we have to fight. Higher ideals and a more 
unselfish devotion to the labor brotherhood would bear good fruit." — 
Machinist, Idaho Springs. 

*'While the wages paid in this camp are |3 per day, nearly 90 per 
cent, of the miners have to board in company boarding houses, away from 
town, and furnish their own beds. We sleep in badly ventilated bunk 
houses and pay $1 per day for board. Hence it can be seen that the 
actual wages paid by mine owners does not exceed $2.50 per day. A man 
with a family is placed at a great disadvantage by this arrangement It 
will be seen in my case while I pay $30 per month for board while I am 
away from home, I, with my wife, mother and four children, can live 
fairly well for $60 per month. I have no hesitancy in saying a man can't 
make a respectable living for a family the size of mine at $3 per day and 
pay $1 for board. If you don't work all the time you must live Just the 
same. Out of my own wages I can save nothing. Our home, which cost 
us $600, was paid for by my wife's earnings." — Miner, Silverton. 

"I do not think that trusts should be forbidden by law, but put into 
the hands of the people for the general public good. Laws to regulate 
trusts will be an utter failure. Trusts are natural from the intelligent 
business experience, economy, and lessens labor to be performed. The 
competitive syBtem and private ownership of the means of production and 
distribution are potent promoters of poverty and crime. I am in favor 
of national ownership of railroads, telegraphs, etc.; also all other means 
of production and distribution. The state should look to the welfare of 
all its citizens under all circumstances. There are too many men in county 
Jails and penitentiaries for no other reason than lack of employment when 
in freedom, and convict competition would send more to the penitentiary 
to get a job and to sustain life. Labor-saving machinery is hurtful, but 
only because of private ownership. Arbitration, compulsory or otherwise, 
will aid but little under the present war of the employer for greater profit 
and the employe for higher wages. I don't think prohibition will do any 
good, though my experience in drinking is limited. Improve industrial 
conditions and drunkenness will disappear. I wojiild favor a strong recom- 
mendation in your report for the holding of a constitutional convention, 
for the reason that the bettering of industrial conditions is impossible 
without change in the state Constitution, and the means for amendment 
of that document are not ample for immediate benefit" — Printer, Pueblo. 



BUEEAU OP LABOE STATISTICS. Ill 

"Under the present social system I favor an eight-hour law, com- 
pulsory arbitration and many other sumptuary measures, while in the ab- 
stract all such legislation is wrong. I think under the present system 
such laws are necessary for the protection of labor. But when labor needs 
protection there is something radically wrong. The more freedom labor 
has under a proper social condition the more it will prosper and thrive. 
The remedy is the abolition of landlordism, the single tax, and freedom 
of trade." — Single Taxer, Denver. 

"The trusts I think are perfectly legitimate institutions, are perfectly 
legal, and, instead of being contrary, are in full accord, and, in fact, are 
the outgrowth of our present system. All they require is to be diverted 
from private to national ownership. I am in favor of the abolition of all 
taxes upon either the production or sale of liquors. Place no more re- 
striction upon the sale of liquors than upon the sale of groceries. The 
graduated income tax would be an improvement over our present plan 
of raising revenue, but the single tax plan would make it unnecessary, 
would be far more remunerative, cause less friction, and in itself would 
almost settle our difficulties." — School Teacher, Canon City. 

"As a member of organized labor and a student of social 
economy, in my opinion the impoverished condition of the working 
masses is the result of their inability to retain the full product of their 
toil. Any measure, law or movement that tends to bring to him this full 
return is beneficial to the extent that it accomplishes this result. The 
progress of civilization has brought into existence a vast variety of labor- 
saving machines. In order to overcome the displacement of labor occa- 
sioned by these machines, the laborer must work shorter hours. This is 
one of the most practicable and peaceful ways for labor to be benefited by 
improved methods of production. I believe that the people should have 
the direct power to make their own laws, in order that they may thereby 
become interested In their own government. It was never contemplated 
by the founders of the republic that the Supreme Court should arbitrarily 
set aside the expressed wish and desire of 75 per cent, of the people, as 
they did in the eight-hour case." — Plumber, Pueblo. 

"I would favor, and I think most workingmen would, the abolition 
and disbandment of the state militia, also the national militia, as being 
a useless expense and a disgrace to any state, and to our country at 
large." — Carpenter, Denver. 

"The single tax is the only honest way to get at the root of our 
troubles. I am in favor of compulsory arbitration. The initiative and 
referendum must come." — Miner, Altman. 

"I would abolish land monopoly by the single tax, which I believe 
would abolish poverty. We should then repeal all laws which restrict 
trade, and allow the right of contract between men without state inter- 
ference. I believe that labor could fully protect itself against capital if 
land monopoly was abolished. I favor the eight-hour law and the various 
measures proposed for the relief of labor. If we could get the single 
tax they would not be necessary." — Smelterman, Durango. 



112 BIENNIAL EEPOKT 

"I have personal knowledge of one instance wherein the owner of 
the richest mine in the state ordered the manager to comply with the 
eight-hour rule, but such is the pressure brought to bear upon this par- 
ticular manager that he is afraid to do so lest he might incur the dis- 
pleasure of the Mine Managers' Association. I am in position to go upon 
til? stand and swear that this manager says he has reason to believe 
that the Mine Managers' Association would hire a man to murder him 
if he takes any stand that conflicts with the interest of the smelter trust 
of Colorado. I asked him if he feared the displeasure of the miners; he 
answered, no, that they would never do him any injury. Well might I 
ask which is the greater menace to the welfare of Colorado, the Miners* 
Union or the Managers' Association? The union exacts no obligation 
from the member which in any way conflicts with his duty as a citi- 
zen. The other, ready to resort to any extreme in its wrath. Why- 
should not the owner of this property be left free to deal with this prop 
erty as he sees flt? They are coerced by the Managers' Association, 
which practically says to them, You must deal with your employes 
thrbugh us, if not, mark the consequences." — Miner, Ouray. 

"I am doubtful as to the beneflts of enforced arbitration. It might 
be a boomerang. If the board could be composed of honest, fair-minded 
men, I would say yes, but money is a mighty power. I am not decided 
as to whether the single tax would be a 'cure all' or not. I am a state 
Socialist of the Bellamy school, and am positive that this is the way 
but." — ^Engineer, Pueblo. 

"I am strongly in favor of the income tax, as I think it fair and 
just. I am also in favor of the single tax. This may appear contra- 
dictory but I am sure it is not, and that both systems of revenue are 
correct in principle." — Miner, Ouray. 

"There will never be material improvement in the condition of the 
masses until they take possession of what rightfully belongs to them; 
until they recognize their class interests. They must use wealth co- 
operatively for the beneflt of all." — ^Barber, Denver. 

"The regular wages of tinners in this town is $2.50 for day of eight 
hours. During a period of flve or six years, from 1888 to 1894, wages were 
$S.OO per day. Previous to that, wages were $2.75 for ten hours. Then 
the boys organized and demanded nine hours and same wages, which 
they got After a c6uple of years they struck for $3.00 and eight hours. 
They got the raise. When the panic struck the country I had my wages 
reduced 25 per cent, for a period. Then I received an advance of $3.00 
per week. Just got back to my original salary about eighteen months 
ago." — ^Tinner, Pueblo. 

"I wish to emphasize my belief that trusts are the greatest evils 
this country has ever had, and even at the present time they are cor- 
rupting public officials from the highest to the lowest. If the people do 
not come up to the polls as one man and set their seal of condemna- 
tion upon the party that supports trusts^ this country will not long be a 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 113 

free republic. I worked for four years before the strike at the Grant 
smelter. The attorney for the trust told my present employers that the 
trust would consider it a great favor if they would discharge me. This 
^ can easily prove." — Smelterman, Denver. 

"I believe that this state should operate state employment offices, 
as Illinois, New York, and several other states do." — ^Waiter Girl. 

"I believe we ought to have laws, and some one to enforce them, 
to compel people to send their children to school and make them be- 
have properly while there. In Victor we have quite a number of boys 
tetween the age of 9 and 16, who, when they attend school, are so vicious 
that when they do attend school the school directors have to expel them. 
Such children are not apt to make good men." — ^Waiter Girl, Victor. 

"If the state gave better protection to its citizens it would not be 
confronted with the problem how to take care of its convicts. Each In- 
dividual citizen will be a saint or a sinner, as conditions are good or 
bad. If the state makes bad conditions it must take its medicine. To 
continue improving machinery without reducing the hours of labor will 
surely increase the number of criminals. Trusts and American institu- 
tions cannot live together twenty-five years." — Coal Miner, Rockvale. 

"The Social Labor party is preparing the way for the pecu^ful and 
orderly reception of the socialist commonwealth. If the change from 
capitalism to socialism is any sense violent or sanguinary, it will be in 
spite of the efforts of Socialists, and because, unlike them, others were 
blind to the trend of economic evolution." — Smelter Employe, Leadville. 

"The laboring classes have in their own hands the cure for all their 
ills, namely, through organization of all trades, skilled and unskilled. 
Then they could demand anything reasonable and just, and get it." — Cook, 
Denver. 

"A more thorough organization among the workers, and a better 
knowledge of the condition of both wage workers and those following 
agriculture, would tend in a great measure to better the condition of all 
producers. The initiative and referendum will help to bring these re- 
sults." — Plasterer, Boulder. 

"The state and nation should put every idle man to work upon 
public improvements, roads, railroads, coast defenses, etc. The price 
per day should be determined by a competent board and based upon the 
cost of stable necessities of life. Thus the price of all labor will come 
up to and be gauged by the standard fixed by government." — ^Laborer, 
Silverton. 

"E^ver7 day the thumb screws are tightening upon the laborers. 
Things will get worse, not better, until we get the initiative and refer- 
endum and vote direct upon all proposed legislation. Give us a govern- 
ment of, by, and for the people.'^ — Millwright, Florence. 



114 BIENNIAL REPORT 

"With direct legislation numberless evils resulting from our im- 
perfect political system could and would be remedied. I tbink tbe people 
could be trusted to guard their own interests, if each proposed law was 
submitted upon its merits outside of party politics. If we had an un- 
written constitution Instead of a written one, the legislature would then 
execute its proper functions, Instead of the Supreme Court, as at pres- 
ent. There is very little need of a legislative body so long as the super- 
vision of its acts is in the hands of the judicial branch of the govern- 
ment The single tax is the ideal method of taxation." — Pumpman in 
Mine, Leadville. 

"Money is too valuable. I want to see it less so; then people will 
not sell honor, virtue, their lives, souls and everything, for it" — Farmer, 
Del Norte. 

"It is unfortunate that the thought of the average person is di- 
rected to the abolition of the effects of a bad social system, instead of 
to the abolition of the system itself. Drunkenness, crime, degeneracy, 
vice, are caused by poverty. The masses in every country are poor be- 
cause they are fenced away from mother earth. Abolish poverty by de- 
stroying private ownership in land, through the single tax, and all evils 
Complained of will quickly disappear." — Cigarmaker, Denver. 

"I have been a member of organized labor, different associations, 
for many years, and think, in fact know, that they are beneficial. I 
have been blacklisted and injured upon account of my unionism. 

"If saloons and gambling houses could be wiped out of existence 
it would be a godsend to the working classes. My opinion is based upon 
observation, not experience. The use of liquor is a dreadful curse. The 
use of drink causes poverty, and poverty makes men arink to forget 
their sorrows. The accursed competitive system is largely to blame for 
it all."— Machinist Denver. 

"Prohibition is worthless, because its tendencies create artificial 
antagonisms that intensify the evils of drinking. The abolition of all 
licenses and taxes upon the liquor traffic would mean its certain death 
and the train of evils that go with it. The idea behind an income tax 
expedient originates in the belief that all large incomes result from 
some special privilege or privileges enjoyed by their recipients, hence 
are abnormal. That is, are not founded in justice, but are a species of 
robbery resulting from the operation of special privileges granted by 
law. The taking of graduated portions of such incomes by the public 
in the form of taxes» therefore, is being considered a fair thing. Taxing 
robbers for the privileges they enjoy for robbing is exactly what it 
means. A superior plan would be to abolish all forms of legal robbery, 
and raise all public revenues by taxing land values, which are the crea- 
tion of the public, and therefore legitimately and honestly belong to the 
public." — Coal Miner, Rockvale. 

"Under the wage system the question of taxation is immaterial to 
the wage earner, as he only receives enough of his product to enable him 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 116 

to live and reproduce another wage slave to take his place when he is 
gone." — ^Woodworker, Denver. 

"One sx*eat law governing the life of man is, that by the sweat of his 
brow shall he live. This implies that he shall live by his own labor and 
not by that of another. Any form of slavery, direct or indirect, is not in 
accordance with the laws of God. No thinker of to-day can rightly say 
that the producers have not been robbed. When a sufficient number of 
the masses realize what wage slavery really is it will end. If it was 
given me to write how, through what means, this will come I would say: 
Through public ownership of public utilities, including our medium of 
exchange, and through a tax, not upon what man creates, but upon what 
he appropriates to himself of those gifts of God which belong to all men 
alike, chief among which is land, a system commonly called 'the single 
tax.' " — Civil Engineer, Durango. 

"The Cooks' Union, of which I am a member, secured for its mem- 
bers about one year ago a six-day week. Before that we were compelled 
to work 365 days in the year, with no holidays except at our own expense. 
Since this system has been in force our employers admit that it is of 
benefit to them, as they get better work from their cooks, make fewer 
changes, and notice an improvement in every respect. Several have told 
me that they would not again allow their cooks to work seven days each 
week. There are a large number of employes around restaurants who work 
seven days In the week, twelve to fourteen hours per day. The condition 
in some restaurants is frightful. There should be a legal six-day week. 
This law, if enacted and enforced, would be a blessing to hundreds of men 
and women who now are compelled to work all the time for a mere living. 
The Waiters' Union has recently started the six-day week, but like our- 
selves can only control the union establishments. We are about to in- 
augurate a vigorous campaign against non-union houses to induce them to 
give their employes a six-day week. To make this movement a success 
we depend upon the support of the public and feel that we deserve it. 
We would like to have you help us wherever you can, and know that you 
will." — Cook, Denver. 

"In this district a man can not work at most of the mines unless he 
boards at the company boarding house. It works a great hardship upon 
married men. The rights that we do have here in this part of the state 
are secured by the power of the Miners' Union." — Miner, Ouray. 

"The rich should pay the expenses of government, whereas now the 
poor pay them. The initiative and referendum will be a great blessing to 
the masses and will make all reforms easier. I think if the treating system 
was abolished it would be more effective than prohibition." — Butcher, 
Summit County. 

"The real remedy and the only one for all labor, business, govern- 
mental, social or other public evils, is not to pass a lot of complicated, 
Fegulatlve, prohibitive or class laws, but simply to establish the equal 
natural rights of man. Before such problems are solved those laws which 



116 BIENNIAL REPORT 

permit unequal rights in and to the earth, which farm out public utilities 
or other public functions, which tax, regulate or otherwise burden trade 
or any other industry, or the products thereof, or which are in any manner 
unjust or unwise, must all be repealed. If this were done natural and 
equitable laws would assert themselves, while all public evils would dis- 
appear. So long as the common people devote their public actions to their 
class interests, attempting to secure merely class advantages, instead of 
endeavoring to secure Justice and the common welfare, their efforts will 
be void of good results. The classes may appeal to class privilege, but the 
only hope of the toiling poor is in just and wise laws and the rights of all. 
Pensions should be granted all old, incapacitated and broken-down per- 
sons." — Locomotive Engineer. 

"I am first, last and all the time in favor of the single tax and an 
amendment to the Constitution that will make it operative. I think that 
organized labor should concentrate all its influence to bring about the suc- 
cess of the single tax movement." — Smelterhand, Denver. 

"As long as the present wage system remains there will be serious 
trouble, crime, poverty and idleness throughout the land." — Carpenter, 
Colorado Springs. 

"In an economic sense prohibition would be helpful, but it is an 
unnecessary invasion of personal freedom. If men were free they would 
not drink. The single tax and the Christian religion will free them. 
Trusts flourish under protective tariff and land monopoly. The only way 
to destroy them is to adopt the single tax, and consequently free trade." — 
Railway Conductor, Pueblo. 

"I am afraid that if the Board of Arbitration was vested with the 
power to enforce its decisions capital would control them. If the arbi- 
trators could be elected by vote of the people I would favor the idea." — 
Miner, Cripple Creek. 

"While trusts are detrimental to the people generally under the pres- 
ent system, still they are teaching the people a lesson in co-operation that 
will be of great benefit, and will be one of the chief factors in hastening 
the co-operative commonwealth." — letter Carrier, Pueblo. 

"Prohibitory laws, unless rigidly enforced, are detrimental, because 
they lead to secret drinking and a great deal of drunkenness. Trusts are 
steps in the evolution of the industrial system from competition to co- 
operation. Any law that may attempt to throttle them will prove abortive 
and can not accomplish the purpose aimed at." — Miner, Altman. 

"If incomes are justly obtained it is simply confiscation and robbery 
for government to demand partition of them. If wrongfully obtained let 
us abolish the laws permitting such unjust accumulation. I am not an 
advocate of the idea that 'it is not wrong to steal from a thier in the 
matter of taxation. This thought underlies the income tax idea. We say 
to the man with a large income unjustly obtained, you can retain your 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 117 

special privileges, which permit you to appropriate the earnings of others, 
if you will only 'whack up.' What is true of the income tax is equally 
true with reference to a tax upon inheritances. Through unjust tax laws 
we rob the man while he is living; let us not continue it after he is dead. 

''To my mind there can be no settlement of the labor question until 
the land question is settled. The only evils I can see in trusts lies in the 
natural opportunities which they control. Where we have abolished these 
special privileg:es we have only left voluntary co-operation, which will 
cheapen production and hurt no one. To produce wealth hurts no one, 
but to be permitted to absorb that wealth which others produce is where 
the evil lies." — Salesman, Denver. 

"While an income tax is greatly preferable to our present system of 
taxation, it is unscientific, exceedingly hard to collect and unjust. To im- 
pose a tax upon wages is manifestly unjust. To lay a tax upon capital is 
of no avail because it can be shifted to the user or borrower of capital. 
To impose a tax upon ground rents is correct, because it can not be 
shifted. It is also just because ground rents are created solely by the 
growth of the community and therefore belong to the public." — Paper Box- 
maker, Denver. 

"Prohibition by law is wrong in principle and hurtful in effect. The 
working classes make a great mistake in not attaching more importance 
to their unions and organizations. By all means the arbitration law ought 
to be compulsory."— Musician, Leadville. 

"I am fully convinced that government ownership is the solution of 
the labor question and other evils complained of. I do not think that 
crime will wholly cease, but it will very greatly decrease. If the people 
owned everything, machinery, etc., it would have the effect of shortening 
the hours of labor. We would need no usury law, for there would be no 
usury. We would need no trust laws, for the only trust would be owned 
by the whole people and by them controlled." — ^Hamessmaker, Monte 
Vista. 

"I used to be a Prohibitionist, and although an abstainer, have 
changed my views upon this subject When local, state and national , 
government derives revenue from alcoholic drinks, it fosters a monopoly, 
corrupts politics and protects an evil. High license is the stronghold 
of the saloon. A graduated income tax would furnish an enormous rev- 
enue and give the army of the unemployed steady employment" — Miner, 
Leadville. 

"Trusts are the logical outgrowth of the present ssrstem and ab- 
solutely necessary for the economic development of industry. The co- 
operative commonwealth is the only escape from all the evils by which 
we suffer. Legislation of any kind at present can do but little."-— Sales- 
man, Delta. 

"Private ownership in land is an infringement on the right of prop- 
erty, not only because it makes necessary the confiscation of private 



\ 



118 BIENNIAL EBPOET 

property by the government, but it also enables land owners to deprive 
land users of property which is rightfully theirs. It is undoubtedly as 
Henry George states, that "the maintenance of private property in land 
necessarily involves a denial of the right to all other property and the 
recognition of the claims of the landlords means a continuous robbery 
of capital as well as labor." — Painter, Denver. 

"The current rate of wages for miners in this camp is $2.50 per 
day. I have usually received $3.00. The union here is not so well sup- 
ported as it ought to be. I would favor a tax upon all unimproved land 
so heavy that It would be impossible to hold it simply for speculative 
purposes. Under the competitive system, the prosperity and stability of 
a people depends upon small landholdings." — Miner, Rico. 

"I believe that we should have laws prohibiting women and chil- 
dren over 14 years of age from working more than sixty hours per week. 
School books should be furnished by the state. All the state printing 
should be done by the state." — Waiter, Denver. 

"I would favor as few laws as possible and those such as would 
enforce themselves, and be carried out naturally. I favor the co-opera- 
tive system now carried out by the trusts, but think that the wage work- 
ers and all the people should be taken into the deal. I would favor hav- 
ing the people engage in the trust business by issuing its own currency 
and building or buying its own railroads." — ^Printer, Monte Vista. 

"It is painful to notice the extreme solicitude manifested on the 
stump for the poor laboring man. The Republican is anxious to protect 
him, and the Democrat is equally anxious to give his wages greater pur^ 
chasing power. I often think, when reading speeches made in congress 
and in other places on the subject, how much I would like to have them 
take a day's labor into the market to sell when that labor was to pay for 
the bread and butter their wife and children ate the day before, and 
then to find, after much search, a prospective customer, on condition of 
signing an application — ^think of it, signing an application — to sell your 
labor, and to find that one condition of that application meant the sur- 
render of certain rights given to man by his Creator. I think a lesson 
of this kind would learn them many things that they now seem 
in utter ignorance of. I believe in the right, in the Justice and in the 
necessity of labor organizations, but we almost lose sight of one impor- 
tant factor, I mean the almost wolfish competftion existing with millions 
of men in the desperate struggle for existence. Ought we not to give 
this phase of the subject more consideration? I have always held scabs 
in the utmost c<mtempt, but perhaps the poor cuss is not so much to 
blame after all. He, too, is a product of our system, and perhaps half 
starved, with a family depending upon him for suppport, feels it neces- 
sary to do as he does do. We go to the merchant or the grocer to buy. 
He names the price. We go to the employer to sell, and he again names 
the price if our organization is not compact and our necessities are 
great. If we, as wage workers, refuse to allow the price to be fixed by 



BUEEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 119 

the other fellow all tlie time, we are almost considered criminals. Cleve- 
land, in one of his messages, spoke wiser than he knew when he said, 
'the gulf between employer and employed is constantly widening.' There 
are great numbers of wage workers who believe this to be true, they 
feel it to be true, they know it to be true." — Miner, Cripple Creek. 

"Occupancy and use should furnish the sole title to the use of 
land. There is no way in equity through which any individual can be- 
come a sole owner of anything that was created by Gk)d and without the 
intervention of man. Land monopoly is the curse of the age. We' should 
destroy it by making occupancy the sole claim to the use of land and 
natural opportunities of every kind." — Mechanic, Leadville. 

"The little opportunity I have had to study the industrial question 
has convinced me that the grand remedy for a majority of our evils is 
the adoption of a law taxing land values, regardless of improvements, 
and the public ownership of public utilities." — ^Painter, Meeker.* 

"The writer has, up to the last few months, for many years been 
a devoted member of a labor organization for the last seventeen years 
and during that time has watched the progress of labor unions and re- 
form movements with keen interest He has frequently, with sorrow, 
saw their confiding members led to the capitalist shambles by the leaders 
upon more than one occasion. The working class must realize sooner or 
later that an irrepressible conflict is going on between them and the cap- 
italist class, and that no middle class nostrums like the single tax will 
bring the desired relief. They must organize into a class, conscious 
body by themselves for the flnal conflict and demand from the capitalist 
pirates a complete and unconditional surrender of the plunder and re- 
store it to society or be doomed to a condition of serfdom far more 
dreadful than ever recorded in history. The arrogant and deflant atti- 
tude of the smelter trust should be sufficient to convince working men 
that there is no escape from industrial bondage until they become con- 
scious of their class interests. A few more years of capitcJist domina- 
tion will demonstrate beyond doubt the truth of this. Trusts, in my judg- 
ment, are the natural outgrowth of the evolution of competition and it 
would be just as futile to attempt to legislate them out of existence as 
to prevent the law of gravity from operating. They will ccmtinue to 
grow in spite of all .legislative opposition until they have reached their 
fullest development I am opposed to all interest laws, no matter what 
the rate is. Aged persons without means should be pensioned. Poor 
souls, they have contributed more than their portion to the coffers of 
the drones, and it is asking very little in this down hill march to the 
grave." — Cool Miner, Rockvale. 

"I believe that the sending out of these lists of questions will be 
of great benefit, as the results published will furnish the laboring people 
with much food for thought If the people will only study these indus- 
trial questions and work for the betterment of conditions, aill will be well. 
The only hope for the future is in the organization and education of the 
tollers."— Miner, Altman. 



120 BIENNIAL BEPOET 

"Convict labor should be employed upon the same basis as free 
labor. Give a convict all his earnings. See that he is paid full wages 
and that his family are supplied by his toil. The state has no more right 
to steal from a convict or deprive him or his family of the result of his 
labor than we have to steal of a free man. Theft is theft as much in one 
case as in the other. We do not want restriction of immigration or 
sumptuary laws of any kind. Justice is all that is needed." — ^Beekeeper, 
Boulder. 

"i am a newcomer in Colorado, having spent most of my life in the 
shoemaklng industries of the New England states. In the manufacture 
of boots and shoes this country is so far ahead of all others in skill, in 
labor-saving machinery and in the amount of work performed by the 
operatives, that boots and shoes can be exported at a profit. Almost 
every month some new labor-saving machine is put into the factories 
and it prompts the question, 'Where will it all end?' I estimate that dur^ 
ing the year 1900, 100,000 persons, working seven months, will be able 
to make, with the use of machinery, 188,000,000 pairs of shoes. Not 
only is machinery driving thousands of people out of employment and 
competition is so fierce that more labor is imposed upon the workman. 
The shoe cutter who a few years ago cut from sixty to seventy-five pairs 
of shoes for a day's labor, now has to cut from 100 to 120 pairs on the 
very same grade of work. Employers like to have swift hands, as the 
example thus set will cause a higher average rate of speed among all 
the workers. 

"Petty bosses, whose jobs depend upon the amount of work that 
they can goad and drive the employes to do, are the curse of every form 
of industry. Slaves driving slaves. The workers in the factories are 
driven at a rate that can only tend in the course of a few years to make 
invalids and cripples. Mr. S. U. A. Hunter, president of the Goodyear 
Machine Company, visited England and investigated the shoe industry 
in that country. He says: 'An American workman does much more 
for his day's work than an English workman. A man with us will make 
300 pairs of shoes a day on one of our machines, yet in England I am told 
the average output of each machine is only 100 pairs each day.' From 
the same authority we learn that the price paid to the English shoe- 
maker for making a pair of fine grade shoes is sixty-nine cents, while in 
America the working shoemakers receive only thirty-nine cents per pair 
for making the very same grade shoe, or about one-half what his Eng- 
lish cousin gets. The average pay received by workmen in American 
shoe factories is less than eight dollars per week. 

"Fifty years ago the American shoemaker owned the whole of the 
machinery of production and usually the workshop. He was independent 
and respected. To-day he works when others say he may and is as much 
an industrial slave as the colored man before the war. Manufacturers 
of all kinds combine in gigantic unions (trusts) in order to get increased 
profits. But they are all opposed to the workingman's union. 
It is the duty of every workman to join the union of his craft 
If the workingmen of America desire the emancipation of labor, they 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 121 

must organize politically and build up the Socialist Labor party. Only 
by a clear recognition of the truths of socialism and that class conscious 
political action is the best way to bring it about will industrial freedom 
come." — Shoemaker, Leadville. 

"Establish the labor exchange and its system of checks, and we will 
witness no longer poverty in a world of plenty, nor idleness where there is 
so much to be done, nor crime. No lasting good can come from laws that 
strike at effects and ignore causes. A fruitful cause of social disease is 
the monopoly of land, private ownership of machinery, the tools of pro- 
duction, and private control of money, the blood of commerce." — ^Laborer, 
Denver. 

"That laborHsaving machinery under the present system degrades and 
impoverishes the man who has nothing but his labor to sell cannot be 
disputed. Remove the tax from the production of whisky and the license 
authorizing its sale, hence the profits, and the business will die. So long 
as society permits some men to own the earth and exact royalty or gate 
money from others for the privilege of getting their living from it there 
will always be injustice, inequality and crime on the earth. Private owner- 
ship of land is, in my opinion, the fundamental wrong. 'The lands of 
every country belong to the people of that country, not to landlords, not 
to tenants, but to all the people who at the time live upon them.' Bvery 
man, therefore, owes to the community in which he lives a ground rent 
equivalent to the value of the natural opportunity artificially enhanced 
by tbe growth of population which he enjoys. I therefore favor the single 
tax on land values as a method of equalizing men's rights to the earth. 
With natural opportunities thus free to labor, with capital and labor thus 
free from tax, and exchange released from restrictions, the spectacle of 
willing men unable to convert their labor into the things they need would 
be impossible. The constantly recurring paroxysms which paralyze in- 
dustry would cease, every wheel of production would be set in motion, 
demand would keep pace with supply and supply with demand, trade 
would increase in every direction and wealth augment on every hand." 
Miner. Joplin. 

"I think that the state dispensary system prevalent in South Carolina 
is the best disposition of the liquor problem yet devised. For the present 
the Income tax system would be preferable to the present system, but I 
favor the abolition of all taxes save a tax upon land values exclusive of 
improvements." — Barber, Pueblo. 

"I think there is something wrong with our social system, otherwise 
no one would patronize five-cent eating houses or favor the restriction of 
immigration. If Jobs were plentiful who would care to restrict immigrants 
from coming here? 

"It cannot be disputed that what men work for and get is the labor 
of other people and the product of their labor; then how is it that people 
should ever come to think there can be too many laborers? 

"The doing of one sort of labor makes it possible for another sort of 
labor to be profitably done. Idle men create no market. Labor alone 



122 BIENNIAL REPORT 

creates efPective demand for the produce of other labor. The more work 
that la done the greater will be the demand for workers, and It ought to 
follow that there could be no such thing as too great a supply of laborers 
as long as any want remains unsatisfied. What, then, becomes of the fear 
of excessive immigration and overpopulation? 

"After all, there are only two things that can limit employment. 
The only limits set by nature to the application of labor are human de- 
sires and land — ^the raw material out of which articles of wealth are made 
for the satisfaction of desire. 

"If all human desires were satisfied the laborer would be out of a 
Job. As everyone would have enough there would be no necessity for 
labor. But human desires will never be satisfied. Then how does it come 
that we find people constantly seeking employment? Why should they con- 
sider it a great favor to be allowed to work? Perhaps there is such a 
scarcity of the raw material that it is difficult for the workers to get 
enough of it to keep them going. 

"Unless all the coal land, oil land, city lots, timber land, iron ore 
land, business sites, mineral lands and available farming lands are all 
used up, there ought to be plenty of work to do, and if an artificial scarcity 
of the available raw material has been created by speculation in the nat- 
ural resources of the earth let us look for a remedy. I am in favor of the 
single tax." — Printer, Denver. 

"To the thoughtful mind the political outlook at the opening of the 
new century is profoundly interesting. History can find no parallel to it 
The problems which loom across the threshold of the new century surpass 
in magnitude any that civilization has hitherto to encounter. 

"We often hear the nineteenth century spoken of as the 'wonderful 
century.* It has, indeed, been a wonderful century, but in one sphere of 
human activity it has been a failure. We have annihilated distance; have 
made wondrous discoveries in nearly every science; machines have been 
invented which increase the production of wealth to such an extent that 
we are surrounded on all sides by an abundance of everything which 
tends to the well-being of mankind. Our century is certainly great in this 
respect; but are the people more contented or happy than they were a 
century ago? We are forced to answer no. We have produced in abund- 
ance the things which minister to happy human life, but we are not 
happy. 

"Our Declaration of Independence guarantees us equality of oppor- 
tunity in the pursuit of happiness. Bqual opportunities means that every 
man, woman and child in the country should have an equal chance to 
exert his or her faculties in the procurement of all the good things which 
our century has brought forth* With all our boasted progress and civiliza- 
tion we have failed to secure equality of opportunity, or, in other words, 
justice, and this is why we behold misery and destitution side by side 
with the most wanton luxuriousnees. The belief that the United States 
is a country where each and every citizen has an equal right to earn an 
honest living is gradually fading away. 

"The most fundamental denial of equal opportunity is contained in 
our system of land tenure. All the good things of which I have spoken 



BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 123 

come from the land, and if justice is to be done equal rights to use the 
earth must be granted. 

"I do not mean that the land should be divided by giving each family 
so many acres or so many city lots. If this were done it would be but a 
short time until all the land would again be in the hands of the few. 
Some acres of land are of infinitely greater value than other acres. An 
acre in the heart of New York or Chicago is worth millions, while an 
acre far out on the prairies is worth practically nothing. I believe justice 
can be done by permitting individuals to hold all the land they wish, and 
by compelling those who hold the valuable land to pay its equivalent to 
the community to be used for the benefit of all. By doing this we would 
destroy the cause which breeds poverty in the midst of abundance. The 
workingman would then enjoy the full product of his labor. 

"Three great results would be brought about by this change in our 
land laws. All taxes upon wealth in all its forms could be abolished. 
The laboring people pay all such taxes to-day, and in addition pay rent 
to the landlords. Under the new dispensation they will pay rent to the 
community only. 

'*By collecting the annual value of land for community purposes, 
speculative rent would be abolished. This would lower the workingman's 
rent and consequently increase his wages. 

"The third great change which this proposed system would bring 
about is the throwing open to the idle labor of the country the idle land 
of the country. This would furnish employment to every one willing to 
work, and would destroy the power of capital and of the money lender. 
The real employer of labor is human desire. Desire can never be destroyed 
until life itself is destroyed. Consequently so long as human beings live 
they will desire wealth, and so long as they can secure access to land they 
will produce wealth. By taxing land values equal access to land is secured, 
and by securing equal access to land involuntary poverty and idleness are 
forever abolished. 

"With want destroyed; with greed changed to noble passion; with 
the fraternity that is bom of equality taking the place of the jealousy and 
fear that now array men against each other; with mental power loosed 
by conditions that give to the humblest comfort and leisure; and who 
shall measure the heights to which our civilization may soar? Words 
fail the thought! U is the golden age of which poets have sung and high- 
raised seers have told in metaphor! It is the glorious vision which has 
always haunted man with gleams of fitful splendor. * * * It is the 
realization of heaven, with its walls of jasper and its gates of pearl. It ia 
the reign of the Prince of Peace." — Stationary Engineer, Cripple Creek. 

"I believe the monopolization by a few of the source of wealth and 
the natural opportunities for employment has brought about the present 
condition that has made non-producers inordinately rich, while millions 
of producers are poor. Some think labor-saving machinery, for one thing, 
has brought about the condition which we all deplore, but machinery 
makes it less difficult to produce good things, the lack of which is poverty. 
To say machines produce poverty would be like accusing God of starving 
the Israelites in the desert when He showered down food from the skies. 



124 BIENNIAL REPORT 

"There is no limit to tlie work men want done. No machinery can 
lessen it. The cheaper we get things the more* things we want and the 
more things we therefore require. Demand for work is always in excess 
of the supply. But the demand is not free to express itself. 

"If the demand were free to express itself, new machines would mean 
more work instead of less. But the demand for work is held in check by 
monopoly of opportunities for work — monopoly created and maintained by 
law. 

"While this exists every new labor-saving machine threatens the 
livelihood of great masses of workingmen. Some time ago a man invented 
a machine which makes those little wooden dishes for carrying butter and 
lard. By means of this machine scrub timber is utilized, the consequence 
being that timber formerly only good for cordwood now becomes valuable 
for this manufacture. This timber land will thus become more valuable 
because of this invention, and cordwood being dearer, coal will go up, too. 
Now here is the effect of machinery, it puts land further out of the reach 
of labor, and makes land a better Investment for capital than productive 
enterprise would be, hence making capital scarce. The thing to stop is not 
the manufacture of machinery, but the monopoly of land. I think the 
single tax would be a remedy. If it prevailed no matter how much the 
value of land was increased by machinery this value would be shared by 
all, not, as now, absorbed by a few." — Shoemaker, Denver. 

"I have tried to suppose that a vast new continent, fully three-fourths 
as large as the United States, fertile, rich, filled with natural resources of 
every kind, and abounding in opportunities for self-employment, were sud- 
denly to be let down among us, right in the midst of our home market, 
the land upon which anyone who so desired could employ himself and make 
his own living. How long would the army of our unemployed, and what 
is more, the still greater army of underpaid workmen, continue to exist? 
How long would men remain to compete against one another in the labor 
market for the chance to work at starvation wages, when the opportunity 
of self-employment, such as this new continent would present, and such 
as our forefathers enjoyed, stared them in the face? And yet to-day fully 
three-fourths of the land of the United States is lying vacant and unused. 

"In the idle business sites, vast forests, undeveloped mineral re- 
sources, millions of acres of arable land which await* but the application 
of labor and capital to yield forth wealth untold, lie opportunities for self- 
assistance sufficient to maintain fully twenty times our population with 
ease. It seems to me the question of the unemployed is a phase of the land 
question." — Farmer, Grand Junction. 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 125 



THE SHORTER WORKDAY* 



THE EIGHT-HOUB LAW IN COLORADO — ^ITS PASSAGE BY THE LBG- 
LATURE — ARGUMENT ON ITS CONSTITUTIONALITY BEFORE 
THE SUPREME COURT — DECLARED UNCONSTITUTIONAL IN 
THE UNANIMOUS OPINION OF THE COURT. 

The enormous advance of labor saving machinery with 
which the last quarter of a century has been so fruitful has 
80 strengthened the springs of production that a given ex- 
penditure of labor has infinitely greater eflSciency than in 
former times. Industrial conditions have been completely 
revolutionized within the last fifty years. Labor, recogniz- 
ing its importance in our social structure, believes itself en- 
titled to a part of the benefits of a progressive civilization. 
It feels that one way in which it may receive some of the 
benefits of improved facilities of production is through a 
gradual decrease in the hours of labor, and this decrease in 
the hours of labor should not be accompanied with a decrease 
in the daily wages of the worker, but rather an increase 
should follow. 

The statement frequently made by thoughtless persons, 
that a decrease in the hours of labor means a corresponding 
decrease in wages, is not only proven false by experience and 
will not stand examination in the light of impartial history, . 
but it is founded on an incorrect understanding of the fun- 
damental law of wages. In the trades, avocations and call- 
ings where hours are longest, wages are lowest. In the trades 
where hours are shortest, labor is the most highly paid. 
Skill, intelligence and compactness of organization being 
important influences in enabling the wage earner to procure 
more favorable conditions of employment and be better paid 
for his labor. Wages is not a fixed amount for a given num- 
ber of hours of labor, but is determined by the condition 
under which the workman is willing to live and reproduce, 
by his ability in conjunction with his fellows, to control, and 
not to overstock, the labor market, and by the social and eco* 
nomic conditions which obtained at the time, and from the 



126 BIENNIAL REPORT 

influence of which he can not entirely escape. The highest 
civilization of which we have any knowledge is the one which 
yields the largest amount of the necessaries and comforts of 
life for a day's labor. The highest civilization possible wiU 
be the one which affords to each person the entire product 
of his industry, thus eliminating the element of profit. When 
this point in the evolution of the race has been reached, the 
wage system as now understood will be a thing of the past 
and wage slavery will take its place with chattel slavery as 
a historical recollection of semi-barbarous times. 

Every reduction in the hours of labor, all along down 
the centuries, has been met by a corresponding increase in 
the purchasing power of a day's work. The claim that is 
made by the employing capitalist, that increased wages for 
decreased labor will diminish the profits of the money in- 
vested, is undoubtedly correct. But upon the recognition 
and acceptance of this very fact rests the hope of the advanc- 
ing civilization of the future. While the profits of capital 
are being diminished the legitimate earnings of labor will 
be increased. The assumption sometimes put forward, that 
workmen will perform more labor, is not in accordance with 
the spirit of the demand for a shorter work day. If it were 
true, how could it give labor to the unemployed and increase 
the wages of workmen, which it legitimately and properly 
aims to do? All wealth is a product of labor, applied to raw- 
material, which means land, directly or indirectly. When 
the producer gets his own he will be the only capitalist, and 
there will be nothing left for the idler or non-producer. 

But will capital seek investment? Of course it will. 
Capital being but raw material moulded into useful and de- 
sirable form by the hands of labor, is constantly in process 
of consumption and decay. 

If capital, namely, past accumulation of wealth applied 
to present production, should withdraw itself from the field 
of active production, it would soon be exhausted, both by 
use and natural process of decay. Capital will be compelled 
to accept such return as civilization will allow it to have, 
and cannot remain inactive and idle. A perception of this 
fact brings us again directly to the question of wages and 
hours of labor. The demand governs the supply. The larger 
the demand the greater the supply. The market controls the- 
demand. The condition of the masses of the people estab- 
lishes the market, and the scale of wages fixes the condition 
of the masses of the people. Thus it may be seen that the 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 127 

price of labor at any given period is the mercury mark upon 
the thermometer of time, which, with unerring exactness, de- 
termines the place occupied by a people in the race of prog- 
ress. 

High wages and short hours means a greater ability 
upon the part of a larger number of people to demand and 
consume the things produced at each point in the entire or- 
ganization of production and distribution. 

It will be readily observed that, while the wage system 
remains, the current price of labor will always be somewhat 
less than its full earnings. However, with private land own- 
ership abolished, as it will be to all intents and purposes 
through the adoption of the single tax and a consequent open- 
ing up of free opportunities to all, the wages of labor must 
be very nearly its full earnings, for no person will work for 
another for much less than he can make as his own employer, 
when the conditions are such that the right to become his 
own employer can be quickly and easily exercised. 

To reduce wages is to turn the dial upon the clock of 
time backwards. To increase wages is to bring our social 
and Industrial life to a higher level. 

The impulses of the wage workers are infallible, when 
they instinctively feel that shorter hours of labor mean better 
compensation, more leisure, comfort, study, thought, more 
of everything, in short, that tends to develop the glory and 
beauty of our common humanity. 

The year 1899 will ever be memorable in the history of 
the eight-hour movement in America, During this year the 
working classes in Colorado made a most strenuous effort to 
secure by legislative enactment an eight-hour work day for 
underground miners and smelter employees. 

The struggle waged in this state during the summer of 
that year, and in the legislative halls during the preceding 
winter, between the organized wage workers and the indus- 
trial classes upon the one hand, and the trusts and large cor- 
porations at home and abroad on the other, was watched with 
the keenest interest. The extreme unhealthfulness, risk and 
peril to life and limb, well known to be inseparable from the 
business of mining and smelting ores, caused these indus- 
tries to be singled out and made to come under the provisions 
of an eight-hour law. Such a law was already in force in 
the neighboring state of Utah, and had been upheld by the 
Supreme Court of that state, and subsequently by the Su- 
preme Court of the United States. 



128 BIENNIAL KEPORT 

The great smelter strike of that year, which is referred 
to in another part of this report under the head of "Strikes 
and Lockouts," is so closely related in the popular thought 
of Colorado, and in the Supreme Court proceedings follow- 
ing, that a review of this legislation itself demands at least 
a mere mention of the strikes and lockouts which grew out 
of it. Whatever diflferences may have existed among the 
members of organized labor with reference to some things, 
upon this one point they were a unit: The enactment of a 
law establishing an eight-hour day for miners and smelter- 
men. 

Immediately after the nomination of Hon. Oharles S. 
Thomas for Governor by the Democrats, Populists and Tel- 
ler Silver Republicans of this state, David C. Coates, of Pu- 
eblo, then secretary of the State Federation of Labor, in an 
open letter sounded Mr. Thomas as to his official action in 
the event of his election, should an eight-hour law be passed 
and come to him for his official signature. .In an equally 
public manner Mr. Thomas pledged himself to give such a 
measure his approval in the event of his election and in case 
it would pass both branches of the legislature. It is scarcely 
necessary to add that this promise was faithfully respected 
by the Governor. 

Very soon after the organization of the Twelfth General 
Assembly, the Hon. Frank Moore, of Fremont county, one 
of the labor members of the House, in accordance with the 
programme determined upon by the organized labor of the 
state, introduced as House Bill No. 25 the following measure, 
known as the eight-hour law. The law is as follows : 

"Section 1. The period of employment in all underground mines or 
workings shall be eight hours per day, except in cases of emergency where 
life or property are in imminent danger. 

"Sec. 2. The period of employment of workingmen in smelters, and 
in all other institutions for the reduction or refining of ores or metals, 
shall be eight hours per day, except in cases of emergency where life or 
property are in imminent danger. 

"Sec. 3. Any person, body corporate, agent, manager or employer 
who shall violate any of the provisions of sections one and two of this 
act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction shall 
be punished by a fine of not less than fifty dollars or more than five 
hundred dollars, or by imprisonment not more than six months, or by 
both fine and imprisonment." 

This bill was an exact copy of the Utah eight-hour law, 
the constitutionality of which had been decided. 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 129 

The Supreme Court of the United States handed down 
its opinion in the Utah case February 28, 1898. 

The following extracts from the opinions of the Supreme 
Court of Utah and the United States Supreme Court, as pub- 
lished in the 14th Utah and 169 U. S. Reports, are of interest 
and bear directly on the constitutionality of the law in ques- 
tion: 

**Tlie effort necessary to successful mining, if performed upon the 
surface of the earth in pure air» and in the sunlight, prolonged beyond 
eight hours, might not be injurious, nor affect the health of able-bodied 
men. When so extended beneath the surface, in an atmosphere laden with 
gas, and sometimes with smoke, away from the sunlight, it might injuri- 
ously affect the health of such persons. It is necessary to use artificial 
means to supply pure air to men laboring for any considerable distance 
from the surface. That being so, it is reasonable to suppose that the air 
introduced, when mixed with the impure air beneath the surface, is not 
as healthful as the free air upon the surface. We cannot say that this 
law, limiting the period of labor in underground mines to eight hours 
each day, is not calculated to promote health; that it is not adapted to 
the protection of the health of the class of men who work in underground 
mines. 

"The specific regulations for one kind of business, which may be 
necessary for the protection of the public, can never be the just ground 
of complaint, because like restrictions are not imposed upon other busi- 
ness of a different kind. The discriminations which are open to objection 
are those where persons engaged in the same business are subject to dif- 
ferent restrictions or are held entitled to different privileges under the 
same conditions. It is only then that the discriminations can be said to 
impair that equal right which all can claim in the enforcement of the 
laws." 

The foregoing completely and effectually silences the 
argument, frequently heard, that the eight-hour law, by 
singling out the mining and smelting business, was open to 
the objection of being class legislation. It will be borne in 
mind that the opinions of the Supreme Court in the Utah 
case were not based upon any provision contained in the 
Constitution of that state, but simply an enunciation of the 
common law of the land. 

To quote further from the opinion in the Utah case : 

"Unquestionably the atmospheric and other conditions in mines and 
reduction works differ. Poisonous gases, dust and unpalatable substances 
arise and float in the air in stamp mills, smelters and other works in 
which ores containing metals combined with arsenic or other poisonous 
elements are treated, reduced and refined, and there can be no doubt that 



130 BIENNIAL REPORT 

prolonged effort day after day, subject to sucli conditions and agencies, 
will produce morbid, noxious and often deadly effects in the human 
system. 

"It may be said that labor in such conditions must be performed. 
Granting this, the period of labor each day should be of a reasonable 
length. Twelye hours per day would be less injurious than fourteen, ten 
than twelve, and eight than ten. The legislature has named eight. Such 
a period was deemed reasonable." 

• •••••• 

"It may not be Improper to suggest in this connection that, although 
the prosecution in this case was against the employer of labor, his de- 
fense is not so much that his right to contract has been infringed upon, 
but that the act works a peculiar hardship to his employes, whose right 
to labor as long as they please is alleged to be thereby violated. The 
argument would certainly come with better grace and greater cogency 
from the latter class. But the fact that both parties are of full age and 
competent to contract does not necessarily deprive the state of the power 
to interfere where the parties do not stand upon an equality, or where 
the public health demands that one shall be protected against himself. 
The state still retains an interest in his welfare, however reckless he may 
be. The whole is no greater than the sum of all the parts, and when 
the individual health, safety and welfare are sacrificed or neglected, the 
state must suffer. 

"The employers naturally desire to obtain as much labor as possible 
from their employes, while the latter are often induced by the fear of 
discharge to conform to regulations which their judgment, fairly exer- 
cised, would pronounce to be detrimental to their health or strength. In 
other words, the proprietors lay down the rules and the laborers are 
practically constrained to obey them. In such cases self interest is often 
an unsafe guide, and the legislature may properly interpose its authority." 

The proposed law had many active supporters in the 
House of Representatives, all present voting in favor of it on 
final passage excepting Representative Bartels of Arapahoe. 

Upon reaching the Senate the eight-hour bill met with 
the most bitter and determined antagonism. Senator Buck- 
ley, of Telluride, who had been one of the firmest supporters 
of the bill from the first, immediately had it substituted for 
his own bill, which was substantially the same, and which 
was at that time at the head of the calendar. It being well 
understood that the measure could not be defeated upon a 
direct vote, it was attempted to load it down with amend- 
ments which would render it inoperative and worthless. Ev- 
ery parliamentary device and obstruction that ingenuity 
could suggest was resorted to to secure its defeat. The 
friends of the proposed law, in the main, opposed all amend- 
ments and insisted upon its passage in the original form. 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 131 

During the arguments in the Senate its merits were discussed 
from every conceivable point of view. After it became evi- 
dent, in the course of discussion, that the original bill could 
not be defeated by amendment, its opponents massed all their 
strength in a final effort to submit it upon the question of 
constitutionality to the Supreme Court of the state. 

It is seldom that a law is enacted by a legislative body 
in defiance of such powerful infiuences as were brought into 
requisition in opposition to the eight-hour bill. The vote on 
the proposition to submit the bill to the Supreme Court is 
considered by all as the real test of the strength of the eight- 
hour law in the Senate, excepting so far as it applies to Sen- 
ator Taylor, who voted "Aye" through a misunderstanding 
and who was a consistent friend of the eight-hour measure 
throughout. 

The vote, on the proposition to submit, was as follows : 

Ayes — ^Adams, Barela, Bromley, Crosby, Evans, Fisher, 
Gaymon, Hill, Maxwell, McCreary, Newell, Parks, Smith, 
Swink and Taylor — 15. 

Nays — ^Ammons, Annear, Buckley, Bucklin, Ehrhart, 
Felton, Gallagher, Harris, Philp, Porterfield, Roe, Schermer- 
horn, Seldomridge, Stewart, Stratton, Wheeler and Whitford 
—17. 

When called up for final passage, March 1, the bill was 
passed by a vote of 26 to 6, after having occupied the atten- 
tion of the Senate continuously for more than two weeks and 
furnishing the subject matter for one of the most hotly con- 
tested measures that ever came before that body. 

Upon final passage the only senators recording their 
votes against the bill were Adams, Barela, Crosby, Evans, Mc- 
Creary and Newell. 

The bill was signed by the Governor soon afterwards 
and became a law June 15, 1899. It was evident from the 
first that the law would have to run the gauntlet of the Su- 
preme Court. As the date when it became operative ap- 
proached, the expectancy and interest as to its effect became 
intense. The mine owners generally throughout the mining 
district evinced a disposition to accept the law in good faith 
and work their employes in accordance with its provisions. 
There were some exceptions to this rule, but they were not 
numerous. Not so the smelter trust. Within a few months 
preceding most of the smelters in this state were taken into 



132 BIENNIAL REPORT 

the American smelter trust, oflBcially known as the American 
Smelting and Refining Company. The Argo works at Den- 
ver, owned by ex-Senator Hill, and the Philadelphia smelter 
at Pueblo, owned by the Guggenheims, did not go into the 
trust. 

The trust, through its attorneys, Wolcott & Vaile and 
Waterman & Waldron, arranged to have the law violated, 
June 16, and bring a test case into court. 

William E. Sweeney, foreman of the Grant smelter, and 
Thomas A. Morgan, a furnaceman employed at the same 
place, were arraigned before Justice MuUins for violation of 
the eight-hour law. Counsel at once moved for their dis- 
charge on the grounds that the law was unconstitutional. 
The court promptly overruled the motion to discharge. 

The case was immediately taken to the Supreme Court 
on a writ of habeas corpus, and the eight-hour law brought 
before the highest court in the state to test its validity. 

The following are the material averments contained in 
the application for the writ : 

First — Because the said act or statute, under and pursuant to which 
aU and singular the proceedings aforesaid were based and had, is in 
violation of the bill of rights contained in the Constitution of the State 
of Colorado. 

Second — That the said act or statute is invalid or inoperative as a 
penal statute by reason of manifest uncertainties and divers other de- 
fects apparent upon the face thereof; and 

Third — That in any event the facts set forth in the said written 
complaint or affidavit do not charge or show the commission of any act 
or acts whatsoever prohibited or made unlawful by the said act or stat- 
ute or any part thereof. 

And your petitioner herewith assigns and sets forth the circum- 
stances which, in the opinion of your petitioner, render it necessary and 
proper that the writ of habeas corpus hereinafter prayed for should issue 
originally from the said court or be granted by some judge thereof, and 
not from any subordinate court or judges, in this, to wit: 

That the main ground upon which this petitioner asserts that his 
said imprisonment and detention is unlawful and void is that the sup- 
posed law or statute aforesaid which he is so charged with violating is 
so unconstitutional as aforementioned and that this court alone has final 
jurisdiction in the said State of Colorado to consider and adjudge the dis- 
puted constitutionality of said statute; and that your petitioner is in- 
formed and verily believes that there exists a wide difference of opinion 
among the various district and county judges of said state, touching the 
question of whether said statute is constitutional or not. 



BUKEAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 133 

Your petitioner is further informed and verily believes and so states 
the fact to be, that there is a strong probability that the said district and 
county judges would be disposed to and would hold the said statute valid, 
constitutional and efTective, because of the fact that the Supreme Court 
of the United States has recently affirmed the validity of a similar statute 
enacted by the legislature of the State of Utah, in so far as said statute 
might be supposed to contravene the Constitution of the United States 
or any of the amendments thereof, and that the language employed by 
said Supreme Court of the United States in so affirming the validity of 
the said Utah statute is well calculated to lead subordinate courts and 
Judges to believe that the said statute of the State of Colorado (under 
which your petitioner is so imprisoned and detained) is likewise valid 
under the Constitution of this state. 

And your petitioner Is further informed and verily believes that by 
virtue of the premises it is very doubtful whether any of the subordinate 
courts or Judges of this state would assume the responsibility of adjudg- 
ing the said statute, under which petitioner is so imprisoned, unconstitu- 
tional or otherwise invalid, and hence that much delay might intervene 
in futile attempts on the part of your petitioner to obtain his release on 
habeas corpus by any order or decree from said subordinate courts or 
Judges. 

Your petitioner is further advised and so states the fact to be that 
the constitutional and legal questions Involved in the determination of 
the validity of, as well as the construction of, the said statute of this 
state, affects directly a large portion of all the employes and employers 
doing business or laboring within the State of Colorado, and indirectly 
affects every industry and interest in the state, and that it is a subject 
of the highest importance to all citizens of the State of Colorado, that 
the validity and effect of the said statute should be speedily and finally 
adjudged by this court as the court of last resort in the state. 

Wherefore, your petitioner avers that there exist unusual and extra- 
ordinary reasons why this court in this proceeding should assume original 
jurisdiction for the issuance of the writ of habeas corpus herein prayed, 
to the end that all and singular the validity and operative effect of said 
statute may be promptly and finally adjudged and determined. 

Wherefore your petitioner prays a writ of habeas corpus may be 
forthwith granted and issued, directed to the said Robert J. Jones, sheriff 
of the said Arapahoe County, commanding him to have the body of your 
petitioner before your honorable court or some judge thereof at a time 
and place to be therein specified, to do and receive what shall then and 
there be considered by the court, or one of the Judges thereof, concerning 
him, together with the time and cause of the detention of your petitioner, 
to the end tHat your petitioner may be discharged from custody and re- 
stored to his liberty, and that such other and further order may be made 
in the premises as is usual in awarding the issuance of writs of habeas 
corpus. 

WILLIAM B. SWEENEY, 

Petitioner. 



134 BIENNIAL REPORT 

The following extracts are taken from the argument of 
Hon. Thomas M. Patterson in support of the eight-hour law 
before the Supreme Court of Colorado, June 30, 1899. It is 
regarded by the legal profession as a masterpiece of convinc- 
ing logic, and perhaps the strongest argument ever made be- 
fore a court in this state: 

"The first fact of importance is that the law has been executed, and 
I Imagine that what has been done once may be done again. The Supreme 
Court of Utah, and the trial courts of that state, have had no difficulty 
whatever in deciding that a person guilty of a violation of the law should 
be subjected to fine and imprisonment. The case was taken to the Su- 
preme Court of the United States, and though that court did not pass 
directly upon the question as to whether or not it was enforcible, the 
only inference to be drawn is that that great tribunal saw nothing in the 
way of enforcing it It went to the Supreme Court by virtue of a writ 
of habeas corpus; the petitioner in the case was imprisoned in Utah under 
the provisions of the law. If the law was not enforcible as a penal stat- 
ute, then the petitioner was deprived of his liberty without due process 
of law. I take it that anybody confined in Jail upon a statute that is not 
enforcible is in Jail without due process of law; and the Constitution of 
the United States prohibits the states from enacting and enforcing any 
law that deprives a citizen of life, liberty or property without due process 
of law. It is probable that Utah is not graced with a bar of as ingenious 
and brilliant members as is that of Colorado, for one thing is certain, no 
member of the Utah bar has ever thought of suggesting that this statute 
was not enforcible as a penal statute. There is no hint in either of the 
two cases tried and determined by the courts of Utah that the law is not 
enforcible. There was nothing in the law that suggested itself to the Su- 
preme Court of the United States that it was not enforcible. 

''I might rest there, if your honors please, but I desire to call the 
court's attention to some matters in my mind upon that phase of the 
question. To my mind the law is as clear as any penal statute you can 
find in the books. Counsel for petitioners say that you do not find in it 
'Tou shair or Tou sha'n't,' and therefore it is not enforcible. That has 
never been held to be necessary. Section 1 reads: 

" 'The period of employment of workingmen in all underground 
mines or smelters, etc., shall be eight hours per day, except in cases of 
emergency, where life or property is in imminent danger.' 

"Now that provision contemplates a time or allotment of employment 
under contract, express or implied, in certain workings and in certain 
places in which certain callings are carried on. That it refers to a period 
of time for work under contract, express or implied, is directly deducible 
from the language, and no other conclusion can be reached. 'The period 
of employment of workingmen in all underground mines.' It does not 
say the period of employment in a man's own mine, but the period of 
employment of workingmen shall be eight hours, except in the particular 



BURBAU OF LABOR STATISTIGS. 136 

cases mentioned In the statute. How may that law be violated? The 
declaration that In underground mines the period of employment shall 
be eight hours per day, except In certain cases, Is the equlyalent of pro- 
hibiting a longer period of employment In underground mines. 

"I find in the brief of one of the counsel for petitioners a number 
of supposable cases. It says, suppose this state of facts existed, or sup- 
pose that state of facts existed, or some other state of facts existed, what 
would the court do in the event if it was asked to punish the persons 
charged with them? Tour honors please, that is exactly what the courts 
are doing every day in the year, in every state of the Union. Courts are 
constantly being asked to construe penal statutes. Take the statute that 
defines larceny. I guarantee that in the law libraries of this state you will 
lind 5,000 cases in which the courts have determined whether one group 
of fkcts constituted larceny, or another group of facts constituted larceny. 
The question as to whether, where A obtains goods from B as bailee, and 
subsequently converts them to his own use; again as to whether, where 
goods are left in possession of a servant and the servant appropriates 
them to his own use, either is guilty of larceny, are cases in point, and I 
could cite dozens of such instances, the cases differing as the transactions 
constituting them differed. 

"The courts of one state will declare that certain acts do not consti- 
tute a larceny, and yet the courts of another state will declare that they 
do constitute larceny. Because a court is asked to determine whether or 
not a given line of conduct constitutes an offense, has never been sug- 
gested before, to my knowledge, as a reason why the law declaring the 
offense was not enforcible. 

"Then, again, they say the question of this statute is res adjudicata. 
No, it cannot be res adjudicata. Except in the Utah cases, no court has 
ever had a case similar before it. I uSb the word 'similar' advisedly, 
meaning similar in its general features, and having the same end in view 
as this statute. There have been cases on statutes declaring that eight 
hours shall constitute a day's labor In all callings; that eight hours shall 
constitute a day's labor in particular callings; statutes which were in- 
tended, so far as the courts could judge, to serve the convenience and 
pleasure of the beneficiaries; but there has been no case except those of 
Utah based upon a statute in which it is declared that the period of em- 
ployment in workings that are underground, and in buildings in which 
the smelting of ores Is conducted, shall be eight hours except in a speci- 
fied emergency. 

"The cases In the 21st Colorado in no wise meet the case at bar. In 
the case of the eight-hour bill, what was it? 'Eight hours shall constitute 
a legal day's work for all classes of mechanics, workingmen and laborers 
employed in any occupation in the State of Colorado.' Eight hours, it is 
declared, shall constitute a day's work, however healthful the occupation 
may be. In some of the states the legislatures went so far as to declare 
that if an employe worked longer than the legal day he should receive 
double compensation for overtime. The courts saw fit to declare all such 
laws unconstitutional. In its decision of the eight-hour law this court did 



136 BIENNIAL REPORT 

not inform the state or the bar what were the particular amendments 
upon which it passed. We have to gather from the context what they 
were. The court said it is not competent for the legislature to single out 
the mining, manufacturing and smelting industries of the state and im- 
pose upon them restrictions referring to hours of labor for their em- 
ployes, from which other employes are exempt. In that case the court 
did not take into consideration the question of health. There was no 
penalty enacted. They embraced employes in all manufactories, in the 
cotton mills, in a Jewelry establishment, in a shoe factory. There might 
be in the State of Colorado 500 different industries coming under the 
general term manufactories, which the law covered, and it was never sug- 
gested that the law was intended to bear upon the health of the employes • 
in them. 

"And then, again, it is clear in the Colorado case there was no proper 
presentation of the questions. We notice upon an examination of the 
state reports that in some instances where the legislature submitted to 
the court the question of the constitutionality of a law, that the court 
called in members of the bar to discuss the propositions involved on both 
Bides. When that is done those who appear for or against the legislation 
have their names printed in connection with the decision of the court 
Take the case in 21 Colorado and the name of no counsel appear. It does 
not appear even that the Attorney General was in attendance to give to 
the court the benefit of his independent research, and in a case in 12 Colo- 
rado this court particularly calls the attention of the legislature, as well 
as the bar, to the gross injustice in asking this court to render opinions 
ex parte that shall have the force of precedents where there is no case, no 
parties; where the court is not assisted by the independent and intelli- 
gent research of members of the bar. This court evidently regrets the 
necessity of being required to do that which I think the Constitution of 
no other state requires at the hands of a court. In other states the usual 
requirement is that the advice and opinion of the several Justices shall 
be given, not the decision of the court as a court. The court in the 12th 
Colorado case warned the bar that opinions thus rendered are liable to 
error, and further to the grave injury that may be done to great interests 
in rendering decisions under such circumstances. 

"This tirade of counsel against the legislature for imperiling capital 
that has come into the state, invited, as he declares, by this decision, is 
altogether unwarranted. If capital is so insensate as to proceed upon the 
theory that the legislature of thfs or any other- state will not enact a law 
which it believes is required in the exercise of the police power, then it is 
deserving of no sympathy. But capital and the owners of capital, your 
honors please, are not fools nor the credulous beings that counsel would 
have the court believe. They know what the police power is. They know 
that practically unlimited authority is conferred upon legislatures with 
certain proper restrictions under this power, and they proceed, or are re- 
quired to proceed, in view of that power, as though they possessed that 
knowledge. There are some who set up capital upon a high pedestal and 
worship it as a fetish, as though there was nothing upon God's green 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 137 

earth except capital that Is worthy of the adoration and reverence of man- 
kind; that human life, human health, the general welfare of the public, 
Is as nothing compared to dollars and cents and the benefits that an In- 
vestment of money will bring. But your honors please, the legislatures 
of the states of this Union, and the courts of the several states and of the 
United States, have exacted no such fetish. Human well-being is placed 
above the well-being of dollars and cents, and it is one of the crowning 
glories of this closing century that the claims of humanity have been 
more potent with courts and legislatures than the claims of a piece of 
metal, molded into whatever form money may be given, and whatever 
devices and words may be stamped upon them, and I appeal for the sup- 
port of this statement to the decision of the Supreme Court of the United 
States in this Utah case, and the language of that court should put to the 
blush the denunciations of those who represent, not the petitioner, except 
in a mere technical sense, but the property powers that are behind the 
petitioners. 

"I assert, may it please your honors, that this law is in keeping 
with the advanced sentiments of humanity which have marked human 
conduct during the last fifty years of this century. I say that as a law 
it appeals to the Christian sentiment, the exalted feeling of every rightly . 
constituted man. The law will stand. The sentiments it embraces have 
found solid lodgment in the hearts of all good people. It represents the 
enthronement of a Christian sentiment, the uplifting of huihanity, the pro- 
tection of the weak and helpless from the greed, tyranny and avarice of 
those whose chief aim in life is to add more dollars to their already over- 
running coffers. 

"I call the court's attention to the condition of mining and smelting 
in Colorado at the time of the adoption of the Con^itution. Going back 
to 1876, the court will recall that the mineral output of this state was 
somewhere in the neighborhood of $3,000,000, and confined to a few min- 
ing camps. The mining of coal was then an infant industry. The num- 
ber of men employed in those industries, as compared to the number em- 
ployed in them in 1898, was small indeed. The necessities for the exercise 
of the police power in such legislation did not then appear. Utah had an 
advantage over Colorado in this respect. By reason of the existence of 
polygamy in Utah, it was not admitted to the Union nearly so early as 
the number of its population would warrant It was kept out of the 
Union until relatively its mining and smelting industries were as far ad- 
vanced as those of Colorado at the present time. The framers of the Utah 
Constitution then fully recognized the disastrous results to health from 
long continued employment beneath the surface and in smelters and mills 
devoted to the reduction of ores, and they included in their Constitution 
what has been denominated the labor article, but I defy any lawyer to 
point out wherein that article intrenched in the slightest upon the provis- 
ions of either Utah or the Colorado bill of rights. That instrument 
calls the attention of the law-making power to those industries, and di- 
rects the legislature to enact laws, for what purpose? To conserve the 
health and safety of those who work in mines and mills and manufactur- 



138 BIENNIAL REPORT 

ing establishments. Let this court read every provision of the labor arti- 
cle of the Utah Constitution. There is just one clause upon which the 
opponents of this measure may rest a claim that it in any manner justi- 
fies this legislation, and it is that which requires the legislature to pass 
proper laws to conserve the health and safety of the employe^ in mines 
and smelters and manufacturing establishments. Suppose the legislature 
did not enact such laws, no court could issue a mandamus to compel it 
to do so. 

"That provision of the Utah Constitution is not self-operating, and, 
while it is found in the Constitution, it is simply advisory, calling the 
attention of the legislature to these particular employments in which so 
large a number of the population were engaged, and requesting them to 
enact laws to conserve the health and safety of that portion of the popu- 
lation, and nothing more. These gentlemen say that t5€ labor article 
intrenches upon the bill of rights. They eulogize the power of contract, 
the sacred right of contract. It is around that sacred right that all of 
their arguments and denunciations cluster. Is there a word in the Utah 
Constitution that even suggests that the legislature should enact any law 
that might impair the sacred right of contract? If there is not, then this 
must be the argument that is urged by the opponents of the act. This 
direction to the Utah legislature to enact laws to conserve the health and 
safety of employes in mines, mills and manufacturing establishments, is 
a direction to the legislature to disregard that section of the bill of rights 
which secures the sacred right of contract to all citizens of the state. 
Talk about the reduction ad absurdum; except in the exercise of the po- 
lice power, there would be no more authority to interfere with the right 
of contract under the labor article of the Utah Constitution than there 
would be to interfere with the hope and expectation of a good Christian, 
when he dies, of reaching the arms of the Savior of mankind. 

"I call the attention of counsel to the extraordinary admission of 
counsel opposing this bill. It is this: That the law of Utah is unques- 
tionably constitutional. That it would be clearly an excess of judicial 
power to declare that that law is unconstitutional. For what reason? 
Because the Constitution of Utah requests the legislature to enact laws to 
conserve the health and the safety of its inhabitants, it authorizes the 
legislature to enact laws that destroy the right of freedom to contract. 
By this request to legislate concerning health, the right to acquire, pos- 
sess and enjoy property, the prohibition of class legislation, are all swept 
aside. A more absurd claim was never presented to a bench of intelligent 
judges. 

"When the court shall read the Utah decision, it will find that that 
court does not base the. constitutionality of the law upon the labor clause 
of the state Constitution. It recognises what I have asserted, that it re- 
quested the legislature to take steps to conserve the health of certain 
workers, and that the legislature did, evidently in pursuance of that re- 
quest, enact the law. But the court having recognized this, proceeds to 
determine whether or not that legislation is in derogation of the bill of 
rights in the Utah Constitution, or of the provisions of the Fourteenth 



BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS. 139 

Amendment to the federal Constitution, and the Utah court upholds the 
law, not upon the ground that the legislature was directed to enact laws 
to conserve the health and safety of certain individuals, hut upon the 
ground that its Enactment was a proper exercise of the police power, and 
being such It was not in conflict with the Fourteenth Amendment of the 
Constitution of the United States. 

"Let me call the court's attention to what the Supreme Court of 
Utah said upon this question: 

" 'While the provisions of the Constitution under consideration make 
it the duty of the legislature to protect the health and secure the safety 
of men working in underground mines, and in factories and smelters, it 
does not prohibit the legislature from enacting other laws afTecting such 
classes to promote the general welfare.' Thereby saying that even if those 
provisions were not in the Constitution, the legislature would not be pro- 
hibited from enacting laws to promote the welfare of those classes. I 
read from the decision: 

" 'It is claimed that the enactment of the statute in question was 
forbidden by section 7 of article 1 of the Constitution of the state, which 
is that "no person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without 
due process of law.'' The petitioner insists that his trial was not, and that 
his imprisonment is not, according to "the law of the land," ' because the 
statute fixing the period of a laboring man in underground mines was, as 
he claimed, forbidden by the Constitution, and therefore void. If the leg- 
islature had power to pass the law, there was no valid objection to his 
trial, ftne and imprisonment. If the law was valid, the usual and ordinary 
process was adopted. If it was not valid, the defendant was deprived of 
his liberty without due process of law. 

"It is also insisted that the provisions of the state law were forbid- 
den by section 1 of amendment 14 of the Constitution of the United States, 
as follows: 'AH persons bom or naturalized in the United States, and 
subject to the Jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and 
of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law 
which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United 
States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty or prop- 
erty without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its juris- 
diction the equal protection of the law.' 

" 'But some pursuits are attended with peculiar hazards and perils, 
the injurious consequences from which may be largely prevented by pre- 
cautionary means, and laws may be passed calculated to protect the classes 
of people engaged in such pursuits. It is not necessary to extend the pro- 
tection to persons engaged in other pursuits not attended with similar 
dangers. To them the law would be inappropriate and idle. So, if under- 
ground mining is attended with dangers peculiar to it, laws adapted to the 
protection of such miners, of such dangers, should be confined to that 
class of mining, and should not Include other employments not subject 
to them. And if men engaged in underground mining are liable to be 
injured in their health, or otherwise, by too many hours' labor each day, 
a law to protect them should be aimed at that particular wrong. In this 



140 BIENNIAL REPORT 

way laws are enacted to protect people from perils, from the operation of 
railroads, by requiring bells to be rung and whistles sounded at road 
crossings, and the slacking of the speed of trains In cities. So, the sale 
of liquor is regulated to lessen the evil of the liquor traffic, and other 
classes of business are regulated by appropriate laws. In this way laws 
are designed and adapted to the peculiarities attending each class of 
business. By such laws different classes of people are protected by vari- 
ous acts and provisions. In this way various classes of business are regu- 
lated and the people protected by appropriate laws from dangers and evils 
that beset them. Safety is secured, health preserved, and the happiness 
and the welfare of humanity promoted. All persons engaged in business 
that may be attended with peculiar injury to health or otherwise, if not 
regulated and controlled, should be subject to the same law; otherwise 
the law should be adapted to the special circumstances. The purpose of 
such laws is not advantage to any person or any 61ass of persons, or dis- 
advantage to any other person or class of persons. Necessary and Just 
protection is the sole object.' 

"Let us see another of the legitimate deductions that the court must 
make if It sustains the contention as to the Utah Constitution made by 
counsel for the petitioner. If the Utah law is constitutional solely be- 
cause the legislature is directed to enact laws to conserve the health and 
safety of workingmen in underground mines, then our legislature is abso- 
lutely without power to enact any such law; in other words, although po- 
lice power exists in this state, while it exists In all the vigor and force 
and power that it possesses in any other state, yet because the framers 
of our Constitution did not insert in the Constitution a declaration that 
laws should be enacted to conserve the health iand welfare of those who 
work in underground mines and smelters, the legislature has no authority 
whatever to pass any law to conserve the health and safety of those who 
work in such places. Truly another reduction ad absurdum. Bear in 
mind that the Supreme Court of Utah simply regarded that provision of 
the Constitution as directory, and it is only directory. The law might, 
or might not, have been enacted, and the legislature is Justified in enact- 
ing it only by virtue of the police power that is inherent in the legisla- 
ture of every state. 

"What is police power, if your honors please? It Is a power superior 
to all others in the state. Talk about the rights of individuals, of one 
man or the other. There never was a right guaranteed to any individual 
by any Constitution of any state of this Union that was not subject to the 
limitations of the police power. And why? Because the police power is 
necessary to save the rights of all; the safety of all is of greater moment 
than of one. A time is liable to come In any state when contracts and 
property and rights and privileges conferred upon and guaranteed to in- 
dividuals must give way for the public good. It is by the exercise of the 
police power that your asylum exists, that poor farms exist in the differ- 
ent counties, that public hospitals are erected. It is in the exercise of the 
police power that paupers are provided for; and to say, your honors, that 
the state has not the right to enact health laws that will prevent the 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 141 

creation of this class of dependents, is to utter as absurd a proposition as 
can be conceived of. It is simply a question as to wbat is best calculated 
to protect the whole, whether by laws applicable to the whole or to classes 
or Individaals that go to make up the whole. Why do they order the 
removal of a powder factory? Because it is dangerous to life in the 
immediate vicinity. Smoke is controlled because it injures those who 
may be required to live in its immediate vicinity. Legislators and coun- 
cils order the exclusion of slaughter houses to certain localities, because 
those who might live in their existing locality would be injured thereby. 

"Legislation limiting the hours of labor of employes in underground 
mines and in smelters is Just as general as the legislation I have referred 
to. Why? A powder magazine endangers those in the vicinity. Those 
who are there to-day may be away to-morrow, and other inhabitants may 
reside in their immediate vicinity at some other time. How is it with 
employes in mines and smelters? There is no law or rule that prohibits 
any human being from obtaining employment therein. Within a year 
the entice forces of mines and smelters may be changed. Those who are 
engaged in business or mechanical callings to-day may be working in 
smelters and mines to-morrow; therefore this legislation affects the whole 
in the same sense that legislation about powder factories and slaughter 
houses and the running of street railways and a number of other callings 
affects the public. There may be 100 people to be affected by the ex- 
plosion of a powder mill to-day, and in a week they may all be gone and 
others move in. So it is with the workers in smelters and underground 
mines. And to say that if the legislature is convinced that working in a 
smelter ten or twelve hours consecutively for many days is calculated to 
seriously impair the health of such men by the wholesale, and that work- 
ing in underground mines is calculated to sow the seed of consumption, 
to destroy the power of resistance to disease in those who pursue the call- 
ing, it cannot protect itself by legislation, such as this, against being 
compelled to provide for the victims in poor houses and hospitals, is to 
say that the state is hopelessly helpless. 

"If the court please, the Supreme Court of the United States, in pass- 
ing upon this question, decided every question that is involved here. 
When counsel for the petitioner says that that great court simply declared 
that the Utah law was not in conflict with the Constitution of the United 
States, and therefore the decision is not applicable to this state, they make 
declarations which, as they respect the good opinion of the bar, I believe 
they would like to have recalled, and why? The Supreme Court in de- 
claring that the Utah law was not inimical to the Constitution of the 
United States, so declared because it was enacted in the exercise of that 
police power, to exercise which is inherent in every state legislature. In 
so declaring it held that, though from one standpoint it might be special 
legislation, and from another it might interfere with acquisition and en- 
jojrment of property, yet, because it was proper legislation in the exercise 
of the police power, it was not unconstitutional. 

"Let me read from the decision to show precisely what was involved : 

"'The defendant, Holden, having been arrested upon a warrant is- 



142 BIENNIAL BBPOBT 

sued upon said complaint, admitted the facts set forth therein, but said 
he was not guilty because he is a native Vbm citizen of the United States, 
residing in the state of Utah; that the said John Anderson Yoluntarily 
engaged his services for the hours per day alleged, and that the facts 
charged did not constitute a crime, because the act of the State of Utah, 
which creates and defines the supposed offense, is repugnant to the Con- 
stitution of the United States, in these respects: 

" 'It deprives the defendant and all employers and employes of the 
right to make contracts in a lawful way and for lawful purposes. 

" 'It is class legislation, and not equal or uniform in its provisions. 

" 'It deprives the defendant and employers and employes of the equal 
protection of the laws, abridges the privileges and immunities of the de- 
fendant as a citizen of the United States, and deprives him of his property 
and liberty without due process of law.' 

"That is the statement made by the court of the claims made by the 
petitioner on the hearing, and it was these identical questions, as I will 
show your honors, that the court in the end adjudicated. I take it that 
the Supreme Court of the United States is as conservative a body as exists 
in all the land. It has never been accused of radicalism or of communism 
and socialism, words that are too often spoken with a sneer. Much of the 
enjoyment and liberty that the people of this state possess is the result 
of that which is denounced as socialistic legislation. 

"Iiet me call the court's attention further to the statement by the Su- 
preme Court of what was involved in the decision. It says: 

" 'This case involves the constitutionality of an act of the legisla- 
ture of Utah of March 30, 1896, chapter 72, entitled, "An act regulating 
the hours of employment in underground mines and in smelters and ore 
reduction works." 

" 'The Supreme Court of Utah was of opinion that if authority in the 
legislature were needed for the enactment of the statute in question, it 
was found in that part of article 10 of the Constitution of the state, which 
declared that "The legislature shall pass laws to provide for the health 
and safety of employes in factories, smelters and mines." ' 

"In saying that the Supreme Court of Utah was of opinion that if 
authority was needed it could be found in the labor article, the Supreme 
Court of the United States recognized that the labor article was not relied 
upon by the Utah court, and it was referred to only as a dernier resort. 
The court then proceeds to declare upon what grounds it would discuss 
the case. Listen to what the court says: 

" 'The validity of the statute in question is, however, challenged 
upon the ground of an alleged violation of the Fourteenth Amendment to 
the Constitution of the United States, in that it abridges the privileges 
or immunities of citizens of the United States, deprives both the employer 
and the laborer of his property without due process of law, and denies 
to them the equal protection of the laws. As the three questions of 
abridging their immunities, depriving them of the protection of the laws, 
are so connected that the authorities upon each are to a greater or less 
extent pertinent to the others, they may properly be considered together.' 



BU9EAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 143 

"And the Supreme Court then proceeds to discuss these three propo- 
sitions and to demonstrate that the act does not Interfere in any degree 
with the rights and immunities of the citizen, and that it is not class 
legislation, and that It does not interfere with the right to secure, possess 
and enjoy property, solely because it is a proper exercise of the police 
power. Why, if your honors please? Because the State of Utah might 
have had that labor article in its Constitution ten times over, yet if the 
law had not been in a proper exercise of the police power the Supreme 
Court of the United States, under the Fourteenth Amendment to the Con- 
stitution, would declare it invalid. Therefore, whenever such questions 
arise in any case that comes from a state to the Supreme Court of the 
United States, that court passes directly upon the force and effect of such 
legislation in connection with these identical provisions, which are found 
in the bill of rights of the several state Constitutions. It must necessarily 
do so. The Constitution of the United States is superior to the Constitu- 
tion of a state. However constitutional the legislation, if a state may be 
measured by a state Constitution, if it is legislation that is prohibited to 
states by the federal Constitution, it is void and cannot be enforced, 
either within or without the state. Therefore, when the Supreme Court 
of the United States passes upon the constitutionality of an act of a state 
legislature measured by the Fourteenth Amendment td the Constitution, 
it determines whether or not it interferes with the so-called sacred right 
of contract — ^that is, the right to acquire, possess and enjoy property, just 
as much as if it was the state Supreme Court passing upon legislation 
alleged to be inimical to the same clauses in the bill of rights. 

"Now, then, what does the Supreme Court say? 

" 'An examination of both these classes of cases under the Four- 
teenth Amendment will demonstrate that, in passing upon the validity of 
state legislation under that amendment, this court has not failed to rec- 
ognize the fact that the law is to a certain extent a progressive science; 
that in some of the states methods of procedure which, at the time the 
Constitution was adopted, were deemed essential to the protection and 
safety of the people, or to the liberty of the citizens, have been found to 
be no longer necessary; that restrictions which had formerly been laid 
upon the conduct of individuals had proved detrimental to their interests; 
while, upon the other hand, certain other classes of persons, particu- 
larly those engaged in dangerous or unhealthful employment, have been 
found to be in need of additional protection. • • • 

" 'This right of contract, however, is itself subject to certain limita- 
tions which the state may lawfully impose in the exercise of its police 
powers. While this power is inherent in all governments, it has doubtless 
been greatly expanded in its application during the past century, owing 
to an enormous increase in the number of occupations which are danger- 
ous or so far detrimental to the health of employes as to demand special 
precaution for their well being and protection of the safety of adjacent 
property. While this court has held that the police power cannot be put 
forward as an excuse for oppressive and unjust legislation, it may be law- 
fally resorted to for the purpose of preserving the public health, safety 



144 BIENNIAL EEPOET • 

or morals, or the abatement of public nuisances, and a large discretion is 
necessarily vested in the legislature to determine, not only what the 
interests of the public require, but what measures are necessary for the 
protection of such interests.' 

"The extent and limitations upon this power are admirably stated 
by Chief Justice Shaw in the following extract from his opinion in Com- 
monwealth vs. Alger, 7 Cush., 84: 

** 'We think it a settled principle, growing out of the nature of well- 
ordered civil society, that every holder of property, however absolute 
and unqualified may be his title, holds it under the implied liability that 
his use of it may be so regulated that it shall not be injurious to the 
equal enojyment of others having an equal right to the enjoyment of their 
property, nor injurious to the rights of the community. All property in 
this commonwealth, as well that in the interior as that bordering on tide 
waters, is derived directly or indirectly from the government, and held 
subject to those general regulations which are necessary to the common 
good and general welfare. Rights of property, like all oCher social and 
conventional rights, are subject to such reasonable limitations in their 
enjoyment as will prevent them from being injurious, and to such reason- 
able restraints and regulations established by law as the legislature, under 
the governing and controlling power vested in them by the Constitution, 
may think necessary and expedient. 

" 'This power, legitimately exercised, can neither be limited by con- 
tract nor bartered away by legislation. 

" 'While this power is necessarily inherent in every form of govern- 
ment, it was, prior to the adoption of the Constitution, but sparingly used 
in this country. As we were then almost purely an agricultural people, the 
occasion for any special precaution of a particular class did not exist. 
Certain profitable employments, such as lotteries and the sale of intoxicat- 
ing liquors, which were then considered to be legitimate, have since fallen 
under the ban of public opinion, and are now either altogether prohibited 
or made subject to stringent public regulations. The power to do this 
has been repeatedly aflarmed by this court.' 

"So far as this case Is concerned, I earnestly recommend its fullest 
consideration to the court. I will close references to it, if your honors 
please, by reading the final declaration as found in the opinion: 

" 'We are of opinion that the act in question was a valid exercise of 
the police power of the state, and the Judgments of the Supreme Court 
of Utah are therefore aflarmed.' 

"And further, if your honors please, as to the police power, let me 
read a short quotation from The Beer Co. vs. Massachusetts, Vol. 97, 
Mass.: 

"'If the public safety or the public morals require the discontinu- 
ance of any manufacture or traffic, the hand of the legislature cannot be 
stayed from providing for its discontinuance by any Incidental incon- 
venience which individuals or corporations may suffer. All rights are 
held subject to the police power of the state.' 

"In 120 Mass., the court says, treating this same subject The law 
it was discussing made it unlawful for women to labor in manufactures 



BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS. 145 

more than ten hours each day, and limited the full working hours to 
sixty hours per week and no more. It was attacked upon the ground that 
it assailed the right of contract and upon the ground that it was special 
class legislation: 

" 'The law,' the court says, 'therefore violates no contract with the 
defendant. And the only other question is, whether it is in violation of 
any right reserved under the Constitution to the individual citizen. Upon 
this question there seems to he no room for debate. It does not forbid 
any person, firm or corporation from employing as many persons or as 
much labor as such person, firm or corporation may desire; nor does it 
forbid any person to work as many hours a day or a week as he chooses. 
It merely provides that in an employment which the legislature has evi- 
dently deemed to some extent dangerous to health, po persons should be 
engaged in labor more than ten hours a day or sixty hours a week.' 

"The Supreme Court of Illinois, I think it was, held a somewhat 
similar law to be unconstitutional upon the ground that it did not appear 
to have been intended to affect the health or safety of employes. What 
does that demonstrate? That it is a question for the courts to determine 
what is and what is not a proper exercise of the police power. Some 
courts might hold that the law sustained in 120 Mass. was not a proper 
exercise of the police power. Massachusetts held it was. Some states 
might hold that the Utah law and the Colorado law was not a proper 
exercise of the police power, and the courts of other states might hold 
that it was; but when the Supreme Court of the United States has passed 
upon this identical law, and has declared that it is a proper exercise of 
the police power, I have the right to appeal to this honorable court not 
to declare that the Supreme Court of the United States was unwise; not 
to declare that it was governed by socialistic and communistic doctrines 
in their offensive sense, but rather that its decision represented the 
growth of humanity and Christianity and the wisdom of the closing 
quarter of the nineteenth century. The decision of the Supreme Court of 
the United States in this case is clear, unqualified and, without reference 
to the Utah Constitution, it declares that it is a proper exercise of the 
police power, and for that reason alone that court sustained it. That the 
decision of the Supreme Court of the United States upon this identical law 
will govern the Supreme Court of this state I cannot for a moment doubt; 
that it is an effectual law, if sustained, I have no question. 

"If the court will read the complaints upon which these prosecutions 
rest and upon which the petition is based, it will discover that the cases 
were prepared solely for the purpose of determining whether or not it 
was possible, by some ingenious device and contrivance, to escape the 
purpose of the law, granting its constitutionality. The cases as brought 
stand as confessions and avoidance; confessing the constitutionality of 
the law and avoiding it in an effort to find out whether the court will 
sustain them in their efforts to evade it. The cases as brought do not 
necessarily involve the constitutionality of the law. Its constitutionality 
is only involved in case this court should decide that the facts upon which 
the cases rest were infractions of the law. I think your honors will deter- 



146 BIENNIAL REPORT 

mine, when you examine the cases, that they were carefully and in- 
geniously prepared In order to see whether or not the law could be avoided. 
I take it that If the law is held to be constitutional the court will say 
nothing and do nothing that will weaken the power and effect of the law. 
This is a good law; it is for a righteous purpose; it is to conserve the 
health of a vast portion of the population of this state, and therefore it 
affects the welfare of every portion of the state and of every person that 
lives within it; and if it is constitutional, as I have no doubt it is, I trust 
that this court will not by its voice lend aid and comfort to those who are 
seeking to escape its provisions. What sort of a case have they brought 
here? It alleges a contract between the agent of the smelting company 
and an employe that he should work eight hours in a smelter for the re- 
duction of ores, and then the agent said to the employe. If you choose to 
work more than eight hours you may, and if you do we will pay you for 
the extra time at the rate of 25 cents an hour. But even in the case made 
they took pains to declare that the employe did not assent, but that at 
the expiration of eight hours he worked for two additional hours and that 
the agent paid him for the two additional hours at the rate of 25 cents 
an hour, and then they assert that if the law is constitutional it can only 
be operative in case of an explicit and express contract in terms to work 
more than eight hours. I say no; laws were not made and courts were 
not made to evade laws, and if by a direct contract, and then a contract 
to pay for labor that is implied, an employe engages for a longer term than 
the prescribed limit, both the parties to the agreement are guilty of a vio- 
lation of the law, because an indirect violation is as reprehensible as a 
direct violation, aind there is no distinction; they are in fact both direct 
violations. 

"My time has expired. I submit the case now in behalf of the state, 
confident that there can be but one outcome. What the Supreme Court 
of the United States has declared this court will sustain, and full force 
will be given to as wise and humane a law as ever graced the statute 
books of Colorado." 

July 17, 1899, Chief Justice Campbell made the an- 
nouncement which wiped the eight-hour law off the statute 
books in the following language : 

"After a most careful and earnest consideration of the case we have 
unanimously arrived at the conclusion that the so-called eight-hour law 
is wholly unconstitutional and void." 

The opinion itself, which is quite lengthy, was handed 
down at the September term of court. It is an ingenious ar- 
gument in opposition to the law under consideration, and 
goes quite fully into the authorities bearing upon legislation 
of this character. 

While the court, in writing its conclusions, was undoubt- 
edly influenced by the purest motives^ the entire opinion 



BUREAU OF LABOE STATISTICS. 147 

sounds more like an argument made by a paid attorney than 
a judicial opinion delivered by a bench of impartial judges. 
It concludes with the following language : 

"It Is manifest that this extraordinary and extreme statute is not 
necessary and was not intended for the protection of the public. Its sole 
purpose was to regulate private interests and enforce private rights. In 
no sense can it be regarded as a police law, and, consequently, is not 
within the police power. In this statute we have another example of 
class legislation where the legislature has attempted to improperly in- 
terfere with the private rights of the citizen. This species of legislation 
has been so often condemned by this and other courts as to render any 
further discussion of its impropriety and invalidity wholly unnecessary." 

"The petition, therefore, should be, and the same is hereby, granted, 
and the petitioner should be, and hereby is, discharged from custody." 

John H. Murphy, a well known attorney of the city of 
Denver, who had been connected with the trial of the case 
before the Supreme Court, subsequently made a motion for a 
rehearing, alleging that the court had erred in its decision, 
lie filed with the court a brief, which is a part of the records 
in the case. The principles of law and common sense enun- 
ciated, as well as the authorities cited in this argument, are 
absolutely unanswerable and completely overthrow the opin- 
ion handed down by the court. The motion was denied. 

This opinion, nullifying the eight-hour law, was received 
by the wage workers and by the industrial classes generally 
with many expressions of disapproval and denunciation. It 
is safe to say that three-fourths of the people of this state, in- 
cluding many of the ablest lawyers in the profession, believed 
that the law would be upheld by the court. 

Wliile the masses of the people at the present day have 
all the respect for courts to which they are entitled by reason 
of the exalted position which they occupy, the time has long 
since passed when any special infallibility is attached to their 
opinions. 

The tendency of judges has ever been to favor the rich 
and the powerful against the poor and the weak. This is 
not necessarily due to any venality, as is sometimes claimed, 
OP corruption on the part of judges, but to the causes that 
unconsciously influence courts in formulating judicial opin- 
ions. 

Trusts, corporations and great combinations of capital 
are ever anxious to retain all the privileges they have and 
secure as many new concessions as possible. The be«| law- 



148 BIENNIAL REPORT 

yers are the ones who can serve them best and be most useful 
to them. For this reason they engage their services. As 
judges are usually taken from the ranks of the ablest law- 
yers, i. e., from those who know most of precedent and what 
other courts have said, it necessarily follows that they must 
have had a practice defending corporate privileges against 
individual rights. The wealthy find them first and pay them 
best. When elevated to the bench, after many years spent in 
successfully promoting corporate interests, they take with 
them all the prejudices which they have unconsciously im- 
bibed through constantly looking at things from the stand- 
point of the rich and the powerful. Every one looks at ques- 
tions with the prejudices of his class. History and experi- 
ence both prove that judges form no exception to this rule. 
Law is simply men's opinion, and courts are merely men. 
The opinion just referred to, arrived at by the Supreme Court 
of Colorado, was undoubtedly a reflex of the professional life 
of the judges who rendered it. The fishes which live in the 
lake in the Mammoth cave of Kentucky have no eyes, inas- 
much as in their existing environment they never developed 
eyes, having no use for them. Lawyers who have through- 
out all the years of their professional life studied to serve 
and advance the interests of the wealthy classes, while not 
corrupt or dishonest in any sense, they have never developed 
the faculty of a sight that is true and fair and just. 

No judge ever desired to decide a question in a certain 
way without being competent to write a strong and plausible 
opinion supporting the decision determined upon. Every 
believer in the divine right of property, every worshiper at 
the shrine of monopoly, every defender of trusts and special 
privileges, every one who holds that the many were made to 
produce and the few to enjoy, every one who considers him- 
self composed of better clay than his fellows, believes that a 
judiciary is the mainstay of society. Every intelligent 
farmer, workingman and member of the wealth-producing 
classes sees in the growing disposition of judges to grasp 
more and more power, to make all branches of the public 
service subservient to their will, a grave menace to the liber- 
ties of the common people. The history of the ages has been 
one long struggle between democracy on the one hand and 
despotism on the other. The tendency of thought in our day 
is in the direction of a wider diffusion of power among the 
people, and curtailing the power of courts, so far as their 
power to nullify laws, enacted by and in the interest of the 
people, are concerned. 



BUREAU OF LABOE STATISTICS. 149 

The enormous supremacy of property rights over indi- 
ndual rights is due chiefly to judicial decrees, which, through 
regard for authority and custom, have all the weight of legis- 
lative enactment. In fact, our courts have assumed more and 
more authority until they now really exercise a final veto 
power, overriding the executive and legislative departments 
entirely. It is not conceivable that the masses ever really 
favored adding to the authority of courts and a surrender 
to these tribunals of any of their own inherent rights to self 
government. 

Jerry Black, in his famous argument to the Supreme 
Court of the United States on trial by jury, said : 

"Alfred, the greatest of revolutionary heroes and the wisest monarch 
that ever sat on a throne, made the first use of his power after the Saxons 
restored it, to re-establish their ancient laws. He had promised them that 
he would, and he was true to them, because they had been true to him. 
But It was not easily done. The courts were opposed to it for it limited 
their power, the kind of power that everybody covets, the power to punish 
-without regard to law. He was obliged to hang forty-four Judges in one 
year for refusing to give his subjects a trial by Jury." 

It has been frequently suggested that the same remedy, 
applied to judges in our own day, when the authority of 
courts is being constantly invoked, by the aid of the modern 
injunction and other usurped and arrogated powers, to set 
aside the plainly expressed will of the people, and to fortify 
and entrench corporate power and special privileges, would 
be most salutary and effective. 

Organized labor would do well to follow the advice of 
Wendell Phillips, to remember its friends and never forget 
its enemies. It is to be hoped that labor has learned to do 
so. Mr. Phillips said : 

"My advice to workingmen is this: If you want power in this country 
—if you want to make yourselves felt — if you do not want your children 
to wait long years before they have the bread on the table they ought to 
have, the opportunities in life they ought to have — if you don't want to 
wait yourselves, write on your banner so that every political trimmer can 
read it, 'We never forget.' If you launch the arrow of sarcasm at labor, 
we never forget it — if there is a division in congress, and you throw your 
vote in the wrong scale, we never forget. You may go down on your knees 
and say, 'I am sorry I did the act,' and we will say, 'It will avail you in 
heaven, but on this side of the grave, never.' " 

The following extract is taken from a speech delivered 
by Charles Sumner in the United States Senate. Mr. Sumner 



150 BIENNIAL REPORT 

is well known in American history as a ripe scholar, a pro- 
found thinker and a man of broad statesmanship. His in- 
dictment of the Supreme Court of the United States for its 
decision in the Dred Scott case, and his severe though just 
criticism of courts in general, was and is fully approved by 
the American people : 

"Let me here say that I hold Judges, and especially the Supreme 
Court of the country, in much respect, but I am too familiar with the 
history of Judicial proceedings to regard them with any superstitious 
reverence. Judges are but men, and in all ages have shown a fair share 
of frailty. Alas! alas! the worst crimes of history have been perpetrated 
under their direction. The blood of martyrs and of patriots, crying from 
the ground, summons them to judgment 

''It was a Judicial tribunal which condemned Socrates to drink the 
fatal hemlock and which pushed the Saviour barefoot over the pavements 
of Jerusalem, bending beneath His cross. It was a Judicial tribunal 
which, against the testimony and entreaties of her father, surrendered 
the fair Virginia as a slave; i^ich arrested the teachings of the great 
apostle to the Gentiles and sent him in bonds from Judea to Rome; 
which, in the name of the old religion, adjured the saints and fathers of 
the Christian church to death in all its most dreadful forms, and which, 
afterward, in the name of the new religion, enforced the tortures of the 
Inquisition amid the shrieks and agonies of its victims, while it com- 
pelled Galileo to declare, in solemn denial to the great truth he had dis- 
closed, that the earth did not move round the sun. 

"It was a Judicial tribunal which, in France, during the long reign 
of her monarchs, lent itself to be the instrument of every tyranny, as 
during the brief reign of terror it did not hesitate to stand forth the 
unpitying accessory of the unpitying guillotine. Aye, sir, it was a 
Judicial tribunal in England, surrounded by all forms of law, which sanc- 
tioned every despotic caprice of Henry VIII., from the unjust divorce of 
his queen to the beheading of Sir Thomas More; which lighted the fires 
of persecution, that glowed at Oxford and Smithfleld, over the cinders 
of Latimer, Ridley and John Rogers; which, after elaborate argument, 
'upheld the fatal tyranny of ship money against the patriotic resistance 
of Hampden; which, in defiance of Justice and humanity, sent Sydney 
and Russell to the block; which persistently enforced the laws of con- 
formity that our Puritan fathers persistently refused to obey; and which 
afterward, with Jeffreys on the bench, crimsoned the pages of English 
history with massacre and murder, even with the blood of innocent 
women. 

"Aye, sir, and it was a Judicial tribunal in our country, surrounded 
by all the forms of law, which hung witches at Salem, which affirmed 
the constitutionality of the stamp act, while it admonished 'Jurors and 
the people' to obey; and which now. in our day, has lent its sanction to 
the unutterable atrocity of the fugitive slave law. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 151 

"The Just Judge is honorable and honored, but the unjust Judge Is 
abhorred and brings upon his head the condemnation which he deserres/' 

For many years after the United States existed as a na- 
tion the judiciary, including the Supreme Court and the Su- 
preme Courts of the several states, did not claim to possess, 
nor did they attempt to exercise, any power or authority to 
declai'e an act unconstitutional which had been regularly 
enacted by the legislature and approved by the executive de- 
partments of the state and general governments. Our com- 
mon and fundamental law was taken very largely from the 
judicial system which obtained in England. In the reign of 
Charles II an English lord said: "The statute is like a 
tyrant. When he comes he makes all void." Blackstone, the 
eminent law giver, whose works have been used as text books 
by law students throughout our entire national life, says: 
"An act of parliament is the exercise of the highest authority 
that this kingdom acknowledges upon earth. It cannot be 
altered, amended, dispensed with, suspended or repealed, but 
in the same forms and by the same authority of parliament." 
And in this respect English law is to this day exactly what 
it was when Blackstone wrote. 

The earlier attempts upon the part of the judiciary to 
arrogate to themselves the right to annul statutes on the 
pretense that they were unconstitutional provoked the most 
violent and unsparing denunciation and criticism in New 
York, Connecticut, Bhode Island, Vermont and other states. 

In the year 1805 the Ohio legislature impeached two 
members of the Supreme Court of that state for having the 
temerity to declare one of its laws unconstitutional. 

In Kentucky, at about the same time, the legislature 
seriously contemplated impeaching the members of the Su- 
preme Court for nullifying one of the laws which it had 
enacted, but contented itself with reaffirming the law and leg- 
islating the court out of office. 

A careful examination of the federal Constitution fails 
to reveal any clause or section that by the most liberal con- 
struction confers the least shadow of such authority upon 
the Supreme Court. As late as 1825 Judge Gibson, of the 
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, in a very strong dissenting 
opinion, held that there was not the least vestige of authority 
empowering courts to nullify an act of the legislature. 

An honest and an unbiased reading of the Constitution 
of our country will convince any one that the intention of the 



152 BIENNIAL EBPOBT 

framers of that instrument was to divide the functions of 
government into three separate and distinct parts, the legis- 
lative, the executive and the judicial. The first coming di- 
rectly from the people and fully advised as to their wants, to 
enact such laws as they might demand, the second to execute 
these laws and the third to construe and interpret, to define 
what the legislative intent with reference to them w^as. Each 
of these departments to be sovereign within its own respec- 
tive sphere. 

How the three departments of government can be co- 
ordinate if the judiciary be permitted to exercise more power 
than that possessed by the other two, has not been made clear 
by any of the lights of the legal profession. 

A veto power is distinctly conferred upon the executive. 
This, however, can be overcome by a two-thirds vote of both 
branches of the public service. 

It is perfectly clear that the framers of the Constitution 
never intended to lodge any power in the Supreme Court to 
declare an act unconstitutional, no matter how unanimously 
it might have been enacted by both houses of congress, how 
strongly it was demanded by the people, or how necessary it 
was to their interest. 

In blocking legislation a power equal to one-sixth of that 
of the legislature was conferred upon the executive. Is it 
not certain that had it been intended to confer any power 
upon the judiciary to annul an act of the legislative branch, 
that it would have been so stated, even as the veto power of 
the executive was specified? 

In accordance with the usurped powers grasped by Su- 
preme Courts, it is possible for five men at Washington, or 
for two men in Colorado, to nullify and set aside the unani- 
mous action of both houses of congress and the president, or 
the unanimous action of both branches of the Colorado legis- 
lature together with that of the Governor. That it is a dan- 
gerous power can be seen at a glance. 

During the first half of the last century the power to 
annul statutes was exercised but sparingly by the Supreme 
Court and mainly with reference to statutes which affected 
the court itself, its organization, powers, etc. In fact, the 
first time that the court exercised the authority to annul a 
statute, aside from one affecting the organization of the court 
itself, was the infamous Dred Scott decision in 1857. This 
decision has always been recognized as one of the potent 



BUEEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 153 

causes leading to the civil war, and was shot to pieces before 
it was over. It is to be hoped that the decision in the eight- 
hour case will not meet a similar fate, but will be voted to 
pieces. 

It will probably not be denied that every law held to be 
unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States, 
or that of the several states, has been held to be constitu- 
tional by lawyers who were members of the legislative body 
enacting such law, and whose learning and ability was fully 
equal to that of the judges comprising the court. 

Decisions have been haAded down by the Supreme Court 
at Washington where five of the judges signed the majority 
and four the minority opinion. State Supreme Courts fre- 
quently hand down two opinions concerning the constitu- 
tionality or otherwise of a statute. 

All this proves that in the effort to determine the consti- 
tutionality of a statute, it is only men's opinions that govern. 

Is not the oath of the legislator as sacred as that of the 
judge, and does he not perform his duty as conscientiously? 
Why convene legislatures at great expense to the people if 
the Supreme Court can set aside as much of their work as it 
sees fit? 

The power exercised by courts to annul statutes, usurped 
though it undoubtedly is, has become so thoroughly in- 
trenched, both by time and precedent, that it may be con- 
sidered as established. 

I would therefore recommend to the legislature that they 
submit to the voters of this state a constitutional amendment 
defining the powers of courts and prohibiting them from de- 
claring a law passed in the regular process of legislation un- 
constitutional. 



154 BIENNIAL REPORT 



STRIKES, LOCKOUTS, BOYCOTTS, ETC 



The American laborer is a product of the industrial sys- 
tem which has grown up in the United States since our ex- 
istence as a nation. 

He has been the chief factor in national unfoldment. 
If his condition in life be better than that of his European 
cousin, it is mainly due to the fact that throughout our 
growth, and until quite recently, there has been a large area 
of free land to be had for the taking. The ability of the 
American laborer to thus become his own employer has had 
a strong tendency to drain off the apparent surplus in the 
labor market and to check that degrading competition that 
with the disappearance of free land is becoming so destruc- 
tive of our national health and vigor. 

The strike is by many supposed to be a feature of the 
labor movement peculiar to the present time and of later 
day growth. The intelligent student of history, however, un- 
derstands that the strike, that is, some form of opposition, 
of practical protest by the workmen against the employer, 
has grown up in every country where private land ownership 
has been recognized, and that it has increased in intensity 
in direct proportion as the lands of a country have become 
centralized. The modern strike is only history repeating it- 
self, with modern weapons of warfare in use. It is only 
within the last few years that the strike has taken the form 
of a disciplined industrial army acting in accordance with 
direction received from men regularly elected to manage it. 
In earlier times it was usually accompanied with violence 
and force. Now all resort to physical violence is deprecated 
and strength is concentrated upon bringing production to a 
standstill and thus forcing employers to the terms de- 
manded. The advisability of a strike must depend upon ex- 
isting conditions in each particular case. It is never jus- 
tifiable until all other ways of securing a settlement of the 
dispute have been exhausted. 

Before the civil war but little difficulty occurred be- 
tween the employer and the employe in this country. A vast 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 155 

area of rich land drew oflf the surplus labor and compelled 
the employer to pay the employe as much as he could earn 
working for himself. Wages were not especially high, com- 
paratively but little machinery was in use and labor did not 
have anything like the producing capacity of the present 
time. Hand labor was the kind most in use, and the em- 
ployer and employe worked side by side. This, no doubt, 
gave rise to the impression that the interests of labor and 
capital are identical. In a broad sense this is true, the one 
is the product of the other, and there ought to be the closest 
bond both of interest and ownership between them. Within 
the commonly accepted meaning of these two words the state- 
ment is a most absurd one and has been thoroughly exploded 
within the last few years. As factors in production each is 
trying to get all it can out of the other. 

The employer in the old days understood the men, for 
he mingled with them and was not prevented by any caste 
distinctions from working with them upon the farm or in 
the mill and workshop. The employe, upon the other hand, 
knowing all about the employer's business, took an interest 
in it and co-operated to make prosperity easier for both. 
Tbey frequently ate at the same table, and the employe of 
yesterday became the employer of to-morrow, constantly 
looking forward to the time when he would have a small 
business of his own. 

The civil war was the beginning of the era of great for- 
tunes, and its close marked the recorganization of industry in 
the United States. Hand labor began to disappear and the 
machine to usurp the place of the man. Skill and handicraft 
became less necessary, for swift moving belts, wheels, ma- 
chines, and corporations with large capital took the place of 
the old-time emploj^r. The old-time kindliness of feeling 
and mutual regard of each for the interest of the otlier dis- 
appeared. They drifted into hostile camps and each began 
glaring at the other with an ever increasing ferocity. The 
face of capital took on a hard, greedy, grasping, avaricious 
expression. The face of labor grew morose and sullen. 
Every labor saving machine brought forth by the study and 
inventive genius of the workman soon passed to the owner- 
ship of the employer and displaced workmen just to the ex- 
tent that it was labor saving. 

Labor, feeling that there was no freedom of contract, 
because no equality, between the wealthy and opulent em- 
ployer and the necessitous w^orkman, undertook to unify it- 



156 BIENNIAL REPORT 

self to enable it to meet capital upon more nearly equal 
terms. 

Capital, arrogant and haughty, refusing to concede to 
labor any of the advantages of increased production, and 
even in some instances making a surplus of laborers pro- 
duced by machines a reason for reducing the wages of work- 
men, precipitated and brought on the modern industrial 
earthquakes called strikes. 

These events have sometimes shook the republic from 
center to sea, and affected society to its very foundations. 

As a rule the press, the pulpit and the business man can 
see no good in strikes. They condemn them as wrong and 
unnecessary, and can see no justification for them under any 
circumstances. The advice is. Workmen, never strike, no 
matter what the provocation. No matter how. much there 
might be to censure in the action of employers, the advice 
was the same condemnation of strikes, anyhow. It is quite 
customary to attribute them to agitators who are too lazy 
to work and who live by fomenting trouble between the work- 
men and the employing capitalist. Every utterance made by 
their leaders, and indeed many statements that they never 
made at all, are quoted to prove what an utterly depraved, 
perverse and wicked lot of rascals the leaders really were. 
The utmost pity is generally expressed for the deluded dupes, 
as they are called, who are induced to quit their jobs. 

Those who have any familiarity with the work of or- 
ganized labor know that strikes are usually undertaken with 
extreme reluctance, as a last resort, and after all efforts by 
way of mediation and conciliation have proved fruitless. 
Even then they are only declared with three-fourths of the 
members voting in the affirmative, and with a secret ballot. 

The leaders do not lead half as much as is sometimes 
supposed. The rank and file resent any attempt at dicta- 
tion. The labor leader or agitator is usually cautious and 
conservative when a strike is proposed, and sometime^s votes 
in the negative when the question is submitted. He knows 
that he will be blamed by the public in any event, he knows 
that he is very apt to be blamed by the workmen if it don't 
come out right. He knows that the contest, save in excep- 
tional cases, is unequal in point of resources. The labor 
leader is a much abused, much misunderstood individual. 
He is usually a man of considerable intelligence, who has 
spent many years at hard, manual toil in his trade or call- 
ing, and who is unselfishly devoted to the interests of his 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 157 

class. He has suffered and endured many acts of injustice, 
many false imputations from cheap penny-a-liners who are 
either directly in the employ or desire to secure the approval 
of trust or corporation interests. He is especially an object 
of hatred and slander upon the part of maudlin newspaper 
editors who have no knowledge of the class struggle that is 
going on, and are unable to understand the integrity of his 
motives. 

Many of the labor leaders are men of high ideals, noble 
endeavor and splendid mental attainments. Under a proper 
social system these men would be in congress, upon the su- 
preme bench, and in many other places where the people 
could profit by their fine abilities and broad statesmanship. 
There are some exceptions, but as a class the real leaders 
of the labor movement will compare favorably in all the qual- 
ities that go to make up the highest type of excellence with 
any class of men of which we have any knowledge. 

The labor leader, the agitator, is heard of so frequently 
in connection with strikes, that anything which might be 
said upon the subject would be incomplete without mention- 
ing him. 

When a strike is declared the leader stays with his class 
and uses every legitimate means to make it a success. Would 
he not be unworthy if he did otherwise? 

A strike is usually the last protest of indignant men 
smarting under a sense of injustice that they feel themselves 
unable to redress in any other way. Sometimes strikes are 
wrong and no real grievance exists to justify them. Not 
often is this the case. Men are not apt to strike, when they 
knoAv it means suflfering, hardship and privation for them- 
selves and families, unless they feel it to be absolutely neces- 
sary. 

. The sympathetic strike is the highest and noblest expres- 
sion of fraternity and brotherhood. It may not be a good 
I)iisiness proposition, but it is moral heroism of the grandest 
and most unselfish character. It restores confidence in our 
common humanity, 

"When hope Is faint and flagging, 
And a blight has dropped on faith." 

It gives a new meaning and sheds fresh luster upon the 
couplet : 

"An men are brothers, how the watchword runs, 
And when men act as such Is Justice done." 



158 BIENNIAL REPORT 

Yet this Christian virtue, sympathy — this desire to help 
the unfortunate, to sacrifice self interest in order to benefit 
his fellows — is frequently pointed to by press and pulpit as 
the worst kind of a crime against society. Not always is this 
true. During the great A. R. U. strike of 1894 in behalf of 
the impoverished victims of PuUmanism, many of the news- 
papers espoused the cause of the strikers. Numerous clergy- 
men spoke ably and well, maintaining the justice of the cause 
for which the men contended. 

The lockout is the strike from the side of the employer. 
It is the refusal of the trust or the employing capitalist to 
allow the men to work until they accede to his terms. Quite 
frequently what is called a strike is, to a very great extent, a 
lockout. 

It is impossible to estimate the cost of a strike upon the 
business directly affected, the general interests of the people 
indirectly affected, and upon the workmen themselves, with 
any degree of exactness. An approximate estimate only can 
be made. 

If it be in connection with mines, the ore not taken out 
can not be figured as loss, because it is still there and will 
be taken out at a later date. The loss to a railroad in freights 
during a given period, on account of a strike, is not all loss, 
because upon resumption the road works at high pressure 
until the accumulated freight and traffic is handled and nor- 
mal conditions are again established. 

Still, the real losses are enormous, and capitalism has a 
great deal to answer for in this line. 

A good, strong, vigorous organization, well known to be 
able to conduct a strike if one is ordered, has many a time 
induced an employer to agree upon fair terms, thus obviat- 
ing it. 

Men sometimes, when receiving small wages, upon which 
they merely exist, think they may as well starve while idle 
as to slowly starve and work at the same time. Hence they 
strike in sheer desperation and despair. The more wretched 
and poverty stricken the condition of the workmen, the less 
able they are to demand and receive fair wages for their 
labor. 

A strike is not a contest between labor and capital, in 
the deepest sense, but between two different kinds of capital 
— ^the property of two sets of men. What is called capital 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 159 

is the earnings of labor, with its aggr^ate profits, when that 
wealth is employed in productive industry. When produc- 
tion stops, capital not only loses the profits it would make 
if it went on, but the wealth formerly engaged in production 
during a period of idleness is constantly wasting away. It 
is also subject to expense even when idle. Everything con- 
sidered, the loss to capital by reason of strikes is nearly as 
great as that incurred by labor. True, the loss does not im- 
pose the same suffering and hardship. 

Labor is not a commodity, as is sometimes assumed. It 
18 the capacity to earn or produce, the capacity a person has 
of doing a day's work of a given value. This capacity of the 
laborer i)erishes in the non-use as well as in the use. The 
only accumulation of the laboring man's capacity consists in 
the recuperation of physical strength gained through a period 
of rest. 

Before denouncing the attempt of wage workers to in- 
crease their wages, the critic should bear in mind the fact 
that in no civilized country in the world is labor so poorly 
paid, when measured by its efficiency, as in the United States. 
This may seem a startling proposition to some, but it is nev- 
ertheless borne out by facts. The most carefully prepared 
statistics show that the American workman receives 17 per 
cent, of the value of the finished product in the form of 
wages. The lowest wages paid in any other country claiming 
to be civilized is 25 per cent. 

Mr. Mason, United States consul at Frankfort, Ger- 
many, writing to the state department at Washington, says : 

*'It has been demonstrated that, under Intelligent, progressive man- 
agement, highly paid labor, especially when employed to use compli- 
cated machinery, is, after all, the cheapest, and that in the race for 
supremacy the inert, congested populations of the old world have been 
in many cases left behind by the people who, more than any other, have 
reduced economy of labor to an exact science. 

"He quotes in illustration of this position the secretary of the 
British Iron Trade Association, an expert of the highest authority in his 
profession: 

" 'I know of cases where the labor on a ton of billets and rails is 26 
to 35 per cent, less in America than the lowest cost I have ever heard of 
in this country, although the rate of wages paid in America is materially 
higher.' " 

This report cites the opinion of an expert, who, in mak- 
ing an investigation of the relative cost of producing shoes 



160 BIENNIAL REPORT 

in the manufactories in New England and in similar factories 
throughout Europe, refers to a Massachusetts factory which 
he visited, where the average wages paid to workmen were 
|15 per week and the labor cost of producing a pair of shoes 
was 40 cents. In German shoe factories, where the average 
weekly earnings of workmen are f3.80 per week, the. labor 
cost of producing a pair of shoes is fifty-eight cents per pair. 
These instances might be multiplied indefinitely to prove 
that labor is paid less here than in others, when measured 
by what it produces. The percentage of the value of the 
finished product which goes to labor in the shape of wages 
is less now than at any period of our national life. This is 
due to the fact that the machine is a potent factor in pro- 
duction, and the capitalist owns the machine. Labor, feel- 
ing instinctively that the machine is the common heritage 
of all, is constantly bending its energies to secure a larger 
percentage of its earnings through an increase of wages and 
a decrease in the hours of labor. 

The immense advantage which the modern trust has over 
labor in an industrial conflict is well understood by the lat- 
ter. Indeed, this phase of the question is discussed very in- 
telligently by them. It has practically demonstrated itself 
by success over too many very powerful strikes not to be rec- 
ognized. Notwithstanding it all, strikes are again and again 
resorted to. The organizations which conduct them are each 
year becoming stronger in membership and influence. Each 
unsuccessful strike impresses the wage worker with the 
strength of the power against which he is contending. He 
sees no other means, however, to enforce his demands when 
entreaty and request for arbitration have failed. The work- 
man is, therefore, not inclined to surrender this weapon, un- 
satisfactory though it is, until a better one is substituted. 

The large aggregations of capital which have reached 
such alarming proportions within the last few years have con- 
vinced the wage workers that they belong to a separate and 
distinct order of society, whose interests are in antagonism 
to that of their employers. The most careless observer must 
see that this conviction is based upon a recognition of class 
distinctions that really exist. Hence the necessity for thor- 
ough organization that may at any time take the form of 
protest. 

Contests arising between employers and employes as to 
their rights are the only ones for the settlement of which 



BUREAU OP LABOB STATISTICS. 161 

tribunals are not given by our laws. But should there not 
be a competent court of arbitration with definite powers to 
decide this most important of all controversies, affecting not 
only the individual interests of the litigants as other suits 
at law do, but the public interests as well? 

War of any kind, even for a worthy purpose, is, at best, 
a bad way to secure a good result. Its necessity is its only 
justification. 

A strike Is industrial warfare. Like all forms of war, 
it is a relic of savagery and barbarism. The result of a strike 
similar to the result of a war between nations simply deter- 
mines which party is the stronger, not which party is right. 

It is certain that with the dawning of a better civiliza- 
tion all forms of war will cease to be. In the meantime let 
the responsibility for strikes and the evil effect upon society 
occasioned by their presence be charged to the rapacity, 
greed,, avarice and selfishness which marks man's inhumanity 
to man. 



162 BIENNIAL REPORT 



STRIKES, LOCKOUTS, ETC, IN COLORADO. 



The strikes and kindred labor troubles which have 
taken place in the state during this biennial period are mat- 
ters in which the public are much interested. During the 
year 1899 thirty-four strikes occurred in the state. In this 
enumeration the smelter strikes at Denver, Durango, Pueblo 
and Leadville are considered separately. In the year 1900, 
up to November, thirty-three strikes have been recorded. 
Some of these were comparatively unimportant and but lit- 
tle space is devoted to them. 

There have been two boycotts declared, that of the teleg- 
raphers against the Colorado & Southern Railroad Company, 
and the one against the Tabor and Broadway theaters, by 
the stage employes and the Denver Trades Assembly. Both 
of these boycotts were sustained and endorsed by the State 
Federation of Labor. Several of these strikes have em- 
braced features of the boycott or the lockout. The following 
is a condensed statement of every strike or related trouble 
of any importance in the state, together with the more im- 
portant facts in connection with it. 

THE TROUBLE AT VULCAN. 

Vulcan is a small mining camp, situated in Gunnison 
county, about sixteen miles southwest of Gunnison city. In 
the month of February, 1899, about seventy-five men were 
employed in the camp, of which number perhaps fifty were 
working in the Vulcan mine. In that month a union, em- 
bracing in its membership most of the miners in that vicin- 
ity, was organized. It is claimed by the miners that Super- 
intendent Davidson discriminated against the union miners, 
discharging and laying them oflP as rapidly as he could find 
an excuse for doing so. 

A request was made for the reinstatement of the dis- 
charged miners. Mr. Davidson refused to consider it and 
treated the committee in a very insulting and disrespectful 
manner. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 163 

On the 26th of February Sam Carter, Wm. Maugh and 
sixteen other miners from Baldwin, all armed with rifles, 
arrived in camp for the purpose of enforcing the requests of 
the Vulcan Union. The engineer on duty, a non-union man, 
was told to bring the miners to the surface, and, upon his 
refusal to do so, he was promptly knocked down by nobody 
knows who. Carter at once took charge of the town. The 
non-union miners, including Superintendent Davidson, were 
placed under guard in the company bunk house, from which 
place they were regularly marched to their meals three times 
daily. The road leading to Gunnison city was patroled by 
sentries and no one was permitted to leave camp. The saloon 
was ordered to be kept closed and there was no drunkenness. 
All non-union miners and others having arms were relieved 
of them. The guns thus taken were subsequently returned 
to the owners. No money or other valuables was taken from 
any one. 

The strikers retained control of the camp for more than 
two days. An agreement was entered into with Superintend- 
ent Davidson, by the terms of which he was to discharge all 
non-union miners and to employ only union men. An armed 
guard escorted the scabs, as they were called, to lola, the near- 
est railroad station, about twelve miles distant, and cau- 
tioned them not to return. 

The entire episode was over before the general public 
obtained an inkling that there had been any trouble at Vul- 
can. 

Samuel Carter and Wm. Waugh were afterwards placed 
on trial in the District Court at Gunnison City. The first trial 
resulted in a disagreement of the jury. At the second trial 
the jury, after being out for more than twenty hours, re- 
turned a verdict of acquittal. 

STRIKE OF PAINTERS AND DECORATORS. 

ilareh 1 the painters and decorators of Denver struck 
for an advance in wages of from f2.50 to f 3 per day. After 
being on almost exactly a week an agreement was reached by 
the committee representing the bosses' association and the 
one representing the union by which the strike was declared 
off. A spirit of compromise was manifested and wages for 
the season in this craft was fixed at f2.80 per day. 



164 BIENNIAL REPORT 



THE LAKE CITY WAR. 

Early in March, 1899, a number of Italian miners em- 
ployed at the Ute and Ulay mines near Lake City, became 
involved in a dispute with the management concerning the 
boarding house. They became riotous and ugly, and with 
guns in their hands refused to permit the manager, Mr. 
Nicholson, to proceed with the working of the mines in the 
customary way. 

A short time before this, two of the miners engaged in 
a petty quarrel for the favor of the waiter girl in the board- 
ing house. A stick of giant powder was exploded upon the 
window sill of the girl's room. Though badly frightened, 
the girl was not injured at all. The incident was magnified 
and incorrectly and sensationally reported. 

Upon the night of March 12th, unknown parties broke 
into the armory at Lake City and carried away tAA-enty-five 
Winchesters, stored there for the use of the local militia. 
The news of the arsenal having been plundered, coming im- 
mediately after the boarding house adventure, caused the 
wildest and most extravagant rumors as to the condition of 
anarchy and lawlessness prevailing at Lake ('ity to circulate 
throughout the state. 

The sheriff of Hinsdale County became alarmed and sent 
Governor Thomas an urgent telegram, reciting the statute 
applying in this case, stating his inability to preserve order, 
and requesting that the state militia be sent to Lake City. 

Several companies of the state militia were hurried with 
all speed to the supposed seat of war. Upon their arrival 
they found the citizens very much alarmed, "buffaloed," as 
one of the officers expressed it. There was, however, not the 
slightest evidence of insurrection and nothing upon which 
to base such a fear except some very ridiculous riimoxs. 

One of the officers, James H. Brown, of Denver, together 
with Dr. Cuneo, the Italian Consul at Denver, accompanied 
the slieriflf to where the Italians were living, and twenty-one 
of them, all for whom warrants had been issued, were placed 
under arrest without the least trouble. They were admitted 
to bail and subsequently discharged with the understanding 
that they would leave the county, which they did. 

The guns and ammunition taken from the armory have 
never been recovered. It is believed by those in position to 
form a competent opinion, that the Italians had nothing to 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 165 

do with the raid upon the armory. This statement, in justice 
to them, is due. 

According to the most reliable information obtainable 
by this office, there was at no time any need for the militia 
at Lake City. Had the sheriflf been a man with the nerve and 
courage which that official ought to possess, the Lake City 
war would never have been heard of outside the borders of 
Hinsdale County. Had Governor Thomas been fully advised 
as to the real facts, it is safe to say that the militia would 
have never been ordered to Lake City. 

It was rumored that several miners at Lake City were 
cruelly and inhumanly treated by the militia, being hung up 
and threatened with death unless they made confession of 
what they knew about the trouble there. When the Commis- 
sioner was at Lake City he investigated these rumors very 
fully and became convinced that they were absolutely incor- 
rect and without any foundation whatever. While the sol- 
diers were at Lake City they flirted and danced with the 
women and drank with the men. If they occupied their time 
when not sleeping in any other way, no one ever found out 
in what way it was. 

The expense to the state of this excursion, as represented 
by certificates issued by the State Treasurer, was §8,761.57. 

STRIKE OF THE BRICKMAKERS. 

The beginning of 1899 marked an increased activity in 
the building trades of Denver. As the spring opened uj) the 
demand for labor in the several trades was very strong. This 
caused a general movement upon the part of the unions to 
secure higher wages. In most cases this demand upon the 
part of the men was met by the contractors in a friendly 
spirit. The wages of hod carriers was advanced from $2.00 
to f2.50 per day. Plasterers, carpenters, mill men, team- 
sters and others were accorded an advance of from 25 to 50 
cents per day. In some cases this result was secured with 
some difficulty. The eight-hour day had been firmly estab- 
lished in all trades directly connected with the building in- 
dustry. 

The rate of wages prevailing for brickmakers during the 
seasons 1897-98 had been f2.00, |2.25 and $2.50. The union 
made a demand for f2.25, $2.75 and $3.00. This demand be- 
ing refiised by the bosses, a strike was ordered early in April 
and the brick yards did not start up as usual. The situation 



166 BIENNIAL REPORT 

became very serious. The stock of brick on hand was soon 
exhausted, and all building was threatened with stoppage. 
The Manufacturers' Association refused to yield. The un- 
ion was equally obstinate. The other unions were not en- 
tirely unanimous in support of the position taken by the 
brickmakers. Numerous conferences were held without be- 
ing able to effect a settlement. The officers of the Trades 
Assembly did their best to restore harmony. The season was 
slipping away and work in all the related trades was nearly 
at a standstill. 

About 400 brickmakers were directly effected, and three 
times that number of bricklayers, carpenters, and others 
were idle. 

May 22, after being .on for six weeks, a compromise was 
reached and the strike declared off. The scale agreed to was 
f2.25 for off bearers, f2.50 for setters and f2.75 for moulders 
and expert men. An advance of 25 cents over the scale of 
the preceding year. 

April 17, a small strike involving fifteen men occurred 
upon the Moyer mine, near Leadville. It was caused by the 
reduction of the wages of trammers from f 3.00 to |2.50 per 
day. This latter sum was the prevailing rate in the Lead- 
ville district. 

The strike lasted for a couple of days, when most of the 
men returned to work at the reduced rate. 

STRIKE UPON THE MIDLAND TERMINAL. 

On the morning of April 20 the employes of the Midland 
Terminal, about 100 in number, locomotive engineers, fire- 
men, conductors, switchmen, brakemen, yardmen, etc., went 
out upon strike. 

The evening of the same day the telegraph operators and 
station agents notified the company of a demand for an in- 
crease of wages. 

All the unions of the Cripple Creek district endorsed 
the strike and gave it their support. The rate of wages paid 
at this time by the Midland Terminal was less than that paid 
by other roads for similar service. The demands of the men 
were sixteen in number, including a schedule of wages, 
hours of labor, order of promotion, no discharges without 
cause, and the right to present grievances, as follows : 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 167 

"First — Conductors shall be paid at the rate of $4 per ten hours 
for a day's work for freight train or switch foreman and overtime at the 
rate of 40 cents per hour. 

"Second — ^Brakemen and switchmen shall be paid at the rate of $3 
a day of ten hours and overtime at the rate of 30 cents per hour. 

"Third — Engineers shall be paid $4.80 for ten hours and overtime 
at the rate of 50 cents per hour. 

"Fourth — Firemen shall be paid $3 per day of ten hours and 30 
cents per hour for overtime. 

"Fifth — Passenger conductors shall be paid $130 per month; passen- 
ger brakemen shall be paid at the rate of $80 per month, and passenger 
crews shall be paid overtime after twelve hours at the rate of 40 cents 
for conductors and 30 cents for brakemen. 

"Sixth — ^We, as a body of employes, demand that we be paid at the 
rate of time and one-half Sundays and double time for all legal holidays. 

"Seventh — All old employes shall retain their positions according 
to their age on the roll, also according to their ability. 

"Eighth — ^We reserve the right to appear before the officials under 
a committee of employes for any unjust treatment 

"Ninth — No employe shall be discharged without good cause and 
subject to an investigation in the presence of a committee of employes 
or disinterested parties. 

"Tenth — Thirty minutes constitutes one hour overtime. 

"Eleventh — ^Employe's time shall commence one hour after his call. 

"Twelfth — ^Any employe called for duty and not used shall be al- 
lowed one half day and stand out first 

"Thirteenth — Ten hours or less shall constitute a day. 

"Fourteenth — Full time shall be paid crews for a dead-heading. 

"Fifteenth — Crews shall be allowed time to eat as near meal time 
as possible. 

"Sixteenth — Crews on work trains shall be paid at the same rate 
as those on regular trains." 

Superintendent Waters and W. K. Gillette, a large 
owner in the road, immediately held a conference with a com- 
mittee of the men. Upon the evening of April 21, thirty-six 
hours after being ordered out, a satisfactory agreement was 
reached and the strike on the Midland Terminal was over. 
The result was a complete victory for the strikers, as nearly 
all the demands were considered reasonable and were ac- 
ceded to by the company. 

The settlement of this strike reflects much credit upon 
the railroad management and evinces a spirit of fairness all 
the more commendable because it is seldom seen. 

The following, issued by the committee, is self explana- 
tory: 



168 BIENNIAL REPORT 

We, the undersigned committee, representing the employes of the 
Midland Terminal Railway Company, wish to state to the public and all 
the patrons of the road that all our late difFerences with said company 
have been adjusted in a satisfactory manner, both to the employed and 
the company. 

A vote of thanks is hereby tendered the Trades Assembly, the Miners' 
unions of the district, and the press of the district, the employes of the 
Colorado Midland Railway and the F. & C. C. Railway, for their sympathy 
and promised assistance, and the officials of the Midland Terminal for the 
courtesy extended to the committee, and also to the Knights of St. John 
for the use of their hall. 

J. W. EVANS, 
WILLIAM O'CONNOR, 
J. F. M'CAFFREY, 

Committee. 



About May 1 the Carpenters' Union of Denver and sev- 
eral contractors became involved in a dispute that, with less 
reasonable men than the representatives of both sides proved 
to be, would have resulted in a strike. The union scale had 
been advanced from $2.50 to f 3 per day, to take effect May 1. 
Six months' notice had been given before the advance became 
operative. The trouble was settled by mutual agreement, the 
terms being that the contractors should have the privilege 
of employing men for $2.75 per day upon buildings that had 
been contracted for before the six months' notice had been 
issued, all other work to be $3 per day. Alfred Reichard, 
president of the union, represented the carpenters. It was 
largely through his efforts that a friendly understanding 
was reached. 

May 1 the section hands in the employ of the Rapid 
Transit Company at Colorado Springs struck for an advance 
of 60 cents per day. They were getting $1.40 and struck for 
$2. As laborers were scarce, the company granted the in- 
crease. 

May 3, strike of ore sorters employed upon American 
Nettie mine at Ouray. Cause, partiality shown by the boss, 
a Swede. Strike settled by removing the offending boss and 
substituting one that was satisfactory. 

The employes of the Denver Sulphide Fiber Mills quit 
work May 8. Cause, a refusal upon the part of the company 
to restore the scale of $1.50 which was in operation prior to 
a reduction to $1.35. Strike not immediately successful, but 
wages some time afterwards restored. 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 169 

Forty-two of the men employed by The J. T. Morgan 
Heating Company upon the sewer works at Bessemer threw 
down their tools and walked out May 19. Cause, tyrannical 
exactions of the foreman. The trouble was amicably settled 
a day or two later. 

May 20, the coking ovens of The Colorado Fuel and Iron 
Company at Crested Butte were closed down, throwing some- 
thing over 300 men out of employment. The move was unex- 
pected on the part of the men and by them was looked upon 
as a lockout. The management gave as a reason that coal 
could be mined more cheaply in other mines belonging to the 
company. Many of the men allege that the organization of 
the union, which had just been effected, was the real reason 
for the shut down. Work was resumed by the company with 
a full force later in the season. No credit was given to the 
workmen at the company's store during the suspension of 
work. 

May 23. One hundred men working on the Silverton, 
Goldstone & Northern railroad grade, near Silverton, went 
on a strike. Cause, demand for increase of wages from $2 
to 12.50 a day. 

May 26. Beer Drivers' Union No. 56, of Denver, became 
involved in a slight misunderstanding with The Milwaukee 
Brewing Company. Cause, refusal of one of the drivers to 
deliver beer after hours. The offending driver, Jacob Ren- 
ner, was discharged. Strike settled by his reinstatement. 

STRIKE OF EMPLOYES OF TWIN LAKES 
RESERVOIR COMPANY. 

May 27, the services of this office were requested in the 
settlement of a strike of the employes, forty-three in num- 
ber, engaged in the construction of the Twin Lakes reser- 
voir, near Granite, in Lake county. Cause of strike, non- 
payment of wages due by contractor for The Schutt Improve- 
ment Company. Strike settled by the payment of all back 
wages, something over two thousand dollars, by The Twin 
Lakes Reservoir Company, and an advance in wages from 
11.75 to f2 per day. The reservoir company had recently 
taken the contract away from The Schutt Improvement Com- 
pany for failure to do the work according to agreement. No 
serious difficulty occurred in effecting a settlement, as the 
company recognized its liability for the labor performed. 



170 BIENNIAL REPORT 



THE SMELTER STRIKES OF THE YEAR. 

The smelter strikes of this year in Durango, Pueblo, 
Leadville and Denver will. take a prominent place in the 
category of important events in the history of the industrial 
development of this state. In point of far-reaching effect, it 
is doubtful if any of the preceding conflicts between labor 
and capital in Colorado, not excepting the great strike of the 
miners at Leadville in 1896, are at all comparable. Most of 
the producing mines in the state were closed, either wholly 
or in part. This in turn reacted upon every other business 
interest. It is well known that the workmen employed at the 
smelting and ore reduction works, through constantly inhal- 
ing the mineral poisons, in connection with the intense heat 
prevailing, are peculiarly subject to the disease known as 
lead poisoning. No class of workmen in tlie state stood in 
such urgent need of a shorter work day as did the smelter 
employes. 

It was the knowledge of this fact that prompted the 
author of the eight-hour law to include this class of workmen 
within the scope of its provisions. 

Upon the afternoon of June 2 the employes of the Du- 
rango smelter, a branch of the Omaha and Grant, one of the 
trust smelters, after drawing the fires and leaving everything 
in a good condition, walked out. About 150 men, the entire 
force save three or four, quit work. The preceding day the 
following notice had been posted : 

American Smelting and Refining Company Notice to Employes. 

First — On and after June 1, 1899, period of employment of all per- 
sons heretofore employed and paid by the day will be by the hour. 

Second — ^Worklngmen employed In smelters or other Industries for 
the reduction and refining of ore or metals will be at liberty to work 
more than eight hours per day if they elect and will be paid for the num- 
ber of hours of actual labor. 

Third — Except In cases of emergency, where life or property may 
be in imminent danger, no such laboring man will be required to labor 
more than eight hours per day. A failure to work more than such number 
of hours shall not be deemed a cause Justifying discharge from the service 
of the company. 

Fourth — ^This notice shall be the sole contract of employment for all 
workingmen so far as it relates to the period of employment. No superin- 
tendent or other agent shall have authority to change or agree to the 
violation of any of the above provisions. 

FRANKLIN GUITBRMAN. 



BUREAU OP LABOE STATISTICS. 171 

As soon as this notice was put up a committee from the 
Smeltermen's Union waited upon the management and noti- 
fied them that unless it was taken down by 2 p. m. the follow- 
ing day, the men would go out. The foreman denied author- 
ity to either pull down the objectionable notice or to treat 
with the workmen. 

As the employes have been quite generally censured for 
precipitating the strike thirteen days before the eight-hour 
law went into effect, it may be well to show where the blame 
really rested. 

Manager Guiterman left Durango on the morning of 
June 1. The notice referred to was posted as his train was 
pulling out of the depot. No one had authority to treat with 
the men after Mr. Guiterman had gone away. It is evident 
from an analysis of the notice itself that the author desired 
to place the men in a position that it would be very difficult 
for them to extricate themselves from in the future. There 
is not a hint in the notice anywhere of an increase of wages 
per hour. The second section distinctly invites a violation 
of law on the part of the employes, while the third in- 
geniously disclaims all responsibility upon the part of the 
company by stating that "no man will be required to labor 
more than eight hours, and a failure shall not be deemed a 
cause justifying discharge from the service of the company." 

Every person conversant with the manner of operating 
a smelter knows that sections second and third were not 
drawn in good faith and could not be practically observed. 
One shift cannot leave until its successor arrives. There 
must be regularity and precision as to the time changes are 
made. The number of hours worked must be an exact divis- 
ion of twenty-four, and not a number anywhere between 
eight and twelve, as the notice apparently contemplates. 

This notice was undoubtedly responsible for the strike 
at Durango two weeks in advance of the others, and can only 
be seen in that light. As the output of the mines throughout 
the entire San Juan country was, for the most part, treated 
at Durango, these mines were nearly all involuntarily closed 
very soon afterwards and remained so for nearly three 
months. 

All the smelting plants of the state, save two, had been 
taken into the trust and were subject to its control. During 
the week from June 8 to June 15 there were several consulta- 
tions between employes of the Grant and Globe works in Den- 
ver and ex-Governor J. B. Grant, the accredited representa- 



172 BIENNIAL REPORT 

tive of the trust. These meetings were barren of results. Mr. 
Grant announced an advance of 10 per cent, in wages about 
this time. The men demanded the same wages formerly re- 
ceived and a uniform eight-hour day. However, they were 
willing at all times to submit the question to the State Board 
of Arbitration and be governed by its decision. This was re- 
fused by the trust. Upon the 14th and 15th of June the em- 
ployes of the Globe and Grant smelters at Denver, the Colo- 
rado and Pueblo smelter at Pueblo, the Bimetallic and Ar- 
kansas Valley at Leadville, drew the fires, cleaned out the 
roasters and, after taking every precaution to guard the 
trust against loss, closed the works. 

Certain it is that The American Smelting and Refining 
Company, by its refusal to arbitrate with its employes, is 
directly chargeable with the injury inflicted on the business 
interests of the state as a result. 

The scale of wages paid at the Argo, one of the smelters 
which had not joined the trust, was somewhat higher than 
that paid at the other plants, and no serious difficulty was 
experienced there. 

The Philadelphia smelter at Pueblo, one of the inde- 
pendent smelters, was disposed to deal with the Smeltermen's 
Union, and treated its employes fairly. 

Upon the evening of June 16, after a protracted meeting 
between the management and a committee from the union, 
an agreement was reached, Simon Guggenheim, the'manager, 
telegraphing from New York to concede the point of differ- 
ence. The scale of wages in vogue before and after this time 
is as follows: 

Front men, formerly $2.25 for 12 hours, get $2.00 for 8 hours; side 
men, formerly $2.00 for 12 hours, get $1.80 for 8 hours; charge wheelers, 
formerly $1.75 for 12 hours, get $1.55 for 8 hours; machine roasters, for- 
merly $2.50 for 12 hours, get $2.20 for 8 hours; machine helpers, formerly 
$1.50 for 12 hours, get $1.40 for 8 hours. By order Robert D. Rhodes, 
superintendent 

It will be noticed by an examination of the foregoing 
figures that wages are advanced from 25 to 40 per cent, the 
greatest increase being granted to the most poorly paid work- 
men. The result was highly complimentary to the excellent 
business qualities of Simon Guggenheim and justly renders 
him very popular among the wage workers of Colorado. 

The striking workmen at Pueblo, Leadville and Denver 
at once proposed to declare the strike oflf and return to work 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 173 

upon an eight-hour basis with the same percentage of ad- 
vance in wages over the old ten and twelve-hour scale as that 
granted by Mr. Guggenheim to his employes. This proposi- 
tion was rejected by the trust. 

Right here it might be proper to call attention to the 
fact that when the trust was in process of organization, an 
argument advanced in its favor by the promoters was that, 
through concentration, they would thereby be enabled to pay 
better wages than any independent smelter that might be 
operated. 

The officers of the State Federation of Labor proffered 
their services in helping to effect a settlement of the strike, 
and, with the hope of being useful in this way, addressed the 
following letter, directed to ex-Governor Grant : 

Hon. J. B. Grant, American Smelting and Refining Company Represent- 
ative in Colorado: 

Dear Sir — ^As there is now a complete cessation of work in the smelt- 
ing and refining works throughout Colorado owned by the company which 
you represent, and as this most deplorable condition is entirely due to a 
difference between the owners and the employes in these plants of wages 
to be paid under the new conditions brought about by putting into opera- 
tion of the new eight-hour law, and as the complete shut-down of these 
plants will of necessity force into idleness thousands of men throughout 
the state, employed in mines, mills, factories and upon the railways, and 
likely to bring great stagnation and disaster to the laboring and business 
interests of our state if long continued, we, the Executive Board of the 
state Federation of Labor, representing the labor unions of Colorado, re- 
spectfully request a conference between yourself and others associated 
with you and the Executive Board of the Colorado State Federation of 
Labor, for the purpose of bringing about an amicable adjustment and 
settlement of the difference existing, to the end that the smelting plants 
be restored to operation, the men employed and the prosperity of our 
9tate continued. 

We believe the holding of such a conference will result in good to 
the interests of both employe and employer, and remove the threatened 
industrial crisis — a condition to be hoped for by every good citizen and 
well-wisher of our beloved State of Colorado, which has given so much 
wealth to the capitalists and employment to so large a number of people. 
Should this proposition meet your approval, we ask that the confer- 
ence be held at the earliest possible moment. 

Awaiting an early reply, and remaining ever ready to use our best 
efforts to bring about a peaceful and satisfactory settlement of the present 
controversy, we are, yours respectfully, 

BXECUTIVB BOARD OF THE COLORADO STATE FEDERATION OF 

T ABOR 

^^ • DAVID C. COATBS, President. 

J. K. ROBINSON, Secretary. 



174 BIENNIAL REPORT 

This letter elicited the following reply, which sets forth 
quite conclusively the refusal of the trust to treat with or- 
ganized labor: 

Mr. D. C. Coates, 204 New Markham Hotel: 

Dear Sir — In reply to your communication of to-day, I beg to say 
that this committee fully recognizes the gravity of the situation which has 
been precipitated upon this state by the passage of the eight-hour law, 
and by subsequent agitation and demands for an increase of wages by 
our employes, which increase the economic condition of the mining and 
smelting industry renders impossible at this time. 

While this committee is at all times ready and willing to discuss the 
situation with the men employed by the American Smelting and Refining 
Company, and to do everything in its power to bring about a resumption 
of business, it fails to see that it has any question to discuss with the 
State Federation of Labor or that any good result could come from a con- 
ference with its officers, who are strangers to the smelting business. 
Respectfully, J. B. GRANT, 

Chairman Operating Committee. 

In commenting upon the refusal of Mr. Grant to recog- 
nize the State Federation of Labor in the adjustment of the 
strike, Governor Thomas said : 

"I think that Mr. Grant is very Inconsistent in declining to have a 
conference with the officers of the State Federation of Labor," observed 
the Governor this morning. "The smelter interests are certainly a trust, 
and therefore a federation. If Mr. Grant, as the representative of the trust 
in this state, refuses absolutely to do business through an organization 
that represents the laboring class, then he is not sticking to the principles 
he represents. The offer of the Federation of Labor to hold a conference 
with the smelter men looking to a settlement of the present difficult was a 
very fair one, and if the trust continues to hold out and not listen to the 
Federation it will be the officers of the trust who will be held responsible 
for the crisis." 

Upon June 17 Governor Thomas, fully appreciating the 
gravity of the situation, and desiring to take some action 
looking to a settlement of the strike, acting upon the sugges- 
tion of many citizens, appointed a committee to try to bring 
about an understanding. This citizens' committee consisted 
of the following well-known gentlemen : E. T. Jeffery, Alva 
Adams, William Church, J. K. Mullen and Rev. George D. 
Vosburgh. 

This committee met the following day and organized, 
with Mr. JeflFery as chairman. Ex-Governor Grant came be- 
fore this meeting and made a proposition, which was the 
same as that originally made to the men, viz. : an increase of 
10 per cent. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 175 

A committee from the employes proposed the Guggen- 
heim scale as a basis of compromise. 

After considerable newspaper talk as to what they ex- 
pected to accomplish, and three or four sessions at which no 
results were secured, the committee went out of existence, 
without formulating an opinion as to how the strike ought 
to be settled. 

The Eleventh General Assembly of this state had cre- 
ated a State Board of Arbitration. This board was created 
in the hope that it would, by exercising its friendly offices, 
not only prevent strikes and lockouts, but would settle the 
troubles in their incipient stages upon terms at once fair 
and just. This board, at this time, is composed of William 
N. Byers, William F. Hynes and Rhody Kenahan, men emi- 
nent for character, fairness and decision as to right and 
wrong. They were selected by Governor Thomas on account 
of their especial fitness to discharge the duties that the posi- 
tion would involve. The duties of this board, as laid down 
in the statute, are purely advisory 

It has the power to take cognizance of difficulties of this 
kind ; to compel the attendance of witnesses, books and docu- 
ments; to arrive at a conclusion based upon the evidence thus 
obtained. Here the authority of the Board of Arbitration 
ends. 

June 28, a committee from Smelter Men's Union No. 93 
called upon Mr. Hynes, the secretary of the board, and, in a 
written communication, requested the board to take action 
as provided by law. 

The next day Secretary Hynes addressed the following 
letter to ex-Governor Grant : 

Denver, June 29. 
Mr. James B. Grant, Chairman of the Operating Committee American 

Smelting and Refining Company: 

Dear Sir — The employes of the American Smelting and Refining 
Company in writing requested — as you have already been orally Informed 
— ^the Board of Arbitration to endeavor to bring about a settlement of 
the difficulties with reference to terms and conditions of employment 
which unfortunately now exist between your company and those petition- 
ing employes. The statute creating this board states that on receiving 
notice of such a condition such as that which now prevails between your 
company and its employes, it shall endeavor to effect by mediation an 
amicable settlement of the existing difficulties. We therefore assure you 
of our most earnest desire to assist in bringing these differences or mis- 
understandings to a speedy termination to the end that industrial activity 



176 BIENNIAL REPORT 

may be resumed, which we feel sure is your personal desire and also that 
of your employes. In the event of your expressing a willingness to submit 
the question now in dispute between your company and its employes to 
this board for settlement, we assure you that it will be our purpose to take 
the matter up at once and after learning the facts from each side submit 
an adjustment according to fairness and Justice. Hoping that you will 
be able to favor us with an early reply and assuring you of our highest 
personal esteem. Very respectfully, 

STATE BOARD OF ARBITRATION, 
W. F. HYNBS, Secretary. 

This letter elicited the following reply : 

Denver, July 1. 
W. F. Hynes, Esq., Secretary State Board of Arbitration, Denver: 

Dear Sir — In reply to your favor of June 29, I beg to draw your at- 
tention to the fact that the committee which has petitioned your honorable 
board for arbitration of the differences between this company and its 
employes signs itself as a committee of Mill and Smeltermen's Union No. 
93, which is, I believe, affiliated with the State Federation of Labor and 
the Western Federation of Miners. 

This company has no business relations with the above-named union 
No. 93, and does not intend to treat with its employes as representatives 
of that organization. On the other hand, we feel that the chances are 
favorable for getting our plants in operation in a short time, and we are 
disposed to exhaust all legitimate resources in coming to an agreement 
with our own men before resorting to arbitration. The same policy has 
been followed, as you perhaps know, by several of the managers of other 
plants belonging to this company, which plants are now in operation. I 
remain, yours very truly, J. B. GRANT, 

Chairman Operating Committee. 

The following is the letter addressed to the State Board 
of Arbitration by the workmen at the smelters : 

Denver, Colo., June 29, 1899. 
To the Honorable the State Board of Arbitration of the State of Colorado: 
Gentlemen — ^We, the undersigned, a duly elected Executive Commit- 
tee, representing Smeltermen's Union No. 93, of Denver, Colo., with full 
power to act, hereby request that your honorable body convene next 
Wednesday, July 5, at 10 o'clock a. m., for the purpose of adjusting the 
dispute regarding wages now pending between our employers and our- 
selves. Respectfully, J. R. WRIGHT, 

Chairman. 

THOMAS MOORE. 

S. J. SMITH, 

J. A. WELLS, 

J. B. BARIANI, Jr., 

GEORGE H. THADY. 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 177 

July 2, the Board of Arbitration met and addressed the 
following letter to Mr. Grant : 

Hon. J. B. Grant, General Manager American Smelter and Refining Com- 
pany: 

Dear Sir — ^The State Board of Arbitration directs me to inform you 
that it will meet on next Wednesday, July 6, at 10 o'clock a. m., in room 33, 
second floor state capitol, for the purpose of investigating the difficulties 
now existing between your company and its employes, and upon such in- 
vestigation it will make its report in compliance with the statute creating 
said board. You are respectfully requested to attend. Very respectfully 
yours, 

STATE BOARD OF ARBITRATION. 

WILLIAM F. HYNES, Secretary. 

Mr. Grant promptly announced that while he would take 
part in the investigation ordered by the board, his company 
would not agree to be bound by the conclusion, nor would 
the trust recognize any labor organization. 

Mr. Nash, the president of the trust, said to a reporter 
of the Denver Post : "We will not tolerate a union among 
our men, so the Smeltermen's Union, so far as it concerns 
our company, is out of the question. If the arbitration be- 
tween us and our men comes to a question of permitting a 
labor union, we will close up shop. We will run our business 
to suit ourselves and we will not be dictated to." 

This was in accordance with the position assumed by the 
trust throughout. 

.About the time that the striking workmen appealed to 
the State Board of Arbitration, they proposed to declare the 
strike off and go to work at once, the decision of the board 
to be rendered at a subsequent date, to be binding alike upon 
both parties, the scale of wages fixed in the award to be op- 
erative from the date on which work was resumed. This 
proposition the trust also refused to entertain. 

Between July 5 and July 21 the board met several times 
and adjourned without entering upon an investigation. 
Upon July 21 the Board of Arbitration took the subject up in 
earnest, and remained in session every day until July 30, 
when both sides rested. On the following day a report of the 
board was filed in the oflSce of the Secretary of State. The 
investigation was searching and thorough. The trust was 
represented by Mr. Grant in person, as well as by ex- Attorney 
General Toll and Attorney John M. Waldron. The smelter 



178 BIENNIAL UEPOKT 

men were represented by Attorney Henry Cohen. A large 
number of witnesses were examined, and nothing was left 
undone that would aid the board in arriving at a basis upon 
which the idle smelters would at once resume. 

One day was spent by the board in investigating the con- 
ditions at Pueblo. Their report is as follows : 

Before the State Board of Arbitration — In the matter of the inves- 
tigation of the controversy relating to wages, hours of labor and condi- 
tions of employment existing between the American Smelting and 
Refining Company and its employes, the works or plants involved being 
commonly known as the Grant smelter at Denver and the Eiler and 
Pueblo smelters at Pueblo. 

This investigation having been taken up and begun on the 2 2d day 
of July, 1899, in the city of Denver, county of Arapahoe, state of Colo- 
rado, at the special instance and request of the employes of the said 
company; the board summoned and requested representatives of the said 
company and of the employes to appear before it, to testify concerning 
the matters and things causing the difTerences said to exist between the 
parties thereto, and continued the investigation from day to day, both 
in the city of Denver and Pueblo, until July 29, 1899. 

The American Smelting and Refining Company was represented at 
Denver by Hon. J. B. Grant, Dennis Sheedy and Attorney Charles H. 
Toll; and during the investigation at Pueblo it was represented by Mr. 
Anton Eiler and Attorney Charles E. Gast. 

The employes were represented both at Denver and at Pueblo by 
Attorney Henry Cohen. 

At the opening of the investigation the board inquired of the par- 
ties hereto as to whether or not they would be bound by the decision of 
this board of the matters and things to be investigated; whereupon Mr. 
Henry Cohen, attorney for the employes, stated that the employes would 
be bound by whatever decision this board would render in the premises, 
while the Hon. J. B. .Grant, representing the American Smelting and Re- 
fining Company, stated he could not at this time answer as to that 
question. 

Witnesses were sworn and examined on behalf of the employes, upon 
the wages paid at the time when the differences arose between the par- 
ties, the hours of labor, the condition of employment in and about cer- 
tain portions of the works, with reference to healthfulness or nnhealth- 
fulness, and cost of living, also testimony was taken concerning the 
wages of the employes prior to and during the year 1893, or just before 
the panic of that year. 

Numerous witnesses were examined on the subjects mentioned, by 
the board and the attorney for the employes, and cross-examined by the 
representatives of the company, after which the employes announced that 
they had produced as many witnesses as they desired, and therefore 
rested. Whereupon witnesses on behalf of the company were sworn and 
examined touching the subjects before mentioned and cross examined 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 179 

by the attorney for the employes, after which the representatiyeB of the 
company announced that they had produced all the witnesses which they 
desired to give testimony upon the matters at issue, and therefore rested. 

The testimony being all taken, Hon. J. B. Grant argued the ques- 
tions involved on behalf of the company and H. Cohen, attorney for the 
employes, argued on behalf of the workmen. 

The board being now fully advised in the premises find from the 
evidence: 

First — ^There was a reduction of the wages which existed during 
and prior to the first portion of the year 1893, and there was no restora- 
tion until June 1, 1899, on or about the time when the eight-hour law was 
to take effect. 

Second — ^That the evidence upon the cost of living was not full and 
satisfactory enough to warrant us in making any finding upon that sub- 
Third — ^That hours of labor are the same now as have existed dur- 
ing or prior to 1893, and that men working in smelters as fumacemen, 
boxmen, feeders, roasters, pot-pushers, tafTers, bullion and cartmen are 
subject to conditions which are calculated to Impair their health, if their 
labor is prolonged day after day in the discharge of their duties in the 
places named, and that eight hours per day, continuous labor, for em- 
ployes doing the kind of work mentioned is sufficient for labor under the 
conditions surrounding such work during each twenty-four hours, and 
we therefore are of the opinion that from the evidence, and considering 
all the circumstances, the following scale of wages is a fair and reason- 
able compensation for men so engaged on an eightrhour basis: 

Furnace and boxmen and all others heretofore receiving %Z for 
twelve hours shall hereafter be entitled to receive $2.20 for eight hours' 
labor. 

Tappers, pot-pushers, sidemen, feeders, roasters, bullion cartmen 
and any others heretofore receiving |2.50 for twelve hours shall here- 
after be entitled to receive |1.80 for eight hours' labor. 

All yardmen and other outside men shall hereafter be entitled to 
receive $1.75 for ten hours' labor. 

This schedule applies to the Globe, Grant and to the Eiler and 
Pueblo smelters. 

A day's work for all employes except yardmen and other outside 
men, shall, under this schedule, be eight hours; which time may be 
changed by agreement between employers and employes of any smelter 
herein mentioned, at the same ratio of wages as is allowed by this 
schedule for the eight-hour day. 

This schedule takes effect on and after this date, July 31, 1899. 

Done by the State Board of Arbitration of the state of Colorado at 
its office in the state capitol, this 31st day of July, A. D. 1899. 

W. N. BTERS, Chairman, 
RHODY XBNBHAN, 
W. F. HYNBS, Secretary, 
State Board of Arbitration. 



180 



BIENKIAL bepobt 









Board's 
Recom- 
menda- 
tion 


Furnace men 


I 240 


% 200 


I 220 


Box men 


240 
200 


200 

1 66?^ 


2 20 


Tappers 


1 80 


Potpustaers 


200 


166?^ 


1 80 


Mule drivers on dump 


200 


166?^ 


1 80 


Side men 


200 


166?^ 


1 80 


Peed floormen ... 


200 
200 


166?^ 
166% 


1 80 


Roasters .*. 


180 


Bullion men 


200 


1665^ 


1 80 


Cart men . . 


200 


166% 
1 75 


1 80 


All outside men, ten hours 


1 75 









This report could not be considered in any sense a 
victory for the employes. It was simply a fair and an equit- 
able basis of compromise, which carefully respected the rights 
of employer and employe alike. Mr. Grant claimed to fear 
the tyranny of the union if it were recognized in the settle- 
ment, therefore the board omitted all mention of uni^n labor 
in the report. The fact that the trust had taken a very active 
interest in the work of the arbiters led the public to believe 
that it would now accept the finding of the board. Mr. 
Sheedy gave it out flatly that the Globe smelter would shut 
down indefinitely before it would consent to accept the scale 
of wages proposed. 

The following letter shows the manner in which the find- 
ing of the board was received by the trust : 

Mr. W. F. Hjnea, Secretary State Board of Arbitration, Denver, Colo. : 

Dear Sir — I beg to acknowledge receipt of your letter of July 31, to 
Hon. J. B. Grant, chairman, and accompanying copy of findings and de- 
cision of the State Board of Arbitration In the matter of their InTesti- 
gs^lon of the so-called "smelter strike.'' The same has been brought to 
the attention of the operating committee. 

I am Instructed to ask you to correct the manifest error on page 
2 of the document, wherein It Is stated that after Henry Cohen, "attorney 
for the employes," had agreed to be bound by whatever decision your 
board should render In the premises, "the Hon. J. B. Grant, representing 
the American Smelting and Refining Company, stated that he could not 
at this time answer as to that question." Mr. Grant says his answer to 
this question was clear and positive, and to the effect that he would not 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 181 

agree to accept the decision of the board as binding upon the American 
Smeltins and Refining Ck>mpany. A reference to your original records 
will doubtless confirm this. 

The operating committee, after giving due consideration to the doc- 
ument, decline to accept the findings of the board as binding upon this 
company. Very respectfully yours, 

A. S. DWIGHT, 
Secretary Operating Committee. 

The smelter men were willing to accept the award of 
the board and return to work without further delay, on the 
terms proposed. 

It was really an instance of compulsory arbitration on 
the one side without being so on the other. The smelter men, 
having agreed to abide by the result, were under an obliga- 
tion to do so, while no corresponding obligation was imposed 
upon the trust. 

This action upon the part of the workmen won for them 
many friends throughout the state. 

The trust, at once, made an effort to start up the Denver 
plant with non-union men. For a time the smelter men were 
able to persuade all persons seeking employment to turn 
back without applying for work. They had a line of pickets 
guarding all the approaches leading to the smelter for this 
purpose. In a short time work was resumed by the smelter in 
a desultory sort of way with a few men. 

After the eight-hour law had been declared unconstitu- 
tional by the Supreme Court, the Smeltermen's Union held 
a meeting on August 13 and declared the big strike off by 
the passage of the following resolutions : 

Whereas, It has been demonstrated that there is a large number of 
this union's members who want to go back to work, and 

Whereas, Our executive board recommends that we declare the strike 
oft; therefore be it 

Resolved, That we, the members of Smeltermen's Union No. 98, in 
a special meeting assembled on this, the 13th day of 'August, 1899, do 
declare that we believe our cause is just, but under existing circum- 
stances, we declare the strike ofP and pledge ourselves to stay with the 
union and make it the means of bettering our condition In future years." 

The strikes among the smelter men at Leadville, Du- 
rango and Pueblo, while separate and distinct so far as local 
management w*as concerned, were settled, to all intents and 
purposes, by the action of the Smeltermen's Union at Den- 



182 BIENNIAL REPORT 

ver. They were immediately declared oflf in the different 
localities mentioned and the men returned to work. 

There is a class of philosophers who maintain that 
every event in life is necessary to the fullest and best devel- 
opment, that every failure teaches a lesson, enforces a moral, 
and is ultimately productive of good. This fact may not 
always be apparent in individual cases, but in the larger 
field of national life and race unfoldment it is ever made man- 
ifest. 

The defeat of the smelter men is not entirely without 
beneficent effect. It is another lesson taught by the school 
master experience which must convince the wage worker that 
the enormous concentration of capital which is now going on 
makes the laborer more and more dependent upon his ability 
to sell his labor and is constantly forcing him to the lowest 
point at which he can live and reproduce. 

While nearly sixty-five per cent, of the strikes between 
labor and capital in this country have been won by labor, 
it must be apparent to every thoughtful mind that whenever 
it becomes a fight to a finish, when each uses all the resources 
at its command, that capital is usually triumphant. This 
proposition never received stronger exemplification than in 
the case of the striking smeltermen. Their cause was just. 
This is undeniable. Their demands were reasonable. Their 
conduct throughout the entire period of the strike was so 
exemplary that it commanded the respect of the entire pub- 
lic. Not a single overt act against person or property was 
committed. Conscious of the justice of their cause, they had 
voluntarily submitted it to the State Board of Arbitration 
and were willing to bide the result. 

Notwithstanding it all, the result of the strike was an 
unconditional surrender. Why? Simply because the 
trust said, in effect : "We will wait until our employes are 
starved into submission." And they did. 

When strikes are on capital loses its profit, but labor, 
if the strike continues long enough, starves. Strikes are 
inevitable products of our social system. They show the ex- 
istence of disease and suggest a remedy. Boils are said, by 
physicians, to be efforts of nature to throw off the impuri- 
ties of the system. They are useful in their way, though ex- 
tremely disagreeable. Their effect is good, but if the human 
system were in perfect health they would be impossible. If 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 183 

OUT social; system were changed to conform to fundamental 
truth and, society a healthful product of natural conditions, 
strikes would only exist as a recollection of the half forgotten 
past Better try to set aside the law of gravity. Better try 
to make the waters of Niagara flow backward than try to 
prevent cause from producing effect. As long as the disease 
remains it will manifest. Strikes have their redeeming fea- 
tures. They stir the stagnant stream of thought and direct 
public attention to the abuses against which they are di- 
rected. In their victims the truth finds expression that the 
world is saved by crucified redeemers. 

When the pilgrim fathers founded a nation upon the 
sterile soil of New England they struck. When the Eng- 
lish people wrested Magna Charta from King John they 
struck. When the American colonies rebelled against the 
mother country and established a nation they struck. When 
the chattel slave in the old days escaped from servitude he 
struck against the legal right of his owner to appropriate 
his labor and in defense of his' natural right to own himself. 
Wherever an individual or a collection of individuals pro- 
tested against the existing order of things there has been a 
strike, great or small. He who professes to believe that ben- 
efits are never derived from strikes is blind to facts of which 
the world is full. He does not judge the present accurately 
nor is he a careful student of the past. 

Legislatures, statesmen, students and reformers have 
had their attention called to the labor problem largely by 
reason of the upheavals in society, caused by strikes. They 
are not fundamental remedies in any sense, merely symptoms 
of disease, milestones upon the road to a higher civilization. 

Some of the items of loss incurred by reason of the great 
smelter strike of this year can be computed with a fair de- 
gree of exactness, while other elements of cost in connection 
with it can only be approximated. The industry of smelting 
is so intimately interlaced with every other in the state that 
it is impossible to estimate the far-reaching effect of its sus- 
pension. The following figures have been compiled from re- 
liable sources and are fairly accurate. They will give a good 
idea of the loss to the interests directly affected. No esti- 
mate could be obtained from the trust as to its loss by reason 
of the strike. It was, however, nearly as great as that borne 
by labor. The rate of wages used in computing the loss to 
employes is the average daily wage paid at each of the plants 
aflfected. 



184 



BIENNIAL REPORT 



(Globe .. 
Denver < 

< Grant.. 

r Pueblo. 

(Eilcw.. 



Pueblo 



I.^advi]le 



Arkansas Valley . 

Bimetallic 

.Durango 



ToUl. 



2| 



800 
500 
800 
450 
490 

aoo 

150 



3,300 



tap 



2 10 
2 10 
2 15 
2 15 
264 
264 
250 



% 2J 



o:g 

I 

S5 



60 
60 
60 
60 
75 



Estimated loss to trust 

Coke not used, 25,440 tons at $4 50 

Coar not used, 17,842 tons at $2 20 

Supplies, tools, general merchandise, etc., not used . 



Total . 



Amount 



$ 100.800 00 
63.000 00 
103,200 00 
58.050 00 
77,615 00 
31,680 00 
28,125 00 



$ 462.470 00 

380,137 50 
114.480 00 
48.173 40 
66,000 00 



$1,071,261 90 



In the above computation 168,000 tons of ore not 
smelted, and consequently not mined, is not included. Nei- 
ther is the loss incurred by large numbers of men engaged 
in other lines of work, who found themselves idle by reason 
of the smelters being closed. The loss to the railroad com- 
panies doing business in the state was also quite heavy. The 
loss resulting to the mercantile and business interests of the 
state is something that can not be computed. Everything 
considered, it is not excessive to state that the entire loss to 
the state will reach the sum of a million and a half of dol- 
lars. 

June 14, the two Smuggler concentrating mills at Aspen 
were closed by reason of a strike. Cause — difference of opin- 
ion as to whether the eight-hour law applied to concentrating 
mills or not. It was agreed that the new law did not apply, 
and work was resumed after a delay of three days. 

June 22, the employes of the Denver Gas Works, four- 
teen in number, went on a strike. Cause — demand for an 
eight-hour day. Strike unsuccessful. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 185 

June 24, the cooks and waiters employed at the Blue 
Front Restaurant quit work. Cause — the refusal of pro- 
prietors to pay the union scale. Settled by proprietors 
agreeing to pay the wages demanded. Strike successful. 

June 26, the union laborers upon the Capitol Hill storm 
sewer threw down their tools and quit work. Cause — re- 
fusal of Contractor O'Rourke to withhold dues to the union 
from the wages of a workman without his consent. Striki^ 
amicably settled with but little delay. 

STRIKE OF THE BALDWIN COAL MINERS. 

In the latter part of June a strike was ordered by the 
miners working in the coal mines of the Alpine Coal Com- 
pany at Baldwin. The trouble between the company and 
the miners had been brewing for some time. The company 
wished the coal to be handled with forks before being 
weighed. The miners insisted upon using shovels. The dif- 
ference in the tonnage as between the use of forks and shovels 
was the point in dispute. About this time an unfortunate 
riot occurred and the miners destroyed a number of the ob- 
jectionable forks. A committee from the miners appeared 
before the State Board of Arbitration and requested it to 
settle the dispute if possible. The coal company agreed to 
be governed by the decision of the board. The board took 
the matter up promptly and settled it in a manner fairly sat- 
isfactory, and in accordance with which work was resumed. 
About a month later the company discharged two miners for 
fighting. The union demanded that the discharged men be 
reinstated, claiming that they were discharged because they 
were union miners. Mr. Van Mater, the manager, refused to 
do this, maintaining that he discharged the employes for vio- 
lating the rules of the company, and that their discharge was 
not influenced by reason of their unionism. Thereupon the 
miners declared a strike and the mine was closed down. 
After a short delay the company resumed work with a lim- 
ited number of non-nion men. The strike dragged along for 
several months and was finally declared off in the manner 
following : 

Baldwin, Colo., March 26, 1900. 
Henry Furrier, Esq., Gunnison, Colo.: 

My Dear Sir— I take the liberty of informing you through the lines 
of this (I believe) most unwelcome missive that the "strike" which has 
been on in Baldwin since the 14th day of last September has this day 



186 BIENNIAL REPOBT 

been declared off, and you can now discharge any of your "scab miners" 
that you do not wish to retain without fear of the Baldwin Miners' Union 
saying a word against such a proceeding. 

Respectfully yours, 

W. A. TRIPLBTT, 
(Seal.) ^ Financial Secretary. 

About June 15 a number of strikes occurred at a num- 
ber of the coal mining camps throughout the coal districts. 
The mines at Coal Creek, Rockvale, Williamsburg and 
Chandler, in Fremont County, were closed for a day or two. 
Cause — the application of the new eight-hour law to the coal 
mines. Nearly all of the miners worked by the ton, but few 
being employed by the day, and therefore the trouble was 
quickly adjusted. 

October 1, strike by the employes of the mill at Qillett, 
Cause — demand of |2.50 for eight hours^ work. Only lasted 
one day. The demand was granted. 

STRIKE OF LABORERS AT VICTOR. 

October 9, the hod carriers and brick tenders who were 
helping to rebuild the city of Victor, notified the contractors 
that they would not continue at work unless they were ac- 
corded an advance in wages of fifty cents per day. This the 
contractors, with few exceptions, refused to grant, and re- 
quested thirty days' notice in which to consider it. The hod 
carriers and brick tenders thereupon struck. Building oper- 
ations came to a standstill. The Victor Trades Assembly 
refused to support the strike, claiming that it was unjust. 
The Federal Labor Union, with which most of the striking 
workmen affiliated, sustained it. About 150 of the hod car- 
riers were directly affected. Three to four hundred carpen- 
ters, bricklayers and other workmen were temporarily thrown 
out of work. However, it was soon settled. Nearly every- 
thing asked for was granted, and the work of rebuilding the 
burnt district went forward with renewed vigor. 

October 15, the cooks and waiters employed at the 
"Creamerie" Restaurant on Curtis street, Denver, went on 
strike. Cause — attempt on the part of the new proprietors 
to employ non-union help. The union placed a very effective 
boycott on the restaurant. In a few days the matter was 
amicably settled, the proprietor hiring all union labor. 



BUBEAU OP LABOS STATISTICS. 187 

COOKS' AND WAITERS' STRIKE AT CRIPPLE 

November 26, strike of cooks and waiters at Cripple 
€reek. Cause — refusal of the leading hotels and restaurants . 
to pay the scale of wages demanded. The strike lasted for 
about two weeks and resulted in a complete victory for the 
Cooks* and Waiters' Union. The scale of wages for which 
they struck was conceded, (»x< epting with reference to the 
night cooks. The demand was for a raise from f21'.00 to 
125.00 per week for night cooks. A compromise was effected 
whereby the scale of wages was fixed at f 22.50. 

About December 1, the coal miners at Midland, Cardiff, 
New Castle and Spring Gulch struck for an advance in 
wages. They all returned to work in a few days, the ad- 
vance requested being conceded by the operators. The ad- 
vance asked for was 23 per cent. 

December 7, the teamsters at Victor, affiliated with the 
Federal Labor Union, went on strike for an increase in wages 
from $2.50 to |3 per day. This strike was a very short one, 
lasting only one day. The demand of the teamsters being 
considered reasonable, was immediately granted and the f 3 
scale for teamsters firmly established throughout the Crip- 
ple Creek district. 

December 8 the smelter management at Buena Vista 
posted a notice in the smelter there increasing the working 
hours from eight to twelve hours without any increase in 
wages. Indeed, with reference to some classes of labor the 
pate was diminished. As the employes, about twenty-five in 
number, were without organization, only a feeble effort was 
made to resist the reduction. 

On December 20 the entire force of machine wipers work- 
ing at the La Belle plant, Goldfield, Colo., went out on strike. 
Cause, refusal of management to increase wages from f2.50 
to f3 per day. 

About December 20 the Wedge mine, one of the large 
producing mines near Ouray, was shut down by the manage- 
ment. Cause, the management desired the miners to carry 
their dinners down the shaft, which they refused to do. It 
is claimed by the miners that it was the policy of the owners 
to shut down and that the obnoxious dinner order was only 
an excuse to enable them to do so. 



188 BIENNIAL REPORT 



CONFERENCE BETWEEN COMMITTEES OF RAILROAD ORGANIZA- 
TIONS AND THEIR EMPLOYERS. 

Upon January 2, 1900, committees from four railroad 
organizations, representing the employes of the Denver & 
liio Grande system, appeared at the general offices of the 
company in Denver and submitted new schedules rearrang- 
ing the compensation of all employes in the service -of the 
company. The schedule of the telegraphers had been opera- 
tive since 1892. The new schedule adopted between the com- 
pany and the telegraphers increased the earnings of the lat- 
ter about 180,000 per year. 

New and satisfactory schedules were agreed to between 
the company and their employes. 

The firemen and engineers requested an advance of 10 
per cent, to those engaged in running the large locomotives. 
The officials were disinclined to grant the increase. How- 
ever, no serious trouble occurred and after several confer- 
ences between the officials of the road and committees from 
the firemen and engineers the advance requested w^as granted. 

The Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen some time after- 
ward secured a new and a very fair schedule from the Colo- 
rado & Southern. 

THE BOYCOTT OF THE COLORADO & SOUTHERN BY THE ORDER OP 
RAILWAY TELEGRAPHERS. 

The most important boycott ordered in Colorado during 
the last two years was the one placed against the Colorado & 
Southern road by the Order of Railroad Telegraphers. This 
boycott was endorsed by the Colorado State Federation of 
Labor, which, in an address to the organized workers, 
strongly recommended that the power of the boycott be in- 
voked to the fullest extent against the Colorado & Southern 
road. 

W. V. Powell, president of the Order of Railroad Teleg- 
raphers, said : 

"Our membership on the Colorado ft Southern Railway is at the 
present time suffering from the effect of little pay, long hours and harsh 
treatment, and their organization, failing in its attempt to obtain from 
the managing officers of that road a satisfactory hearing or adjustment 
of the matter, determined not to strike, but to call upon our friends and 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 189 

* I ' 

the friends of equity and fair play not to patronize this line until such 
time as justice might be done our membership thereon, and we therefore 
appeal to you, the people of Colorado, Texas and other states, to assist 
us in our struggle. 

"The wages of telegraphers employed on the Colorado ft Southern 
Railway are from 20 per cent, to 50 per cent, lower than its connecting 
and competing lines, and its treatment of them does in no manner com- 
pare favorably with that accorded the employes of the Missouri Pacific, 
Santa Fe, Denver & Rio Grande and Union Pacific Railways. The Colo- 
rado ft Southern style themselves the 'Colorado Road.' This was done 
presumably for the purpose of appealing to the people of Colorado for 
their patronage and support, knowing that they have a pride in the wel- 
fare of their state and its Institutions. The title, 'Colorado Road,' is a 
misnomer. Its past actions have clearly demonstrated to us that it does 
not favor good wages, short hours or equitable conditions under which 
its telegraph employes work." 

It was claimed that telegraphers who had been dismissed 
from the service of the Colorado & Southern and had found 
employment elsewhere had been blacklisted and had been 
discharged from the service of their employers at the solicita- 
tion of the oflBcials of this road. The oflBcials of the road 
absolutely denied that they had blacklisted anyone. 

July 1, 1899, the Journeymen Plumbers' Union in Den- 
ver notified the bosses that after January 1, 1900, the scale 
of wages among plumbers would be |4.50 for eight hours' 
work. This was an advance of 50 cents per day. January 
2 the plumbers put into effect their demand by stopping work 
at all places where it was refused. After some negotiation 
between the plumbers and the Master Plumbers' Association 
a settlement was reached by postponement of the demand 
until June 1, when it was believed that the building trades 
would be 80 busy that the advance could be readily secured. 

June 1, business not being as good as was expected, no 
fiction to enforce the demand was taken. 

THE BOYCOTT OF THE TABOR AND BROADWAY THEATERS. 

The opinion of Judge Le Fevre, of the District Court of 
Arapahoe County, in the injunction proceedings sued out by 
the Colorado Amusement Company against the Denver 
Trades Assembly and Typographical Union No. 49 of that 
city, is somewhat interesting as showing a very fine distinc- 
tion between voluntary co-operation in a boycott, each union 
acting individually, and confederated action through a num- 
l>er of unions acting in concert. 



190 BIENNIAL REPORT 

These places of amusement gained the hostility of the 
Theatrical Stage Employes' Union by employing non-union 
stage hands. The Denver Trades Assembly^ with which the 
Stage Employes' Union was affiliated, declared a boycott 
against the Tabor and Broadway theaters. The Typograph- 
ical Union, which was not affiliated with the Trades Assem- 
bly, also declared a boycott against these places of amuse- 
ment and assessed a fine against any of its members who 
patronized them. 

The decision of Judge Le Fevre was that the injunction 
against the Denver Typographical Union No. 49 should be 
declared dissolved. A temporary injunction against the 
Trades Assembly and all the unions affiliating with it should 
be made permanent. The reason assigned by the judge for 
dissolving the injunction against the Typographical Union 
was that this union, not being a member of the Trades As- 
sembly, had taken the action which it did upon its own mo- 
tion and not in collusion with any other union ; that it had 
a perfect right to discipline its own members by imposing a 
fine upon any of them who should violate its rules. 

This decision was certainly rather far-fetched so far as 
it affected the unions composing the Trades Assembly. It is 
the generally accepted opinion that what is legal for one to 
do does not become unlawful when done by a larger number. 
While many of the courts have extended the use of the in- 
junction to the uttermost limit, but few cases, and until re- 
cently none at all, have gone to the extent of granting an in- 
junction where it is purely a struggle between a corporation 
on one side and employes on the other, in a matter respect- 
ing employment and wages. Mr. McCourt, the manager of 
the Colorado Amusement Company, announced through the 
Denver press that he would not treat with labor unions 
nor employ their members. Notwithstanding Mr. McCourt's 
action, the court made the injunction permanent, restrain- 
ing the Trades Assembly from entering into a mutual agree- 
ment to withdraw their support from his company. 

The case is interesting, as showing the ridiculous length 
to which the system of government by injunction may be car- 
ried, and the peculiar idiosyncrasies of thought influencing 
the judicial mind. 

January 7, 1900, nineteen teamsters in the employ of W. 
C. Howe & Co., doing a general transfer business, went on 
strike for a ten-hour day. The wages paid teamsters were 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 191 

11.25 per day, and no increase was asked for. All the other 
transfer companies in the city of Denver had granted the 
ten-hour day from January 1. The committee of two, who 
made the request on Howe & Co., were discharged and all 
the others struck. This strike was never settled and the firm 
is still under the ban of organized labor. 

January 17, 1900, thirty miners working at the Hidden 
Treasure mine, near Lake City, went on a strike. Cause — 
The employment of five foreigners, believed to be Italians. 
Strike settled by discharging the men objected to. 

January 22, forty miners employed at the Blaine mine, 
near Ouray, went on strike. Cause — Non-payment of wages 
due. Strike settled after a few days by the miners being paid 
in full. 

STRIKE OF COAL MINERS. 

January 25, 1900, about thirty coal miners employed at 
the Carbon coal mines, near Colorado Springs, struck be- 
cause of their objection to the doctor employed by the com- 
pany and paid by the men, and also because of the weigh 
scales, which were claimed to give incorrect weight in weigh- 
ing the coal. Both demands of the men were conceded by the 
company — ^another doctor was engaged and the scales ad- 
justed satisfactorily. The strike was declared off the follow- 
ing day. 

February 20, twenty-six boys employed in the Valverde 
glass works struck for an advance in wages of from 25 to 50 
cents a day. The manager granted the demands of the boy», 
and after one day the strike was declared off. 

February 22, twenty-one carpenters employed on the ad- 
dition to the Cliff house, in Manitou, went on a strike. 
Cause — The employment of non-union lathers and plasterers 
by the contractor. Strike settled by the discharge of the non- 
union men. 

March 1, Judge Palmer, of Denver, issued a temporary 
injunction against A. R. Thompson, restraining him from 
completing a contract entered into with the Preis Clothing 
Company. By the terms of the contract only union labor 
was to be employed. INIr, Thompson undertook to do the 
work with non-union labor. Fearing that a boycott would 
result, the company enjoined him from completing the con- 



192 BIEXNIAL BEPOBT 

tract. Mr. Thompson took proceedings to have the injunc- 
tion dissolved, but Judge Palmer overruled the petition. 
This decision was afterwards reversed by Judge Butler and 
the injunction dissolved. 

The strike of the employes upon the power plant at Cam- 
eron, Colorado, terminated March 5, after lasting several 
days. The iron workers received, by the terms of settlement, 
f 3.50 for an eight-hour day, and the laborers f 3 for the same 
length of day. This was the same scale of wages formerly 
received for a ten-hour day. 

March 1, 1900, the Mill and Smeltermen's Union, in the 
Cripple Creek district, demanded and secured an eight-hour 
day for employes in stamp mills and reduction works. Prac- 
tically the same wages formerly received for ten and twelve 
hours were paid. The only friction that occurred was with 
the company operating the Gillett reduction works, which 
were idle for several days. The following is the scale of 
wages in the schedule agreed to : 

Engineers |4 00 

Firemen 3 50 

Head roastermen 3 00 

Helpers for roastermen 2 50 

Head man In barrel room 3 00 

Helper In barrel room 2 50 

Precipitating room men 3 25 

Machinists 4 00 

Helpers to machinists 3 50 

Carpenters 3 50 

All others employed in or around mills 2 50 

March 1, the several crafts connected with the building 
trades in the city of Denver asked the bosses for an increase 
of wages. The Building Trades Council unanimously voted 
to sustain all the different unions affiliated in their demands 
for increased wages. This demand, it was generally under- 
stood, would be resisted by the contractors. The plan 
adopted by the unions, of acting individually and making 
the dates when the requested increase should go into effect 
a month apart, in a measure prevented that concerted action 
upon the part of the contractors which might have otherwise 
made itself felt. 

The scale of wages in operation before the first of March, 
in several of the building trades, and the scale established 



BUBfiAU OF LABOB STATISTICS. 193 

after that date, but not without some little trouble, is as fol- 
lows : 

Before After 
March 1. March 1. 

Bricklayers |4 00 |5 00 

After 
Mayl. 

Carpenters $3 00 $3 30 

Lathers 3 00 3 25 

After 
April 1. 
Painters and decorators |2 80 |3 00 

This table of wages applies, in every instance, to an 
eight-hour day. 

A strike of the bricklayers in Denver on March 1, was 
averted by their request for an increase of wages being 
granted. 

About this time the Bricklayers' Union of Colorado 
Springs succeeded, after a sharp fight, in establishing a uni- 
form wage of five dollars for an eight-hour day among the 
bricklayers in that city. 

The demand of the sheet metal workers of Denver for 
an advance of 25 cents per day was granted by the master 
builders without serious opposition, the increase being from 
12.75 to f 3.00 per day. 

STRIKE OF WORKMEN AT COLORADO SPRINGS. 

On the morning of March 6, two hundred members of 
the Building Trades Council, of Colorado Springs, quit work 
and went on strike. Cause — a difficulty which had arisen 
between the Plumbers' Union of that city and St. John Bros., 
a firm of plumbing contractors, concerning the employment 
of a non-union plumber. Workmen of other crafts upon all 
buildings where any of St. John's men were employed went 
out in sympathy with the demands of the plumbers. Ten 
members of the Plumbers' Union were disciplined by way of 
a fine of f 25.00 each for continuing to work for St. John af- 
ter the strike was declared. The men refused to pay the fine 
at first, but a few days later St. John Bros, gave a check for 
1250, conditioned upon the decision of the National Plumb- 
ers' Association at Chicago, to whom the case had been ap- 
pealed. 



194 BIENNIAL REPORT 



THE STRIKE OP THE DENVER PLASTERERS. 

This strike was caused by the demand of the Plasterers' 
Union that the boss plasterer should carry a union card, 
and after the first of March but one member of the finii 
should work on the scaffold with the journeymen. To this 
the master plasterers refused to accede. The question of 
additional pay did not enter into the controversy. There 
were about seventy-five boss plasterers in the city, under the 
system of small contracting, and not more than fifty plas- 
terers who were always journeymen. A considerable num- 
ber of the contractors were or had been members of the Plas- 
terers' Union. The Building Trades Council was divided as 
to the merits of the contending interests. The strike was 
simply a struggle for the privilege of working, it being un- 
derstood that if one of the bosses was kept from working, it 
would make work for one additional journeyman. About 
the first of April, work in the building trade came nearly to 
a standstill, because workmen of other trades would not 
work upon buildings where the rule of the journeymen plas- 
terers was not respected. On April 6 a settlement was 
reached through the intervention of the Building Trades 
Council, and the strike was declared off. 

March 20, five union tailors in the employ of the Taisey- 
Davis Tailoring Company, in Denver, refused to work unless 
two non-union tailors in the shop were discharged. As the 
company refused to do this, the five men walked out. 

In March, the cooks and waiters in Denver placed a boy- 
cott on the Enterprise Restaurant. In this they received 
the support of the Denver Trades Assembly. This action was 
caused by the employment of non-union labor and an at- 
tempt to reduce the wages of waiters to five dollars per week. 
The boycott was pushed with vigor, and after a few days this 
house and a few others were unionized in every particular. 

Early in the month of 5Iay this restaurant passed into 
the possession of new parties, and another attempt was made 
to reduce the wages of employes. This effort was resisted 
by the waiters, who maintained sentries in front of the place, 
notifying would-be customers that the house had been boy- 
cotted. This restaurant was soon unionized and the union 
scale of wages restored. 



BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 195 

April 1, about thirty boiler makers in the employ of the 
steel works of the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, at Pu- 
eblo, went on strike, the boiler makers demanding time and 
a half for work performed on Sundays and holidays. The 
object of this strike was to tax overtime, Sunday and holiday 
work, out of existence, and not for the purpose of advanc- 
ing wages. The company conceded the demand of the men 
by abolishing Sunday and holiday work as much as possible. 

A few weeks later the machinists in the employ of the 
same company submitted the same demand and gained the 
same results. 

April 7, six porters employed at the County Hospital in 
Denver went on a strike for an increase of wages from |25 to 
f40 per month. The striking porters addressed a petition to 
the board of county commissioners, giving a number of rea- 
sons why their request should be granted. The board refused 
and the strike ended. 

April 1, a small strike involving the plumbers employed 
at two of the shops in Pueblo was ordered by the local union. 
Cause — ^Violation on the part of the employers of an agree- 
ment entered into with the Plumbers' Union respecting the 
conditions upon which plumbers should be employed. The 
trouble was soon adjusted in a satisfactory manner and work 
went forward as usual. 

About the first of March the Carpenters' Union at Flor- 
ence gave notice that after April 1 the wages of carpenters 
would be f 3 for an eight-hour day. The new scale went into 
effect without friction excepting at the works of The Metal- 
lic Extraction Company, where some difficulty was had in 
inducing the management to grant the requested increase. 

STRIKE OF LABORERS AT COLORADO SPRINGS. 

April 5, the plasterers, hod carriers and lathers at Colo- 
rado Springs went on a strike. -The strike of the lathers and 
hod carriers was mainly sympathetic. The trouble was be- 
tween the journeymen's union and the boss plasterer^' union. 
No question of Wages was involved, but solely a question of 
trade privileges. The Masters' Association issued an order 
that a journeyman who worked for an employer not a mem- 
ber of the association should be blacklisted as one working 
against the best interests of the craft. This order was 
rescinded. A few other differences were settled and the 
strike was declared off. 



196 BIENNIAL REPORT 

Freight traffic in the yards of the Florence & Cripple 
Creek railroad at Victor was tied up for a few hours on April 
24, on account of the refusal of Superintendent Rockwell 
to discharge a switchman who had been pronounced incom- 
petent by his fellow switchmen and by a conductor on the 
train. Strike was settled by the discharge of the objection- 
able switchman. 

May 14, about 350 coal miners employed by The Colorado 
Fuel and Iron Company at Sopris went on a strike. Cause — 
The miners alleged that the company was not giving them 
full weight for their coal, also that they were compelled to 
pay 2 per cent, of their wages for insurance. The company 
promised to make a full investigation and do them justice, 
and the miners returned to work. 

STRIKE OF SWITCHMEN AT VICTOR. 

May 16, 1900, all the switchmen, fifteen in number, em- 
ployed on the Golden Circle railroad in the Florence & Crip- 
ple Creek yard at Victor quit work and caused a complete 
suspension of freight traffic over the Circle road. This strike 
was caused by the discharge of a conductor and a brakeman 
who were accused by Superintendent Rockwell of having 
caused a wreck through carelesness. The switchmen insisted 
that the discharged conductor and brakeman be reinstated, 
as they were not responsible for the accident, the cars having 
been condemned and used in violation of the federal laws. 
The local officials refused to reinstate the men and held that 
they had not used good judgment in handling their train. 
The grievance committee came to Denver and called on the 
president of the road, J. J. Frey, but Mr. Frey declined to 
interfere. The strike was illegally called and the following 
telegram, received from the acting grand master of the 
Switchmen's Union of North America, brought it to a con- 
clusion and the switchmen returned to work : 

"Nottingham, Ohio, May 17, 1900. 
"F. R. RockweU, Superintendent of the F. ft C. C. R. R. Co., Victor, Colo.: 
"There has been no legal strike declared on your road. Give me 
names of men implicated and full particulars, that I may settle the 
trouble. "L. H. PORTER, 

"Acting Grand Master." 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 191 



STRIKE OF DENVER CARPENTERS. 

January 1, 1900, the Carpenters' Union of Denver served 
notice upon the contractors that on and after May 1 the 
scale of wages would be advanced from f 3 to $3.50 per day, 
without the half holiday on Saturday. Many of the contrac- 
tors resisted this demand when the day mentioned arrived. 
Throughout the month of May nearly all carpenters employed 
received $3.50 per day. The employers' association, early in 
June, submitted a proposition fixing the scale of wages at 40 
cents per hour or $3.20 per day, and granting a Saturday half 
holiday for four months in the year. The Carpenters' Union 
met this with a counter proposition calling for 41 cents per 
hour and Saturday half holidays during the entire year. 
This was agreed to as a basis of settlement on June 18, and 
the strike was over. Extra ^ood mechanics continued to re- 
ceive $3.50 per day. The union disciplined all members who 
worked upon jobs that had been declared unfair by imposing 
upon them a fine of from $10 to $25 each. 

Upon May 17 there was a riot at Rocky Ford and great 
disorder prevailed. Cause — A number of Mexicans had been 
brought in to supply the farmers engaged in beet culture 
with labor. Considerable wild shooting took place. Later 
the Mexicans returned and were given employment by the 
farmers in the beet fields. 

May 12 the miners employed at the Sedalia copper mines 
went on strike for an improvement in the quantity and qual- 
ity of the board furnished them at the company's boarding 
hoTUse. The grievance complained of was corrected in a sat- 
isfactory way by the company and the strike was declared 
off the second day. 

A CLAUSE REQUIRING THE EMPLOYMENT OP UNION WORKMEN. 

Early in the month of May, this year, the county com- 
missioners of Arapahoe county advertised for bids for the 
building of an annex to the County Hospital. In the adver- 
tisement asking for these bids they inserted a clause si)ecify- 
ing that no bid would be considered unless the contractor 
bound himself to employ none other than union labor. The 
strike of the carpenters had not at that time been settled. 

A delegation of contractors attended a meeting of the 
commissioners and requested that the provision relating to 



198 BIENNIAL REPORT 

the employment of union labor be stricken out. Delegates 
from a number of unions connected with the building trades 
appeared before the commissioners and favored the retention 
of the clause relating to union labor. 

George F. Dunklee appeared in behalf of the unions as 
counsel. He contended that the commissioners had the same 
right to determine the conditions upon which the work should 
be done that an individual would have under the same cir- 
cumstances, that there was nothing illegal or contrary to 
public policy in the clause objected to. Mr. Dunklee cited 
many authorities to show that the board had a lawful right 
to do that which in its judgment was for the best good of the 
county and was not prohibited by any law of the state. A 
large amount of precedent for the action taken by the com- 
missioners was cited. 

The legality of the clause in the advertisement requir- 
ing the employment of union labor upon the part of the con- 
tractor was referred to the county attorney, Cass F. Herring- 
ton. The county attorney rendered an opinion to the effect 
that the clause making the employment of union labor com- 
pulsory on the part of the contractor was illegal and void. 

June 12, 1900, there was a small strike of the miners 
employed upon the Atlantic Cable mine, near Rico. The 
trouble involved about twenty miners and was with refer- 
ence to wages. Work was resumed upon the morning of June 
16, all differences having been agreeably settled. 

STRIKE OF GRANITE CUTTERS AT COLORADO SPRINGS. 

June 19 work was suspended upon the part of the gran- 
ite cutters who were dressing stone to be used on the county 
court house in process of erection at Colorado Springs. 
Cause — ^A refusal upon the part of the contractor to erect 
sheds to protect them while at work from the intense heat 
of the sun. The demand was granted the following day, 
shade being provided, and the granite cutters, twenty-two in 
number, returned lo work. 

June 21 six cooks and waiters, employed at Tucker's 
restaurant, Colorado Springs, went on strike for the scale 
of wages fixed by the union of the craft in that city. A boy- 
cott was declared, and, aft«r a few days, the house was union- 
ized. 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 199 



TROUBLES AT THE CAPITOL BUILDING CONCERNING BAGLEY & CO. 

The contract for the last work necessary to the comple- 
tion of the Capitol building in Denver was let by the board 
of capitol managers to Bagley & Co., of Chicago, the bid being 
several thousand dollars less than the one put in by the Colo- 
rado contractor. The work consisted of wainscotting and 
marble setting, French marble being used. Soon afterwards 
this firm became involved in the trouble with the building 
trades council of Chicago. Bagley & Co, was placed upon 
the unfair list and could not finish the work upon the Capitol 
building according to contract. 

After many vexatious delays Governor Thomas canceled 
the contract and the work was completed by the bondsmen 
of Bagley & Co., the American Surety Company. 

A good deal of protest was made by the local unions 
against Bagley & Co., whose work was being boycotted in all 
parts of the country wherever found. 

STRIKE OP BUILDING LABORERS AT COLORADO SPRINGS. 

June 29 the concrete workers, helpers to the bricklayers, 
the bricklayers and masons, in all something over fifty work- 
men, employed upon the Antlers Hotel in Colorado Springs, 
went out on strike. The cause of this strike was a demand 
upon the part of the masons' helpers and the concrete work- 
ers for an advance in wages of from f 1.75 to f 2.25 for a ten- 
hour day to 12.50 for an eight-hour day. The bricklayers 
went out in obedience to a request from the trades council, 
with which they were aflftliated. The Bricklayers' and Ma- 
sons' Union withdrew from the trades council, denouncing 
the strike. The members of this craft returned to work the 
following day without reference to the action token by the 
other unions. 

This action resulted in bitter antagonism between the 
bricklayers and the other workmen. Building operations 
were delayed considerably by reason of the refusal of the 
union men in other crafts to work with the bricklayers upon 
any job in the city. 

After a time the differences were harmonized through 
the friendly offices of the executive committee of the State 
Federation of Labor. 



200 BIENNIAL REPORT 

Later the contractors entered into an agreement with 
the trades council by which the council was to furnish them 
with unskilled labor and they were to employ only union 
labor. 

THE STRIKE AT THE DENVER MINT. 

The strike at the Denver mint in the first instance was 
an extension of the Chicago strike or lockout. It was caused 
by the refusal of the local stonecutters to work upon stone 
which had been handled by the scab labor employed by Bag- 
ley & Co., of Chicago, large contractors of stone work, and 
who had the contract of supplying the contractor upon the 
mine, Mr. Mclntyre, with certain kinds of stone. 

June 16 the local stonecutters laid down their tools and 
refused to work on a building for which material furnished 
by the objectionable firm was used. 

The strike at this time had also some of the features of 
a lockout, for Mr. Mclntyre, anticipating a general strike, 
issued an order laying off or locking out all workmen em- 
ployed upon the building, including the granitecutters. This 
order was rescinded almost immediately and the granitecut- 
ters returned to work. 

The soft stonecutters imposed a fine of $250 upon the 
mint contractor for using material furnished by the scab 
firm of Bagley & Co. Mr. Mclntyre protested that the firm 
was fair at the time he gave them the contract and that he 
could not revoke it afterwards. He, nevertheless, paid the 
fine and practically settled the trouble so far as it concerned 
himself and the soft stonecutters. 

The return of the granitecutters to work upon the mint 
brought on the war between the union of the soft stonecut- 
ters and that of the granitecutters, which became very bitter. 
Their differences were carried into the Trades Assembly and 
caused that body no little annoyance. 

From this time work upon the mint went forward with- 
out interruption and that building is rapidly nearing com- 
pletion. 

THE PRESS HELPERS AND THE NEWSPAPERS. 

The differences which had existed for several weeks be- 
tween the press helpers in the Denver newspaper offices and 
the management was settled July 18. The trouble never 
assumed an acute form and at no time was there even a 
threatened cessation of work or any trace of bad feeling. The 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 201 

question at issue was one regarding wages. When it came 
up both sides signed an agreement to submit the case to the 
State Board of Arbitration and be governed by its decision. 
The press helpers were receiving a salary of 1^15 per week, 
which they wished to have raised to ?18. 

The State Board of Arbitration rendered a decision 
which increased their weekly earnings to J17.25. 

The basis of settlement was f 14.25 for six days' work 
and f 3 for Saturday, upon which day the press helpers 
work a long shift. 

June 26, 1900, eight brick carriers and mortarmen em- 
ployed upon the new school building at Leadville, went on 
strike for an increase. Work was suspended for a couple of 
days, when some of the strikers returned to work and the 
places of the others were filled with new men. 

STRIKE OF RAILROAD GRADERS AT VICTOR. 

The laborers employed at the work of grading upon the 
Colorado Springs & Cripple Creek District railroad grade, 
near Victor, went on strike for an increase of wages of from 
12.00 for a ten-hour day to f2.50 for an eight-hour day for 
common laborers, and to $3.00 per day for rockmen. The 
minimum current rate of wages in the Cripple Creek dis- 
trict is f 2.50 per day. 

A resolution or ordinance had been passed by the city 
council of Victor a short time previously, requiring contrac- 
tors to pay their labor not less than f 2.50 per day. 

The strike was ordered by Federal Labor Union No. 19, 
who did not wish the railroad graders to be placed in the 
position of violating the city ordinance in this way, or of 
lowering the wage standard in the district. This strike was 
settled upon August 2 and the graders returned to work, 
Dunphy and Nelson, the contractors, agreeing to the ad- 
vance requested, namely, $2.50 for laborers and $3.00 for 
rockmen for an eight-hour day. 

September 7, about forty employes of the Newton brick 
yards at Pueblo went on strike. Cause — the refusal upon 
the part of the proprietor to unionize the yards. A number 
of the men employed were non-union workmen. 

September 12, 1900, the ore concentrating mill at Gil- 
lett, Colorado, was closed. The management offered to con- 



202 BIENNIAL REPORT 

tinue the mill in operation if the employes would accept a 
reduction in wages of 20 per cent., which proposition they re- 
jected. 

The mill would have probably been closed in a short 
time, in any event, as the company was about ready to trans- 
fer all its business to Florence, Colorado. 

STRIKE OF THE WOODWORKERS IN DENVER. 

At noon, October 2, 1900, 110 woodworkers employed in 
the planing and lumber mill of McPhee & McQinnity quit 
work and notified the proprietors that they would not re- 
turn until the non-union workmen in the employ of the firm 
had been either initiated in the Woodworkers' Union or dis- 
charged. As McPhee & McGinnity refused to do either, this 
strike had been ordered at a meeting of the Woodworkers' 
Union upon the evening of October 1. 

The trouble culminating in this strike had been brew- 
ing for more than a year. Six months previously, notice had 
been served upon the proprietor of every planing mill in the 
city, that there would be a strike upon October 1, unless the 
mills in the city were fully unionized at that time. When 
this date arrived and the edict went into effect, every lumber 
firm in the city had complied with the request save McPhee 
& McGinnity, who could not be prevailed upon to do so. Only 
four of the employed were non-union men. 

The strike was at once endorsed by the Building Trader 
Council and by the executive committee of the State Federa- 
tion of Labor. 

The strike spread as rapidly as any material from Mc- 
Phee & McGinnity's lumber yard reached any of the buildings 
in process of erection in the city, union workmen of all kinds 
refusing to handle any material from these yards or to work 
upon any building where such material was used. 

October 6, the strike was very much extended. Lumber 
had been sent from the yard of McPhee & McGinnity to all 
lumber yards and planing mills in . the city whose owners 
were members of the Mill Owners' Association. The wood- 
workers were ordered to use this lumber or quit, and all the 
men in the four mills walked out. 

At this time all the mills belonging to the Lumber 
Dealers' Association were closed. This included, in addition 
to the mill of McPhee & McGinnity, the mills of Hallack & 



BUEEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 203 

Howard, Sayre-Newton, 11. W. Bingham, and B. F. Salzer. 
It affected about 265 woodworkers. 

So far as the situation affected the last four firms it 
was more in the nature of a lockout than a strike. The em- 
ployes here had been laid off for refusing to handle lumber 
from the yard of McPhee & McGinnity. 

Building operations had been suspended upon a very 
large number of buildings, and the strike or lockout had be- 
come general by October 8. 

Upon the 9th, committees from the Mill Men's Associa- 
tion and the Woodworkers' Union met, and after a pro- 
tracted session all differences were amicably adjusted. 

For the first time in the history of Denver, every em- 
ploye in the planing mills was a member of the Woodwork- 
ers' Union. In accordance with the conditions upon which 
the strike or lockout was settled, all the lumber mills in 
Denver were completely unionized. In the future all non- 
union workmen employed were to be discharged if they did 
not join the Woodworkers' Union within a reasonable time. 

What threatened to be a complete tie-up of the build- 
ing trades was fortunately averted without serious incon- 
venience, and with only a temporary stoppage of work. At 
no time during the dispute did the trouble develop that spirit 
of ill will and hate which usually accompany diflftculties of 
this kind. The best of feeling prevailed throughout, and 
work was resumed without the friendly relations that had 
existed in the past being disturbed. No question of wages 
was involved in any way. The object sought, that of union- 
izing the mills, was gained, and the trouble was happily 
over. 

STRIKE OP MINERS AT INDEPENDENCE MINE, VICTOR. 

The strike of the miners employed at the Independence 
mine at Victor, September 23 of this year, was caused by 
the posting of an order requiring all underground men to 
strip to the skin when going to or returning from work. 
For several years the Independence and other mines in the 
Cripple Creek district producing high grade ore had suf- 
fered considerably through the practice of ore stealing. The 
losses of the Independence mine alone, by reason of the theft 
of rich ore, was approximated to be from f 5,000 to f 15,000 
per month. The ore stolen was valuable, usually being 
worth from one dollar to twenty dollars per pound. The 



204 BIENNIAL REPORT 

following is a copy of the order causing the mine to close 
down: 

"Rule 1. All underground men, shaft top men, ore sorters and tram- 
mers from ore houses must change ALL their clothes when going on 'or 
coming off shift, and pass from one room in our change house to the other 
undressed, and under obserration of the watchman. 

"Rule 2. All men affected by Rule 1 shall, when going on shift, enter 
the change room at east door, and, after changing clothes, pass out west 
door. When coming off shift, enter at west door and pass out east door. 

"Rule 3. Smoking and the use of intoxicants positively prohibited 
while on shift." 

Just below this notice was a typewritten notice reading as follows : 
"The undersigned mines hereby agree to adopt a uniform system for 
change rooms. Change rooms shall have two compartments; one for dig- 
ging clothes and the other for dress clothes. The change rooms shall be 
completed at as early a date as possible. All underground men, shaft top 
men, cagers and ore sorters shall be required to change ALL their clothes 
when going on or coming off shift, and shall pass from one room to the 
other undressed under the observation of the watchman." 

This was signed by Stratton's Independence, Limited, H. A. Shipman, 
manager; the Gold Coin M. & L. Co., F. M. Woods, manager; Portland G. M. 
Co., James F. Bums, president; the Elkton Con. M. & M. Co., Sol Camp, 
superintendent; the Mary McKinnie Mining Co., George L. Keener, super- 
intendent; Last Dollar G. M. Co., Charles Walden, superintendent; Vindi 
cator Con. G. M. Co., F. J. Campbell, secretary and manager. 

This order occasioned great excitement at Victor and 
caused many expressions of indignation upon the part of the 
men whom it was proposed to subject to these indignities. 
An observance of the rules given above was believed to be 
repugnant to their manhood and self-respect and could not 
be favorably considered. A mass meeting was held, and op- 
position to the stripping system found expression in vigor- 
ous resolutions being passed in denunciation of it. The gen- 
eral public, as well as the miners, recognized that while the 
habit of ore stealing should be stamped out, the companies 
had gone too far in promulgating this extreme order. The 
miners' unions of the district pledged themselves by resolu- 
tions to expel any member guilty of ore stealing. After 
dragging along for a time and many conferences between the 
management and representatives of the miners, an agreement 
w^as reached, largely through the friendly efforts of the Min- 
ers' Union, in accordance with which the Independence re- 
sumed operations. The agreement finally determined upon 
is as follow^s : 



BUREAU OB^ LABOR STATISTICS. 205 

First — The miners will change their clothing down to their under- 
garments in the change room as they come from work and pass before a 
watchman before donning their street clothes. 

Second — ^Any miner suspected of having stolen ore on his person 
shall be searched by one of his fellow workmen, selected by himself, in 
the presence of the watchman. 

Third — ^Any miner refusing to change or be searched under these con- 
ditions shall be discharged. 

Fourth — The present manager will give preference to members of 
the union in employing men, and will urge all miners now employed to 
Join the union. This stipulation does not bind the company nor apply to 
any mine but the Independence. 

STRIKE OF TELEPHONB LINEMEN AT COLORADO SPRINGS. 

Eight linemen employed by the Colorado Telephone 
Company at Colorado Springs went on strike, November 1. 
October 23, the linemen presented the local manager with a 
petition, requesting an advance in wages from $2.85 to ^, 
and a decrease in Uxe hours of labor from ten to nine. They 
also asked for a semi-monthly pay day. While the requests 
made had not been refused by the company, they had not been 
granted by November 1, and the men struck. The strikers 
were employed at construction work, which work was dis- 
continued by the Telephone Company. 



206 BIENNIAL EEPOBT 



ARBITRATION-VOLUNTARY AND COMPULSORY* 



Employes, employers, and the general public, which is 
not a direct party to that form of warfare between labor and 
capital which takes the form of strikes and lockouts, are 
alike agreed as to the desirability of avoiding the recurrence 
of these events, if possible. In dealing wdth the question, it 
will be remembered that there are three separate and dis- 
tinct, and yet in a larger sense inseparable, interests to be 
considered. First, that of the workman, who must sell his 
labor for maintenance. Second, that of the employing capi- 
talist, and, third, but by no means least, that of a large num- 
ber of people engaged at industries more or less related to 
those directly affected, who are always injuriously affected 
proportionately to the size or magnitude of the strike or lock- 
out, for the reason that they base their business transactions 
upon normal conditions. With the praiseworthy motive of 
attempting the settlement of industrial disputes, without re^ 
sorting to open conflict, voluntary arbitration has long been 
looked upon as a wise and proper course of procedure. 

Boards of arbitration and conciliation, as they are called, 
have been established in most of the European countries 
gince early in the last century. By reason of the mediation 
of these boards many disputes have been amicably settled 

Prom the time that the organization of labor in this 
country became a potent factor in American industrial life 
down to the present, the arbitration of disputes between the 
employed and the employing classes has been consistently 
and generally advocated by the former. There are some ex- 
ceptions to this rule, but they are not numerous. 

The old National Labor Union, organized in 1866, the 
first large federation of organized workers upon this side of 
the Atlantic, advocated the settlement of disputes by arbi- 
tration. The Knights of Labor, the strongest labor organ- 
ization in its day in the world, at the first general assembly 
of that body, held in 1878, made arbitration one of its car- 
dinal tenets, and it has ever remained such. So strong has 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 207 

become the sentiment in favor of arbitration that most na- 
tional and international unions have a provision in their con- 
stitutions to the effect that a strike shall be illegal, and they 
will render no assistance to the strikers, unless they shall 
have first offered to submit the entire question in dispute to 
an impartial tribunal. 

Among the laws governing unions is the following, taken 
from the constitution of the International Typographical 
Union, and shows the advanced position taken by this organ- 
ization upon this troublesome question : 

"Recognizing strikes as detrimental to the best interests of the craft, 
it directs subordinate unions not to order a strike until every possible 
effort has been made to settle the difficulty by arbitration." 

Nearly all the states in the Union at the present time are 
looking to and encouraging the settlement of disputes by this 
method. These laws have been generally favored by the labor 
organizations in existence in the several states. In 1885 an 
amendment to the constitution of Colorado, providing for 
the arbitration of difficulties between labor and capital, was 
submitted to the legislature. It was referred to the commit- 
tee on constitution and was not heard from afterward. 

At the session of the legislature in 1887 a measure estab- 
lishing a state board of arbitration was introduced in the 
senate. It was referred to the Supreme Court, and that tri- 
bunal held that certain parts of the proposed act were uncon- 
stitutional. That settled it. 

At the eleventh session of the general assembly, 1897, a 
law creating a State Board of Arbitration was enacted. The 
following is that portion of the law of 1897 which sets forth 
how the board shall be appointed, what the qualifications of 
the members composing it must be, and fully defining their 
powers and duties : 

Be it Enacted 1)y the General Assembly of the State of Colorado. 

Section 1. There shall be established a State Board of Arbitration 
consistins of three members, which shall be charged, among other duties 
provided by this act, with the consideration and settlement by means of 
arbitration, conciliation and adjustment, when possible, of strikes, lock- 
outs and labor or wage controversies arising between employers and em- 
ployes. 

Section 2. That immediately after the passage of this act the Gov- 
ernor shall appoint a State Board of Arbitration, consisting of three quali- 
fled resident citizens of the State of Colorado and above the age of thirty 



208 BIENNIAL REPORT 

years. One of the members of said board shall be selected from the ranks 
of active members of bona fide labor organizations of the State of Colorado, 
and one shall be selected from active employers of labor or from or- 
ganizations representing employers of labor. The third member of the 
board shall be appointed by the Governor from a list which shall not 
consist of more than six names selected from entirely disinterested ranks 
submitted by the two members of the board above designated. If any 
vacancy shall occur in said board, the Governor shall, in the same manner, 
appoint an eligible citizen for the remainder of the term, as herein before 
provided. 

Section 3. The third member of said board shall be secretary thereof, 
whose duty it shall be. In addition to his duties as a member of the board, 
to keep a full and faithful record of the proceedings of the board and 
perform such clerical work as may be necessary for a concise statement 
of all official business that may be transacted. He shall be the custodian 
of all documents and testimony of an official character relating to the 
business of the board; and shall also have, under direction of a majority 
of the board, power to issue subpoenas, to administer oaths to witnesses 
cited before the board, to call for and examine books, papers and docu- 
ments necessary for examination in the adjustment of labor differences, 
with the same authority to enforce their production as is possessed by 
courts of record or the Judges thereof in this state. 

Section 4. Said members of the Board of Arbitration shall take and 
subscribe the constitutional oath of office, and be sworn to the due and 
faithful performance of the duties of their respective offices before enter- 
ing upon the discharge of the same. The Secretary of State shall set 
apart and furnish an office in the state capitol for the proper and con- 
venient transaction of the business of said board. 

Section 6. That whenever any grievance or dispute of any nature 
shall arise between employer and employes, it shall be lawful for the 
parties to submit the same directly to said board, in case such parties 
elect to do so, and shall Jointly notify said board or its clerk in writing 
of such desire. Whenever such notification is given it shall be the duty 
of said board to proceed with as little delay as possible to the locality of 
such grievance or dispute, and inquire into the cause or causes of such 
grievance or dispute. The parties to the grievance or dispute shall there- 
upon submit to said board in writing, clearly and in detail, their grievances 
and complaints and the cause or causes therefor, and severally agree in 
writing to submit to the decision of said board as to the matters so sub- 
mitted, promising and agreeing to continue on in business or at work, 
without a lockout or strike, until the decision is rendered by the board, 
provided such decision shall be given within ten days after the comple- 
tion of the investigation. The board shall thereupon proceed to fully in- 
vestigate and inquire into the matters in controversy and to take testi- 
mony under oath in relation thereto; and shall have power under its 
chairman or clerk to administer oaths, to issue subpoenas for the at- 
tendance of witnesses, the production of books and papers in like manner 
and with the same powers as provided for in section 3 of this act. 

Section 6. That, after the matter has been fully heard, the said 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 209 

board, or a majority of Its members, shall, within ten days, render a de- 
cision thereon in writing, signed by them or a majority of them, stating 
such details as will clearly show the nature of the decision and the points 
disposed of by them. The clerk of said board shall file four copies of 
such decision, one with the Secretary of State, a copy served to each of 
the parties to the controversy, and one copy retained by the board. 

Section 7. That whenever a strike or lockout shall occur or seriously 
threaten in any part of the state, and shall come to the knowledge of the 
members of the board, or any one thereof by a written notice from either 
of the parties to such threatened strike or lockout, or from the mayor or 
clerk of the city or town, or from the Justice of the peace of the district 
where such strike or lockout Is threatened, it shall be their duty, and they 
are hereby directed, to proceed as soon as practicable to the locality of 
such strike or lockout and put themselves in communication with the 
parties to the controversy and endeavor by mediation to effect an amicable 
settlement of such controversy, and, if in their Judgment it is deemed 
best, to inquire into the cause or causes of the controversy: and to that 
end the board is hereby authorized to subpoena witnesses, compel their 
attendance and send for persons and papers in like manner and with the 
same powers as it is authorized by section 3 of this act 

Sec. 9. The parties to any controversy or difference as described 
in Section 5 of this act may submit the matters in dispute in writing to 
a local board of arbitration and conciliation; said board may either be 
mutually agreed upon or the employer may designate one of such arbi- 
trators, the employes or their duly authorized agent another, and the two 
arbitrators so designated may choose a third who shall be chairman of 
such local board; such board shall in respect to the matters referred to 
it have and exercise all the powers which the state board might have 
and exercise, and its decision shall have such binding effect as may be 
agreed upon by the parties to the controversy in the written submission. 
The Jurisdiction of such local board shall be exclusive in respect to the 
matter submitted to it, but it may ask and receive the advice, and as- 
sistance of the state board. Such local board shall render its decision 
in writing within ten days after the close of any hearing held by it, and 
shall file a copy thereof with the secretary of the state board. Each of 
such local arbitrators shall be entitled to receive from the treasurer of 
the city, Tillage or town in which the controversy or difference that Is 
the subject of arbitration exists, if such payment is approved by the 
mayor of such city, the board of trustees of such village, or the town 
board of such town, the sum of three dollars for each day of actual ser- 
vice not exceeding ten days for any one arbitration: Provided, that when 
such hearing is held at some point having no organized town or city 
government, in such case the costs of such hearing shall be paid Jointly 
by the parties to the controversy. Provided, further, that in the event 
of any local board of arbitration or a majority thereof failing to agree 
within ten (10) days after any case being placed in their hands, the 
state board shall be called upon to take charge of said case as provided 
by this act. 



210 BIENNIAL REPORT 

While the Colorado law respecting arbitration differs in 
some unimportant particulars from that of other states, in 
so far as the laws of the different states define the powers 
and duties of the arbitrators, they are all substantially sim- 
ilar. It will be noted that both parties to the dispute must 
agree to be governed by the findings of the board, otherwise 
such findings will be inoperative and of no effect. It thus con- 
fers upon disputants by statute the same rights which they 
possess in the absence of any specific law on the subject. 
When the disputants will agree to submit their differences 
to arbitration and be bound by the result, it is a most excel- 
lent way of disposing of the matter. When they will not 
agree to do so a law conferring that privilege upon them is 
not very effective. Whatever merit voluntary arbitration 
laws might have had in the past under a system of small 
production, they possess still less under a system of large 
production with an immense aggregation of capital upon 
the one hand and the constantly consolidating forces of labor 
upon the other. Notwithstanding the bitterness with which 
employers cry out against strikes, they have quite generally 
refused to prevent them by agreeing to arbitrate the question 
at issue. The result of such arbitrament has not always been 
entirely to the liking of the employers, they refuse to be 
bound by the result, and the battle is fought out on the same 
lines that it would have been had there been no board of ar- 
bitration in existence. 

\^Tiere labor organizations have become strong and pow- 
erful they have been able to enter into an agreement with 
employers that all disputes arising shall be settled in a given 
manner. 

The United Mine Workers have such an agreement with 
the Coal Managers' Association in many of the states, and 
all disputes are settled in this way without serious trouble. 
The International Association of Machinists have such an 
understanding with their employers, known as the New York 
agreement. This agreement may be found in the chapter, 
"The Rise and Growth of Labor Organizations in the United 
States." 

The Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Work- 
ers, an organization comprising all of the iron and steel 
workers in the iron manufacturing districts, have estab- 
lished and maintained for many years what is known as the 
sliding scale. The scale of wages which covers boiling and 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 211 

puddling and every kind of work in connection with the 
manufacture of iron, rises and falls in proportion as the 
price of manufactured iron advances or declines. The basis 
for this sliding scale of wages is fixed annually between the 
committee of the Manufacturers' Union and that of the 
Amalgamated Association. There is a minimum rate fixed, 
below w^hich wages cannot go. 

One serious obstacle in the way of voluntary arbitration 
of labor troubles is the opposition to it upon the part of em- 
ployers who are apt to look upon it as an invasion of their 
rights, an attempt to prevent them from hiring and discharg- 
ing whom they please, an attempt to prevent them from con- 
ducting their business in such manner as they think best. 
They are therefore inclined to reject arbitration, either vol- 
untary or compulsory, as an effort upon the part of others 
to control their individual business. "Have I not a right to 
do what I please with my own wealth?'' says the capitalist. 
No, you have not — the assumption is an incorrect one. No 
person has a right to do absolutely what he pleases with that 
which the law recognizes as his own. The great mass of 
wealth, no matter how it may have come into the possession 
of the individual, the corporation or the trust, has been so- 
cially and collectively created, and is the legitimate heritage 
of our common civilization. The public still retain an inter- 
est in that wealth after it has passed to the possession of the 
individual appropriator. Government still has a right to 
command that such wealth shall be amenable to such laws 
and regulations as shall best conserve the common weal. The 
state, when its existence is imperiled, will coerce into the 
service as much life as may be necessary for its preservation. 
Shall your wealth, which you didn't produce at all, but only 
acquired, be considered more sacred? 

Legislatures and courts are continually formulating 
laws and precedents determining the manner in which all 
the individual rights of each person or corporation shall be 
exercised. Children under a certain age must attend school 
so many weeks in the year, they shall be employed only so 
many hours in the week and only at' certain kinds of labor. 
Railroads shall be operated in accordance with legal re- 
quirements and not as the owners think best. Coal and met- 
alliferous mines must be worked, not as the notion of the 
owner may direct, but in compliance with prescribed forms. 
Physicians, lawyers, dentists, drug clerks, school teachers, 



212 BIENNIAL REPORT 

and many others must conform to given regulations before 
they are privileged to practice at that for which they con- 
sider themselves especially fitted. The individual has not 
even the right to erect a building in any incorporated city, 
without first securing a permit from the legally constituted 
authorities. 

But why particularize further? Instances can be mul- 
tiplied by the score to prove that the right to determine the 
manner and conditions upon which all business shall be con- 
ducted belongs to the whole people, and that they exercise 
this power through government — ^local, state and national. 

An examination of the reports issued by the boards of 
arbitration and conciliation of New York, Massachusetts, 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Connecticut, Missouri and other states 
proves quite conclusively that the records of the labor move- 
ment contain but comparatively few instances of successful 
voluntary arbitration. 

The Labor Commissioner of Kansas, in a report issued 
several years ago, says: "Our arbitration law has been al- 
most a dead letter so far, but I think its moral effect has been 
good." The first half of the foregoing quotation very cor- 
rectly represents the practical application of the arbitration 
law in this state, and as for the moral effect it would be diffi- 
cult to show in what way it has been good. When the pres- 
ent law was passed it was expected that the moral effect of 
a decision of the State Board of Arbitration would be to in- 
duce both parties to the controversy to cheerfully accept the 
result. This illusion has been dispelled and is no longer en- 
tertained by any one. 

By far the most important industrial dispute that the 
State Board of Arbitration since it was organized in this 
state has been called xxpon to settle, was that of fixing the 
scale of wages and the hours of labor between the smelter 
trust and its workmen, in the summer of 1899. The people 
of Colorado, are familiar with the result. The workmen, 
faithful to the traditions of the labor movement, pledged 
themselves in advance to accept the decision of the board, 
whatever it might be. No duty was ever undertaken in bet- 
ter faith or discharged more conscientiously than in this in- 
stance by the state arbiters. This was more than could have 
reasonably been expected, inasmuch as the trust, through its 
representatives, refused to be bound by the result. The trust 
insisted that it had nothing to arbitrate. 



BUREAU OB^ LABOR STATISTICS. 213 

Still a large number of citizens had convinced them- 
selves that the owners would accept the award and open up 
the smelters in accordance with its provisions. They were 
soon undeceived, as the trust treated the decision with illy 
concealed contempt. 

The outcome demonstrated the futility of accomplishing 
any results through voluntary arbitration, and emphasizes 
the necessity of conferring upon the board, power and au- 
thority to enforce its decisions. 

A large employer of labor in an eastern state, when one 
of the great strikes was on several years ago, remarked : 

"There is no manager of a corporation who knows his business 
and is fit for his place who wiU not sooner lose millions in resisting a 
strike than save something in yielding to one." 

Compulsory arbitration of disputes between labor and 
capital is the only kind of legal interference that can hope 
to be effective. Two individuals are not permitted to settle 
their differences by a trial of brute strength. How much 
more important it becomes to submit to l^al requirements 
when vast interests are involved, must be evident to every 
one. The whole is greater than any number of its parts. 

Would not compulsory arbitration of disputes between 
employer and employe be equivalent to fixing wages by law? 
may be asked. Of course it would. It is not only the right 
but the duty as well, of the state to stretch out its paternal 
hand and have a voice in the more equitable distribution of 
industrial earnings. 

Civilization has certainly advanced to that point where 
it should be impossible for the selfish interests of the few to 
jeopardize the interests of all, and the people be compelled 
to remain passive and inactive, no matter how deeply they 
may be affected by the result. 

It is not maintained that this measure will prove a pan- 
acea for all ills. It will not, but it will clarify the atmos- 
phere, prevent strikes and lockouts, cause the industrial 
classes to take a more active interest in economic questions, 
and bring individual and corporate possessions more directly 
under the control of the state. 

Henry D. Lloyd of Chicago, one of the most widely 
known writers and thinkers upon sociological questions, has 
spent some time in New Zealand making a study of the con- 



214 BIENNIAL REPORT 

ditions which obtain in that country. In speaking of the 
compulsory arbitration law in operation there, he says : 

Another thing which other people are talking about, and which the 
New Zealanders have meanwhile gone and done, Is compulsory arbitra- 
tion. I attended a session of the arbitration court in which employes 
8.nd employers appear to discuss their differences. The scheme was most 
impressive. Instead of the factory locking the men out, on one side, or 
the workmen being on a strike, on the other, the industry was in full 
swing, while the representatives of both sides were submitting the issue 
between them to the arbitrament of a disinterested judge. 

After a decision has once been reached by the court it is not ad- 
visory, but binding, and can be enforced like any other decree of the 
court. Such a decision gives stability to the business affected, and for 
two years no new variation in the terms of the award can be asked for 
by either side. TJie effect is to give a certainty and security to manu- 
facturing operations in New Zealand which are possessed by no other 
country in the world. 

On the surface many of the New Zealand manufacturers seem to 
be bitterly opposed to the arbitration law, but it is easy to see that, un- 
derneath, the real sentiment, led by some of the shrewdest of their num- 
ber, is rapidly gaining in favor of this extremely successful and wealth- 
conserving measure. 

The excellent success attending compulsory arbitration 
in New Zealand, the most progressive and advanced coun- 
try in the world, will fully justify its establishment here in 
Colorado, the most progressive state in the Union. 

The old-time opinion that differences between labor and 
capital were matters to be settled by the parties themselves, 
is disappearing. In sending out the schedule to wage work- 
ers, to which reference is made in another chapter, the ques- 
tion was asked, "Are you in favor of amending the arbitra- 
tion law in a manner that will enable the State Board of 
Arbitration to enforce its decisions?" In reply to this query, 
683 answers were received. Of this number 535 were in the 
affirmative and 148 in the negative. 

The object lesson presented to the public by the refusal 
of the smelter trust to accept the award of the Board of 
Arbitration in July, 1900, fair and impartial though it was, 
has had a most salutary effect upon popular thought There 
is a strong feeling that the board should be made efficient, 
not merely advisory. It is our firm conviction that the pre- 
vailing sentiment in this state is strongly in favor of com- 
pulsory arbitration, and should a constitutional amendment 
embodying this proposition be submitted to the voters of 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATlS1:iCS. 215 

Colorado it would undoubtedly carry by a very large ma- 
jority. 

I would earnestly recommend the submission of such 
an amendment to the voters of Colorado by the thirteenth 
general assembly. 

So far as the organization of the proposed board is con- 
cerned, I would recommend that it be made to consist of 
three persons, and that their term of office shall be for two 
years. Two of the members of this board shall be elected by 
popular vote at each state election, as other state officers are. 
In order to be eligible to election as a member of this board, 
one of the two members should be an employer of labor, and 
the other should be a workingman and a member in good 
standing of some genuine labor organization for at least two 
years prior to the date when he is sworn, into office. The 
third arbiter shall be selected by the two that are elected by 
popular vote, and in case of their inability to agree upon the 
third arbiter within thirty days of their induction into office, 
then he shall be selected by the Governor of the state from a 
list of four names, two of which shall be submitted by each 
of the two arbiters elected by popular vote. 

Compulsory arbitration of disputes between labor and 
capital will be a step in the direction of wider governmental 
control of production and distribution, and as such exem- 
plifies the thought expressed by Longfellow in the familiar 
lines : 

"Heaven is not gained at a single bound; 
We build the ladder by which we rise 
From the lowly earth to the azure skies. 
And mount to the summit round by round." 



216 ' BIENNIAL REPORT 



NATIONAL, INTERNATIONAL AND STATE 
FEDERATED BODIES* 



THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR. 

The years immediately following the war between the 
states were marked throughout the North by the rapid or- 
ganization of workmen into trades unions, the forming of 
these unions into national and international craft organiza- 
tions, and an earnest attempt to amalgamate all these unions 
into one federation. 

The trades assemblies of New York city and Baltimore, 
in the spring of 1866, issued a call for a national convention. 
In response to this call, upon August 20 in the same year, 
about 100 delegates from sixty organizations met at Balti- 
more and organized the National Labor Union. It was 
broad and progressive, and counted among its active promot- 
ers many of the ablest and best labor leaders of that day. 

Subsequent conventions were held in Chicago in 1867, 
Pittsburgh in 1868, Chicago in '1869, Boston in 1870, Phila- 
delphia in 1871, and at Columbus, Ohio, in 1872. 

The panic of 1873 came on and the federation was un- 
able to maintain its national character, and it disint^rated, 
the Columbus convention being the last one held. 

During the next few years the organization of labor was 
at a low ebb, and a strong national federation of trades did 
not exist. 

On November 15, 1881, 107 delegates from national, in- 
ternational and local bodies, representing a constituency of 
262,000 craftsmeij, assembled at Pittsburgh, Pa., and organ- 
ized the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions 
of the United States and Canada. 

The second convention of this convention was held at 
Cleveland, Ohio, November, 1882, where a manifesto was is- 
sued guaranteeing industrial autonomy to ^ch union aflBl- 
iated. 



BUBBAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 217 

Subsequent conventions were held in New York city in 
1883, Chicago in 1884, and at Washington, D. C, in 1885. 

In 1886, at Columbus, Ohio, the old form of organiza- 
tion was abandoned and the present title of the Federation 
was adopted. A new constitution, embodying many improve- 
ments and greatly strengthening the Federation, was 
adopted. 

At this session the national unions of miners, tailors, 
barbers, metal workers, iron molders, printers, furniture 
workers, granite cutters and cigar makers were aflaiiated, 
bringing the total membership up to 316,469. 

The year 1887 is a memorable one in the history of or- 
ganization. Labor unions sprang up as never before. When 
the Federation assembled in annual convention at Baltimore, 
in December of that year, it was found that 2,421 locals were 
represented by the delegates present, and that the member- 
ship had been increased to 600,340, in good standing. 

The next convention was held at St. Louis, Mo., and is 
memorable by reason of the unanimity and enthusiasm with 
which the delegates resolved to push the agitation favoring a 
general eight-hour work day. 

In 1889, the Federation met at Boston, Mass. 

At the tenth annual convention, held at Detroit, Decem- 
ber, 1890, it was reported that 913 branches had been aflMi- 
ated during the year. The affiliated organizations had en- 
gaged in 1,163 strikes, of which number 989 were successful, 
76 lost and 98 compromised. Most of the unions reported an 
increase of wages. 

Birmingham, Ala., was the city selected for the annual 
convention in 1891. It was the first time that the Federation 
had met in the South. This meeting filed a very strong pro- 
test against the practice, even then b^inning to be indulged 
in by courts, of issuing writs of injunction against wage 
workers, charged with no offense against the law, but en- 
gaged in a controversy with their employers. 

Later day annual conventions of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor have been held in Philadelphia, Pa, ; Chicago, 
111. ; Denver, Colo. ; New York city ; Cincinnati, Ohio, Nash- 
ville, Tenn., and at Kansas City, Mo. 

At Denver, Colo., in December, 1894, the convention 
adopted resolutions favoring the free coinage of silver at the 



218 BIENNIAL REPORT 

ratio of sixteen to one, and a decliaration in favor of free land 
on an occupancy and use title. 

The nineteenth, and last, annual convention of the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor, up to the present writing, was con- 
vened at Detroit, Mich., December 11, 1899. There were 189 
del^ates present, representing 155 organizations. During 
the preceding year 450 charters were issued directly by the 
American Federation of Labor, and 1,814 by the affiliated 
national organizations. The gain in membership was re- 
ported as being 144,282. The American Federation of Labor 
and affiliated organizations had taken part in 601 strikes. 
Of this number 425 were won, 39 compromised, 8^ pending, 
and 48 lost. 

There is now affiliated : 

National and International Unions 78 

State Federation of Labor 11 

City Central Labor Unions and Trades Assemblies 118 

Local Unions, of which no National Union exists 595 

Federal Labor Unions 202 

The membership is larger than at any time in the history 
of the Federation, being about 730,000. 

The basis of representation in a national convention of 
the American Federation of Labor is one delegate for 4,000 
members or less ; 4,000 or more, two delegates ; 8,000 or more, 
three delegates; 16,000 or more, four delegates; 32,000 or 
more, 5 delegates ; 64,000 or more, six delegates, and so on. 

The delegation representing each national or interna- 
tional union affiliated have one vote for each 100 members in 
the union and upon whom per capita tax has been paid dur- 
ing the year. The average membership throughout the year 
preceding being used to determine the voting strength of each 
organization. 

In this way all the rights of each union are fully pro- 
tected without the convention becoming large or unwieldy. 

The object of the American Federation of Labor is de- 
clared to be : 

"The encouragement and formation of local trade and labor unions 
and the closer federation of such societies through the organization of 
central trade and labor unions In every city» and the further combina- 
tion of such bodies into state, territorial or provincial organizations, to 
secure legislation In the interest of the working classes." 



BUREAU OF LABOE STATISTICS. 219 

"The establishment of national and international trade unions, 
based upon a strict recognition of the autonomy of each trade, and the 
promotion and advancement of such bodies." 

"An American federation of all national and international trade 
unions to aid and assist each other, to aid and encourage the sale of 
union label goods, and to secure national legislation In the interest of 
the working people and Influence public opinion by peaceful and legal 
methods in favor of organized labor." 

"To aid and encourage the labor press of America." 

The foregoing sufficiently epitomizes the general object 
and purpose of the Federation. 

The American Federation of Labor is at present the one 
great organization of toilers upon this continent. It is highly 
probable that within the next few years every labor organiza- 
tion in America will be affiliated with it. It will undoubt- 
edly broaden to include the economic as well as the industrial 
field. 

THE COLOEADO STATE FEDEEATION OF LABOR. 

The Colorado State Federation of Labor was organized 
because, in the opinion of the promoters, the interests of the 
working classes could be more effectually protected by a state 
organization, where the wants, wishes and demands of each 
can be made known to all the others better than in any 
other way. The labor conditions in each state and the char- 
acter of legislation desired is, in a measure, different from 
that demanded in the other states. All the organized work- 
ers in a state where close acquaintance is possible, can con- 
centrate their energies for the attainment of a common good 
much more readily than can a large national organization 
with headquarters in another part of the country. 

To perform a work distinctively its own and not in any 
way trenching upon national organization, the State Feder- 
ation of Labor was called into being. 

In the spring of 1896 a resolution was passed by the 
Central Trades and Labor Union of Pueblo reciting the ad- 
vantage of a state organization of labor and urging the 
unions of the state to send delegates to a state convention, 
to be held at Pueblo, May 1, of that year, to form a state 
federation of labor. Sixty unions responded to this call 
and sent delegates. The convention was in session for two 
days and formed the present State Federation of Labor. 



220 BIENNIAL REPORT 

Otto F. Thum, of Pueblo, was elected president and L. A. 
Rogers, of Denver, secretary. 

The second convention was held at Victor, May, 1897, 
and about the same number of members and about the same 
number of unions was represented as at Pueblo the previous 
year. 

The session lasted for two days and the discussions re- 
lated very largely to the best w^ay by which the federation 
could increase its membership and enlarge the sphere of its 
usefulness. 

In May, 1898, the third convention was held at Colorado 
Springs. The preceding year had witnessed a considerable 
increase in the number of unions aflSliated with the federa- 
tion, and a larger number of delegates were in attendance 
than at either of the two preceding conventions. This ses- 
sion lasted for three days. While the usual consideration 
was given to labor and craft questions, it was evident from 
the tone of the resolutions adopted and the general tenor of 
the discussions that very active political action was being 
contemplated. A plan was formulated that would enable the 
federation to engage in active politics without forming a 
political party. Resolutions were adopted requesting the 
incoming legislature to provide for holding a constitutional 
convention, also in favor of the enactment of an eight-hour 
day for smeltermen and underground miners. The conven- 
tion further pledged itself to use the best endeavor of organ- 
ized labor to secure laws for weekly pay days, abolition of 
the use of scrip by company stores, a plumbing inspection 
act, an anti-child labor law, free text-books for the public 
schools, the repeal of the anti-boycott law, a more efficient 
mechanic's lien law, an effective employe's liability law, a 
law authorizing public work to be done by the day and abol- 
ishing the contract system, a law for the licensing of barbers. 
Several of the measures, notably the one calling for an eight- 
hour day for smeltermen and miners, were enacted into law 
at the session of the legislature the following winter. This 
result was influenced, to a very great extent, by the endorse- 
ment which the federation had given to these measures, and 
by the further fact that a very efficient committee represent- 
ing the federation was in attendance at the legislative ses- 
sion for the purpose of promoting the passage of these laws. 

On June 5, 1899, the fourth annual convention was held 
in the city of Denver. The convention remained in session 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 221 

for five days. The attendance was good and much interest 
was manifested. Resolutions were adopted favoring the en- 
forcement of the eight-hour law and denouncing the out- 
rages perpetrated upon the miners in the Coeur D'Alene 
country by the military and the civil authorities. 

The most important measures endorsed by this conven- 
tion w^as the submission to the people by the Thirteenth Gen- 
eral Assembly of constitutional amendments which will es- 
tablish the initiative and referendum and will confer upon 
the several counties in the state the privilege of exempting 
personal property from taxation and collecting all taxes from 
franchises and land values. 

The proposition to construct a union co-operative flour- 
ing mill in Boulder, Colo., was endorsed, as was also a reso- 
lution asking the legislature to prohibit labor upon the part 
of tradesmen on the Sabbath day when such labor is not ab- 
solutely necessary. 

The following resolution looking to independent polit- 
ical action was adopted : 

Resolved By the Colorado State Federation of Labor in conyentlon 
assembled, that we favor the following plan of political action: 

First. That upon the adoption hy the referendum of this plan the 
executive board shall caH a delegate convention of all the unions affil- 
iated with the State Federation of Labor, the representation to be the 
same as to this convention, for the purpose of naming three candidates 
for each state office, namely: 

Justice of the Supreme Court, Governor, Secretary of State, Treas- 
urer, Attorney General, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Presiden- 
tial Electors, etc. 

The candidates so named shall be submitted to the unions affiliated 
for a vote; the executive board shall canvass the vote and announce the 
result. The person receiving the highest number of votes for any office 
shall be declared the nominee for that office, and together they shall con- . 
stitute the State Labor Ticket. 

Provided, That this plan shall first be submitted to the referendum 
for approval or rejection. 

In December, 1899, the proposition was submitted to a 
referendum vote of the affiliated unions. February 3, 1900, 
the returns from the unions being in, the executive board 
met in the city of Denver, canvassed the result and declared 
the proposition carried by a very large majority. March 12 
as the time, and the city of Pueblo as the place, was agreed 
upon to hold the referendum convention. 



222 BIENNIAL REPORT 

In compliance with the call issued, the convention was 
duly convened and was in session two days. Three candidates 
for each office were placed in nomination by the assembled 
delegates in the usual manner, and the ticket thus made up 
was submitted to a referendum vote of all affiliated unions 
in accordance with the resolution adopted at the convention 
the preceding June. 

The fifth annual convention was convened at Cripple 
Creek upon June 4, 1900, and remained in session six days. 
The affiliated unions had been largely increased, as had also 
the membership, during the past year. A large number of 
delegates was present than at any of the annual conventions 
since the federation was formed. The interest in the work 
before the assembly was intense and was sustained through- 
out the entire session. 

The address of the president, David C. Coates, was 
strong, able, dignified and gave evidence of statesmanship 
of a very Jiigh order. The industrial disputes which had oc- 
curred between employers and their workmen in the state 
during the last year were discussed thoroughly and with 
an easy familiarity which showed perfect knowledge of the 
subject in hand. The action taken by the federation during 
the great smelter strike of the preceding year and the earnest- 
ness of its efforts to procure a fair and honorable settlement 
was briefly touched upon, as was also the efforts of the feder- 
ation t^ have the constitutionality of the eight-hour law sus- 
tained by the Supreme Court. 

The adverse ruling of the court upon the eight-hour 
law was severely censured, though not in a way that in any 
sense violated the rules of legitimate criticism. 

The economic aspect of the labor question was presented 
in a clear and forcible manner. The industrial classes were 
urged to educate themselves and to use their political power 
to abolish the present industrial system and substitute a co- 
operative one, and predicting that, while the wage system 
continues, there will always be poverty and degradation 
among the producing classes. 

A plan of national federation of labor through the thor- 
ough oi^anization of the labor in each state into a state fed- 
eration, and the formation of all these state bodies into a na- 
tional federation, was presented instead of the present sys- 
tem of national craft organization. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 223 

The gross injustice imposed upon workingmen by the 
system of compulsory insurance, which has become prevalent 
with many employers, was quite freely considered. 

The question of the employment of convict labor in a 
manner that will compete with the product of free labor was 
referred to, as was also the proposition looking to the com- 
pulsory arbitration of disputes arising between labor and 
capital. 

ThQ report of the secretary, J. K. Bobinson, showed the 
federation to be in excellent condition financially. 

The report also made detailed reference to the growth 
of the federation during the year and to some of the disputes 
with which it had been connected. 

The result of the referendum was announced, and, after 
a prolonged debate, the proposition to endorse the action of 
the Pueblo convention and place the ticket nominated in the 
field was defeated by a vote of seventy-three to sixty-six. 

A vast amount of business pertaining to the internal 
affairs of the federation was transacted. 

T^eadvUle was selected as the place of holding the next 
annual convention, June, 1901. 

The present oflBcers are : 

President, David C. Coates, of Pueblo. 

First vice president, E. J. Campbell, of Cripple Creek. 

Second vice president, E. J. Bawden, of Silverton. 

Secretary, J. K. Bobinson, of Denver. 

Treasurer, Joy Pollard, of Altman. 

Members of executive board, H. E. Garman, of Denver, 
-and T. C. Anderson, of Colorado Springs. 

There were 115 unions affiliated, embracing an aggre- 
gate membership of about 15,000. 

The Colorado State Federation of Labor is the strongest 
body of its kind in the country. Similar federations have 
been formed by the organized labor of other states, but the 
unions depending each upon its own national organization 
have not generally affiliated. 

The eminent degree of success achieved and the excellent 
results secured are due, in very large measure, to the energy, 
zeal, ability and perseverance with which David C. Coates, 
of Pueblo, noAv president, has folloAved up the work of or- 



224 BIENNIAL REPORT 

ganization. To him, more than to any single individual, is 
due the formation of the federation when it was born in 1896. 
Since then he has given his time and attention very largely 
to organizing and welding the labor of Colorado into one har- 
monious whole. 

Since the above was written Mr. Goates has resigned the 
presidency and Harvey E. Garman, of Denver Typographical 
Union No. 49, has been elected to that office. 

THE CONGRESS OF RAILROAD ORGANIZATIONS 
IN COLORADO. 

The federation of the railroad unions of Colorado was 
effected at Pueblo, this state, at a convention of railroad men 
held upon June 25, 26 and 27, 1900. For many years the 
several railroad brotherhoods have been working together 
through a joint executive board, in dealing with the railroad 
companies, and have come to understand and become ac- 
quainted with each other fairly well. 

In order to more fully protect the interests of the mem- 
bership of these unions, the need of closer affiliation with 
each other was felt. 

In March of this year a number of the leading spirits 
connected with the railroad organizations in the city of Pu- 
eblo, issued a call requesting each railroad union in the state 
to send delegates to this convention for the purpose of form- 
ing a central organization. 

The organizations of railroad employes in the past have 
been among the most conservative of societies formed along 
trades union lines. They have always been strict construc- 
tionists of trades unionism pure and simple, and have avoided 
all semblance of participation in politics, partisan or other- 
wise. The avowed purpose for which this convention was 
called was semi-political, and gave evidence of the marked 
departure of the railroad unions from the policy of other 
days. 

The resolutions adopted and the platform promulgated 
indicated in an unmistakable manner that the railroad 
unions have entered the economic field. That by and with 
the co-operation of other workmen they will invade the legis- 
lature, and labor unceasingly for the passage of such legis- 
lation as win gradually mold our Industrial system to one 
more nearly In accordance with justice, and which will vastly 



BUBBAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 225 

improve the condition of all who contribute in some useful 
vay to the stock of happiness and wealth. 

The following resolutions adopted are especially strong, 
and the recommendation made is one that other unions be- 
sides the railroad men may adopt with profit. The ref^ence 
made to the deplorable conditions in Idaho, and the denial 
of all ciyil and political rights to the miners of that state, the 
tyrannical exercise of power upon the part of the civil and 
military authorities there, as well as the criticism of congress 
for its action in connection with the Coeur d^Alene troubles 
in that country, in view of events which had recently oc- 
curred, was particularly appropriate and very much in 
order: 

Resolved, That we caU upon the president of the United States to 
abolish martial law in Idaho; to revoke the infamous "permit system" 
now existent there and to restore to the miners of Shoshone county, 
Idaho, the personal liberty guaranteed them by the federal constitution. 

Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be forwarded to the presi- 
dent of the United States, the state press and the executive committee 
of the Western Federation of Miners. 

Resolved, That we condemn the action of Congress in refusing to 
publish the testimony given before the Coeur d'Alene investigation com- 
mittee, believing as we do that the workingmen of the United States are 
entitled to know the character of the evidence by virtue of which General 
Merriam was vindicated in imprisoning, for a protracted period, hun- 
dreds of our brothers in Idaho who had not been charged with any spe- 
cific crime and who were denied the right of trial by jury. 

Resolved, That we recommend to our brothers throughout the state 
that they co-operate with other labor organizations wherever possible, in 
political work. 

Resolved, That it is the sense of this convention that we form our- 
selves into a permanent national organization for the purpose of getting 
united action from our fellow organizations, with the view of placing 
legislators in the national congress as well as in the state legislature. 

Resolved, That we present the name of Brother T. E. Julian, of 
Salida, for the favorable consideration of the political parties of Colo- 
rado for congressman from the Second district, and we pledge our sup- 
port to him if nominated for said office. 

Resolved, That this convention is in favor of the election of Brother 
John H. Murphy, of Denver, to the position of attorney general of Colo- 
rado, and we pledge him our support if nominated for this office by the 
political parties of Colorado. 

Resolved, That this convention is in favor of the election of Brother 
M. J. GaUigan, of Pueblo, Colorado, for Judge of the Supreme Court of 
Colorado, if he receives the nomination for this office by the political par- 
ties of Colorado. 



226 BIENNIAL REPORT 

Upon the second day of the convention the following 
platform of principles was adopted with practical unan- 
imity : 

We, the united railway orders of the State of Colorado, in convention 
assembled at Pueblo, Colo., June 25, 1900, believe the time has come for 
concertive political action among all railway employes, as well as all or- 
ganized and unorganized workingmen everywhere, to unite their forces 
and combine their strength for the advancement of labor. 

We believe that workingmen will never secure justice until they 
unite and demand it for themselves, and emphasize that demand with 
their ballots. 

We extend our sympathies to organized labor everywhere in its 
struggle for Justice, and denounce the action of the congressional commit- 
tee for suppressing the facts of the Wardner outrage. 

We favor an amendment to the Constitution of the State of Colorado 
providing that a day's labor shall not exceed eight hours for all those who 
work in underground mines, smelters and ore reduction works, and in all 
other places where the work and sanitary conditions are unusually dan- 
gerous and severe to the health of the workmen. 

We demand an employers' liability bill. 

We believe that representative government is a failure, and we favor 
direct legislation through the initiative, referendum and imperative man- 
date. 

We affirm that corporations are bom of economic conditions; that 
they owe their existence to society: that the state which gives them life 
and nurtures their growth has the origrinal and inalienable right to exer- 
cise control over them in the interests of all the people; that whenever a 
corporation arrogates to itself the right to conduct Its business in such 
manner as shall work a hardship and injustice to its employes or a com- 
munity, by refusing to arbitrate, it is the right and duty of a government, 
by its regularly constituted authorities, to exercise control of such corpora- 
tions and compel its officers to submit all disputes between its officials 
and its employes to arbitration. To this end we demand the following: 

1. A constitutional amendment making arbitration compulsory. 

2. A corporation or individual who refuses to arbitrate shall be 
guilty of a misdemeanor. 

3. Liability of an individual or a corporation for all damages to 
life, limb or property which may result from a strike which they have 
caused by refusing to arbitrate. 

We favor the election of the President and United States Senators by 
direct popular vote of the people. 

We regard government by injunction as a usurpation of constitu- 
tional rights and pledge ourselves to oppose the election of all judges who 
have so abused their authority. 

The men who follow some one of the several branches of 
railroad labor are usually men of intelligence, reliability and 
worth. Their occupation almost necessarily makes them so. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 227 

In order to hold their positions they must be trustworthy 
and capable. To no class of workmen is confided the care 
and protection of interests so important to themselves, to 
their employers and to the general public. It is no spirit 
of flattery which induces this statement, but a recognition 
of a fact generally known and understood. 

This platform adopted ought not to be passed lightly 
by. It is worthy of study. It is terse, direct and to the 
point Every sentence is significant. Every plank enun- 
ciates a great economic truth. It represents the matured 
thought, the careful reflection, the distilled wisdom of the 
organizations who gave expression to it. 

When the constitutional amendment referred to con- 
cerning the eight-hour day comes, it will undoubtedly em- 
brace a larger number of occupations than did the eight-hour 
law which was nullified by the Supreme Court of this state. 

The platform is particularly happy in its advocacy of 
the compulsory arbitration of disputes between labor and 
capital. The facts set forth and leading up to the demands 
made upon this subject are unanswerable. 

It is a well-known fact that all of the industries of the 
country depend for their profitable operation upon uninter- 
rupted traffic and unfettered commerce. The continuous ex- 
change of products, the rapid transportation of persons and 
goods and intelligence have become so essential a function 
of the social organism that their interruption for only a 
short time causes great loss and serious inconvenience, and 
their suspension for a long period would result in incalcu- 
lable loss affecting the whole state and country. Corpora- 
tions are creations of law. They have usually received valu- 
able franchises, in return for which they have to perform 
certain service necessary to the public. If the employes are 
dissatisfied with the pay that they are receiving and will 
not work until the question is adjusted, the corporation can 
not avoid the responsibility which it owes to the public, as 
well as to the workmen, by refusing to arbitrate the disputed 
question. 

No class of workmen understand the disastrous effects 
of strikes better than men connected with the train service 
upon railroads. They have conducted some of the most bit- 
terly and stubbornly contested strikes in the industrial his- 
tory of this country. 

Ought not a difference of this kind, as the platform in- 



228 BIENNIAL REPORT 

dicates, be adjudicated in a court established for this pur- 
pose? 

Corporations are organized for the purpose of making 
profit and not for philanthropy. Likewise wage workers are 
working not for fun, but for the purpose of making a living. 
The workmen, who are usually poor, ought not to be held 
to greater duties to the public than the corporation, which 
is usually rich. A reduction of profits means to the capitalist 
smaller dividends, a reduction of wages may mean to the 
workman want and distress. 

The opinions of railroad men engaged in the train ser- 
vice, by reason of their long experience and familiarity with 
the subject, are certainly entitled to very weighty consider- 
ation. 

About seventy delegates were in attendance at the con- 
vention. 

T. E. Julian, of Salida, of the Brotherhood of Locomo- 
tive Engineers, was permanent chairman, and E. J. Taub- 
man, of the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, of Pueblo, 
permanent secretary of the convention. 

The oflScers of the organization were made to consist 
of a president, six vice-presidents, one from each organiza- 
tion, a financial and a corresponding secretary. 

These officers were made the executive committee. 

The executive committee was empowered by resolution 
to draft a constitution and by-laws, to adopt such method 
of organization as would best serve the purpose for which 
the federation was formed, to publish a manifesto setting 
forth the purposes of the congress, and to correspond with 
railway unions in other states with a view of perfecting a 
national organization of all railroad unions along the lines 
of this congress. 

The following officers were elected: 

President — ^W. J. Martin Colorado City 

Financial Secretary — E. J. Taubman . 128 East Fourth St., Pueblo 

Corresponding Secretary — ^Avery C. Moore Denver 

502 Kittredge Block. 
Vice Presidents: 

George B. Wright, O. R. C Denver 

W. L. Dick, S. U. N. A Colorado City 

L. A. Parkhurst, O. R. T Pueblo 

J. W. Rice, B. L. B Denver 

J. A. Roderick, B. L. F Pueblo 

Chas. Tolman, B. R. T Pueblo 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 229 

After a useful and harmonious three-day session, the 
Congress of Railroad Organizations of Colorado adjourned 
subject to the call of the executive committee. 

THE WESTERN FEDERATION OF MINERS. 

Previous to May 15, 1893, the miners of the West Avere 
practically unorganized. There were a few unions organ- 
ized in the different states and these were confined to the 
larger mining camps and no attempt had been made to affil- 
iate them into one central body. In fact, there was scarcely 
a communication passed between them during the year and 
not until the Mine Owners' Industrial Protective Association 
was organized in Helena, Mont., and afterwards decided to 
reduce wages throughout the mining regions of the West, 
did miners awake to their own interest, and this associa- 
tion, when it attempted to reduce miners' wages in the Coeur 
D'Alenes, and had a federal judge appointed that was sat- 
isfactory to them, who issued almost the first injunction that 
was issued against organized labor, then the miners realized 
that it was necessary for them to organize before their stand- 
ard of lining was reduced to an equality with their fellow 
craftsmen in the East. 

On May 15, 1893, representatives from fifteen unions 
met in Butte, Mont., and then organized the Western Feder- 
ation of Miners. The organization struggled along through 
the panic of 1893 and up until 1896, and during this period 
its existence was very doubtful because the slump in silver 
occurred and every corporation in tlie mining states of the 
West opposed it at all times. 

Its second convention was held in Salt Lake in the 
month of May, 1894. Its third and fourth conventions were 
held in Denver in the months of May, 1895 and 1896. Its 
fifth, sixth and seventh conventions were held in Salt Lake 
in May, 1897, 1898 and 1899, and its eighth convention was 
held in Denver, May, 1900, where 125 unions were repre- 
sented, which shows an increase in seven years of 100 unions 
and an increase in membership to 30,000. 

Colorado, Montana and Idaho are the most thoroughly 
organized states in the West. The other states where mining 
is carried on are not so thoroughly organized, because the 
mining industry is not so extensive as it is in the above men- 
tioned states. 



230 BIENNIAL REPORT 

Since the federation was organized, it has never declared 
a strike in any of the mining towns, but has always opposed 
a reduction of wages and an increase of hours and any other 
encroachments upon the rights of its members, and in doing 
so has been successful in every struggle. 

It is the policy of the federation to avoid strikes as much 
as possible, and devote much time and money towards educa- 
tion, and it also advises its members to take political action 
in all matters, believing that it is to the best interests of all 
labor organizations to understand political and economic 
questions, and thus become a factor in the affairs of county, 
state and national government. 

The great strike of the miners in the Leadville district, 
in 1896, was not ordered by the Western Federation, but by 
the local union. It was, however, supported by the parent 
organization. 

Edward Boyce, president of the Western Federation of 
Miners, is a man of high personal character and perfect in- 
tegrity. He commands not only the confidence of the miners 
of the Rocky mountain country, but the respect and esteem 
of all who appreciate his sterling manhood, his ability, his 
exemplary life and the conscientious devotion which he has 
ever given to the interests of labor. 

THE WESTERN LABOR UNION. 

The Western Labor Union was organized at Sale Lake 
City, Utah, May, 1898. As the name implies, it is a central 
organization, composed of the labor unions of the western 
country. It aims to include all the labor organizations in 
the Rocky mountain region in its membership. 

For a number of years prior to the formation of the 
Western Labor Union there had been loud murmurs of dis- 
satisfaction with the American Federation of Labor and the 
Knights of Labor, who, it w^as claimed, having headquarters 
in the East, were constantly collecting per capita tax from 
western labor organizations, and never expending anything 
to build up and organize western unions. Then, too, it was 
and is believed by many western unionists that a central 
organization here in the West could protect the interests of 
those affiliated better than is possible in an organization with 
headquarters and the great mass of its membership in the 
East. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 231 

Edward Boyce, president of the Western Federation of 
Miners, acting upon the advice and with the full consent of 
the executive board of that body, issued a call for a confer- 
ence of all western labor organizations, including the Knights 
of Labor, to meet at Salt Lake City just before the regular 
annual convention of the Western Federation of Miners- 
This conference was attended by more than 200 delegates, 
embracing a territory from the Black Hills to San Francisco, 
and from Lethbridge, Canada, in the North, to Galveston, 
Texas, in the South. The sessions lasted for three days and 
resulted in the formation of the Western Labor Union. 

Among the delegates were many of the best intellects 
and the ablest labor leaders in the West. The discussions 
were marked with dignity, character and profound thought. 
The labor movement in the West received an impetus at the 
Salt Lake conference, the good effect of which is felt to this 
day. 

The Pueblo Courier was selected as the official organ. 

The Western Federation of Miners was the first organ- 
ization to affiliate as a body. Every Knights of Labor assem- 
bly in the northern country received a charter from and iden- 
tified itself with the Western Labor Union. It bears the same 
relations to local unions as the American Federation of La- 
bor or the General Assembly of the Knights of Labor* 

The second convention of the Western Labor Union wa« 
held in Salt Lake City, May, 1899. The feeling of indigna- 
tion prevailing wherever the people were acquainted with the 
facts, against the state and federal authorities in Idaho, for 
the brutal treatment accorded to the miners in the Coeur 
d'Alene country, formed the chief subject for discussion, 
aside from the routine business. But few instances are re- 
corded in American history where tyrannical and repressive 
authority has been so viciously exercised to crush out every 
vestige of organization, as was seen in the Coeur d'Alene 
country. No cases can be cited where the commonest rights 
of the workers were more shamelessly outraged, and but few 
parallels can be found. 

As the sense of the convention upon this subject, the fol- 
lowing is taken from the resolutions adopted : 

Whereas, It has come to the knowledge of this convention that the 
Govemor of Idaho has so forgotten his oath of office and his honor as a 
man as to turn the executive branch of the government of the state over 
to the owners of the Bunker Hill and Sullivan mine, who, through their 



232 BIENNIAL REPORT 

attorneys and a pliant general of the regular army, has established condi- 
tions in the Coeur d'Alene mining district far worse than ever existed in 
Russian Siberia or on Cuban soil during the Spanish reign of terror; and, 

Whereas, It is a fact that American liberty and the Constitution of 
our country has been supplanted by a military despotism in its worst form, 
wherein the owners of other mines in the Coeur d'Alene district are denied 
the right of employing any man unless he first makes affidavit that he is 
a non-union miner; and. 

Whereas, Many other citizens, including prominent business men of 
the district, who are guilty of no crime other than that they have ex- 
pressed their sympathy with the miners in their righteous struggle for 
the very existence of their organization, have also been thrown into a 
corral like so many cattle for the slaughter, and have been denied the 
right of counsel and the actual necessities of life; and, 

Whereas, The Western Labor Union believes this state of affairs to 
be a menace, a strike at the very institution of American liberty, that 
priceless jewel gained by our forefathers after so much suffering, privation 
and shedding of so much blood on the field of battle that we might be 
free; therefore, be it 

Resolved, By the Western Labor Union, in convention assembled. 
That we condemn every public official responsible for the abrogation of 
civil law in Idaho, from President McKlnley, through his Secretary of 
Wal*, down to Governor Steunenberg and Coroner France; and be it 
further 

Resolved, That this convention calls upon the organized labor of the 
American continent to enter its mighty protest and condemnation of such 
unwarranted tyranny and the effort now being made to reduce the stand- 
ard of labor to the level of serfdom. 

The third annual convention of the Western Labor 
Union was held in Denver, and was in session from the 14th 
to the 21st of May, 1900. The organization had increased 
in membership and in the number of affiliated unions during 
the past two years in a very encouraging way. Action was 
taken to still further consolidate all unions into one body. 
The trouble at Wardner, Hazelton and other places came in 
for consideration. The fate of the eight-hour law at the 
hands of the Supreme Court of Colorado was gone into quite 
fully, appropriate resolutions being adopted. 

Daniel McDonald, of Butte City, Mont, has been presi- 
dent of the Western Labor Union from its formation, and has 
worked faithfully and well for its advancement. 

THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR. 

The first assembly of this order was organized and 
christened in Philadelphia, in December, 1869. Until 1878 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 233 

it worked with the utmost secrecy, although during these 
years the organization of assemblies was pushed with zeal 
and energy. 

The first session of the general assembly was held at 
Reading, Pa., January, 1878. The membership at this time 
was about 16,000. U. S. Stephens, the founder of the order, 
was elected first General Master Workman; Ralph Beau- 
mont, the shoemaker. General Worthy Foreman, and Chas. 
H. Leitchman, of Marblehead, Mass., General Secretary- 
Treasurer. 

The declaration of principles adopted at this convention 
represents to this day the demands, hopes and aspirations of 
the wealth-producing and the industrial classes of America. 
Although formulated more than twenty years ago, later day 
students have been able to suggest but few improvements in 
them, and such changes consist chiefly in applying the same 
fundamental truths to new conditions. 

In September, 1882, the fifth session of the general as- 
sembly was held in New York city. Up to this time, 1,300 
assemblies had been organized, the membership had increased 
to 95,000, and the order had extended to twenty-three states. 
For several years afterward the growth of the order was very 
rapid. The largest membership was attained in 1887, when, 
according to the reports presented to the general assembly 
at Minneapolis, Minn., in November of that year, there were 
870,000 Knights of Labor in good standing. 

The organization of assemblies in 1886 became so rapid 
that General Master Workman Powderly issued an order for- 
bidding the founding of new assemblies for a period of sixty- 
days. 

It is estimated by competent authority that not less than 
three millions of men and women have taken the obligation 
and been covered with the shield of knighthood. 

While the Knights of Labor have engaged in many 
strikes, a number of them having assumed very large propor- 
tions, the order from the first has been inflexibly opposed to 
strikes, and only resorted to them when all other methods 
had been exhausted. 

The arbitration of differences between labor and capital 
has ever been a principle of knighthood. 

The Knights of Labor have always fully recognized the 
industrial side of the labor question and the necessity of 



234 BIENNIAL REPORT 

keeping up the fight for good wages and an eight-hour day. 
At the same time they saw very clearly what many of the 
trades unionists of the old school did not, namely, that every 
industrial question is at bottom an economic one, and there- 
fore would not down until fully satisfied by adequate state 
and national legislation. 

With a full realization of the truth that emancipation 
from wage servitude can only come through intelligent and 
well directed political action, the order has always encour- 
aged in its assembly halls the discussion of economic ques- 
tions pertaining to the science of government, in order that 
the voter might be able to exercise the elective franchise 
wisely and well. 

The influence of the educational training received in the 
ten thousand Knights of Labor assemblies that have come 
and gone during the last thirty years is felt to-day in every 
fiber and artery of our national life. 

Nearly all the leading spirits in the reform movement 
in this country received their first inspiration, took their 
first lessons in progressive thought, in the lodge rooms of the 
Knights of Labor. 

The following are the recognized principles of knight- 
hood: 

I. To make industrial and moral worth, not wealth, the true stand- 
ard of individual and national greatness. 

II. To secure to the workers the full enjoyment of the wealth they 
create; sufficient leisure in which to develop their intellectual, moral and 
social faculties; all of the benefits, recreations and pleasures of associa- 
tion; in a word, to enable them to share in the gains and honors of ad- 
vancing civilization. 

In order to secure these results, we demand at the hands of the 
law-making power of municipalities, states and nations: 

III. The establishment of direct legislation, the initiative, referen- 
dum, imperative mandate and proportional representation. 

IV. The establishment of bureaus of labor statistics and their oper- 
ation in such manner as to impart a correct knowledge of the educational, 
moral and financial .conditions of the laboring masses, and the establish- 
ment of free state labor bureaus. 

V. The land, including all the natural sources of wealth, is the 
heritage of all the people, and should not be subject to speculative traffic. 
Occupancy and use should be the only title to the possession of land. 
The taxes upon land should be levied upon its full value for use, exclu- 
sive of improvements, and should be sufficient to take for the community 
all unearned increment. 



BURBAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 235 

VI. That the buying and selling of options, the gambling in farm 
produce or other necessaries of life be made a felony by law, with ade- 
quate punishment for such offense. 

VII. The abrogation of all laws that do not bear equally upon cap- 
italists and laborers, and the removal of unjust technicalities, delays and 
discriminations in the administration of justice. 

VIII. The adoption of measures providing for the health and safety 
of those engaged in mining, manufacturing and building industries, and 
for indemnification to those engaged therein for injuries received through 
lack of necessary safeguards. 

IX. The recognition, by incorporation, of orders and other associa- 
tions organized by the workers to improve their condition and to protect 
their rights. 

X. The enactment of laws to compel corporations to pay their em- 
ployes weekly, in lawful money, for the labor of the preceding week, and 
giving mechanics and laborers a first lien upon the product of their labor 
to the extent of their full wages. 

XI. The abolition of the contract system on national, state and 
municipal works. 

XII. The enactment of laws providing for arbitration between em- 
ployers and employed, and to enforce the decision of the arbitrators. 

XIII. The prohibition by law of the employment of children under 
fifteen years of age; the compulsory attendance at school for at least ten 
months in the year of all children between the ages of seven and fifteen 
years; and the furnishing at the expense of the state of free text books. 

XIV. That a graduated tax on incomes and inheritances be levied. 

XV. To prohibit the hiring out of convict labor. 

XVI. The establishment of a national monetary system in which 
a circulating medium in necessary quantity shall issue directly to the 
people without the intervention of banks; that all the national issue shall 
be full legal tender in payment of all debts, public and private; and that 
the government shall not guarantee or recognize any private banks or 
create any banking corporations. 

XVII. That interest-bearing bonds, bills of credit or notes shall 
never be Issued by the government; but that, when need arises, the 
emergency shall be met by issue of legal-tender, non-interest-bearing 
money. And that gold and silver, when thus issued, shall be by free and 
unlimited coinage at the ratio of 16 to 1, regardless of the action of any 
other nation. 

XVIII. That the importation of foreign labor under contract be 
prohibited. 

XIX. That, in connection with the postofllce, the government shall 
provide facilities for deposits of savings of the people in small sums. And 
that all banks, other than postal savings banks, receiving deposits, shall 
be required to give good and approved bonds as security in twice the sum 
of all deposits received. 

XX. That the government shall obtain possession, under the right 
of eminent domain, of all telegraphs, telephones and railroads; and that 



236 BIENNIAL REPORT 

hereafter no charter or license be Issued to any corporation for construc- 
tion or operation of any means of transporting intelligence, passengers 
or freight. 

And while making the foregoing demand upon state and national 
governments, we will endeavor to associate our own labors: 

XXI. To establish co-operative institutions such as will tend to 
supersede the wage system by the introduction of the co-operative indus- 
trial system. 

XXII. To secure for both sexes equal rights. 

XXIII. To gain some of the benefits of labor-saving machinery by 
a gradual reduction of the hours of labor to eight per day. 

XXIV. To persuade employers to agree to arbitrate all differences 
which may arise between them and their employes, in order that the 
bonds of sympathy between them may be strengthened and that strikes 
may be rendered unnecessary. 

"When bad men combine the good must associate, else they will fall, 
one by one, an unpitied sacrifice in a contemptible struggle." 

For many years the order exercised a powerful influence 
in securing desired legislation. It also maintained a strong 
legislative committee at Washington. . Its members were 
elected to state legislatures by the score and several were 
elected to congress. 

The chief officers became imbued with a spirit of envy, 
bitterness and jealousy toward each other. Rings and 
cliques sprang up in the general assembly. Charges and 
counter charges of the most serious nature were made by the 
chief officers against each other. The rank and file became 
disgusted with the continual quarreling between the chief of- 
ficers and the litigation growing out of it, and assemblies 
were allowed to lapse by the thousand. The decline of a once 
grand and splendid organization is the result. 

DISTRICT UNION OF COAL MINERS. 

October 29, 1900, delegates from unions of coal miners 
located in Colorado, New Mexico, Wyoming and Utah, met 
in convention at Pueblo, Colo., and organized District Union 
No. 15 of the United Mine Workers of America. The conven- 
tion was in session for three days and a thorough affiliation 
of organized unions was effected. A line of policy looking 
to the perfect organization of the coal miners in the states 
and territory mentioned was formulated. It was agreed that 
organizers should at once be sent out, a union of mine work- 
ers should be organized in each coal camp and every coal 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 237 

miner in the district should be brought within the fold of 
organization. 

In the rapid formation of craftsmen into unions which 
has taken place in Colorado within the last two years, the 
coal miners have lagged behind. They had but little organ- 
ization in the northern, western and central part of the 
state, while in the southern district there was not even the 
semblance of unionism among them. Up to quite recently 
there was not a single union in the state affiliated with the 
United Mine Workers. 

Early last summer it was the intention of President 
Mitchell and the executive board of the United Mine Work- 
ers to send organizers into the Colorado coal fields and effect 
a thorough organization. The vast amount of work in the 
East and the unsettled conditions there, culminating in the 
great strike in the anthracite regions, made the postponement 
of this work necessary. Late in the season the work of or- 
ganizing the coal miners of Colorado was commenced, an 
organizer being put in the field for that purpose. The effort 
thus far has been attended with a fair degree of success. This 
work will be supported in every way possible by all the unions 
in the state and will undoubtedly continue until the territory 
embraced in District No. 15 is as thoroughly organized as is 
any other coal producing section of the country. 

As the new organization has met with much determined 
opposition upon the part of many operators, its officers do 
not desire that the names of secretaries or the location of 
local unions be published at the present time. They are 
therefore omitted and do not appear in the table. 

John L. Gehr, of Kockvale, is president, and George E. 
Stock, of Chandler, Colo., is secretary-treasurer of the new 
District Union. 

Below will be found some of the objects for which the 
United Mine Workers stand : 

"First — To secure an earning fuUy compatible with the dangers of 
our calling and the labor performed. 

"Second — To establish as speedily as possible, and forever, our right 
to receive pay, for labor performed, in lawful money, and to rid ourselves 
of the iniquitous system of spending our money wherever our employers 
see fit to designate. 

"Third — To secure the introduction of any and all well defined and 
established appliances for the preservation of life, health and limbs of 
all mine employes. 



238 BIENNIAL BBPOBT 

"Fourth — ^To reduce to the lowest possible minimum the awful 
catastrophes which have been sweeping our fellow craftsmen to untimely 
graves by the thousands; by securing legislation looking to the most per- 
fect system of ventilation, drainage, etc. 

"Fifth — To enforce existing laws; and where none exist, enact and 
enforce them; calling for plentiful supply of suitable timber for support- 
ing the roof, pillars, etc., and to have all working places rendered as free 
from water and impure air and poisonous gases as possible. 

"Sixth — ^To uncompromisingly demand that eight hours shall con- 
stitute a day's work, and that no more than eight hours shall be worked 
in any one day by any mine-worker. The very nature of our employment, 
shut out from the sunlight and pure air, working by the aid of artificial 
light (in no instance to exceed one candle power), would in itself strongly 
indicate that, of all men, a coal miner has the most righteous claim to an 
eight-hour day. 

"Seventh — To provide for the education of our children by lawfully 
prohibiting their employment until they have attained a reasonably sat- 
isfactory education, and in every case until they have attained fourteen 
years of age. 

"Eighth — To abrogate all laws which enable coal operators to cheat 
the miners, and to substitute laws which enable the miner, under the 
protection and majesty of the state, to have his coal properly weighed or 
measure^, as the case may be. 

"Ninth — To secure, by legislation, weekly payments in lawful money. 

"Tenth — To render it impossible, by legislative enactment In every 
state (as is now the case in the State of Ohio), for coal operators or cor- 
porations to employ Pinkerton detectives or guards, or other forces (ex- 
cept the ordinary forces of the state) to take armed possession of the 
mines in case of strike or lockouts. 

"Eleventh — To use all honorable means to maintain peace between 
ourselves and employers; adjusting all differences, so far as possible, by 
arbitration and conciliation, that strikes may become unnecessary." 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 239 



CX5NVICT LABOR- 



THE COLORADO STATE PENITENTIARY. 

The hurtful, injurious effect upon nominally free labor 
by allowing the product of convict labor to be sold in the 
open market in competition with it has been quite clearly 
recognized by the workingman of average intelligence. More 
especially have the members of organized labor been keenly 
sensible of the injury imposed upon so-called free labor by 
working convicts in direct competition with them. 

Particularly does this become apparent to the craftsman 
when he finds himself thrown out of employment and into 
enforced idleness by reason of the fact that the convict 
product supplies a given market upon which he was depend- 
ent to secure employment. The bricklayers, stonecutters, 
stonemasons and brick manufacturers of Fremont county 
have, upon different occasions, been brought face to face with 
convict labor in a manner that threatened their interests 
very seriously. Nor is the average workman unmindful of 
the truth that if labor outside of prison walls was really and 
truly free, the number of convicts inside of such institutions 
would be very few and the manner of their employment In- 
side of state reformatory and penal institutions would be 
one of little importance. At present, however, the working 
classes fully realize that any labor done by convicts deprives 
them of the privilege of performing such labor themselves. 
As there does not seem to be work enough to go around, if 
the product of convict labor can but be kept out of the mar- 
ket, it thus lessens competition to that extent and makes a 
little more labor to be divided among the workers who are 
competing with each other for the privilege of earning a 
living. 

Frequent investigations upon the subject of convict la- 
bor have been made by boards and commissions appointed for 
that purpose by many of the states and by the general gov- 
ernment since 1870. The reports published as the result of 
these investigations have been voluminous and exhaustive, 



240 BIENNIAL REPORT 

but have evidently never been entirely satisfactory even to 
the jjersons making them. 

As far back as 1837, and again in 1840, a petition, num- 
erously signed, was presented to the legislature of New York 
praying that all labor in prisons be abolished. The petition 
also set forth at length the ruinous effect of convict labor 
upon free labor. The report of the committee appointed to 
investigate substantially sustained the contention of the pe- 
titioners as to the oppressive and hurtful effect upon free 
labor of allowing the product of convict labor to be sold in 
competition with it. The same argument heard sixty years 
later was advanced in support of the practice, namely, that 
it was necessary in the interest of the taxpayer. 

With the ever increasing monopolization of natural op- 
portunities, and the ever increasing inability of the wage 
worker to become his own employer, the necessity of finding 
an employer to whom he can sell his labor increases, and he 
becomes more and more interested in reducing the number 
of competitors in the labor market, and consequently an ever 
increasing hostility to convict labor, to the immigration of 
foreigners, to the introduction of labor-saving methods, to 
anything and everything in fact that takes work away from 
him. 

The best and clearest thinkers in the labor movement 
during all these years have wrestled with this knotty ques- 
tion of convict labor and been utterly unable to arrive at any 
solution that was satisfying aside from the abolition of pri- 
vate ownership in land, the collective ownership of land 
values, the opening up of natural opportunities that will en- 
able labor to be really free, thus emptying every penitentiary 
in the land. 

Most of the Southern states have adopted the policy of 
farming out their convicts to contractors for a small consid- 
eration, and allowing them to be worked in direct competi- 
tion with free labor. Tennessee has for years worked her 
convicts in the coal mines of that state. This practice upon 
the part of the authorities is mainly responsible for the riots 
and other acts of lawlessness that have been so frequent 
throughout the coal mining districts in Tennessee of late 
years. Georgia, and more especially Florida, have contracted 
the labor of their convicts to the operators of the phosphate 
mines for many years. There they are worked under condi- 
tions of brutality and degradation that would put to shame 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 241 

the most oppressive tyranny to which Siberian exiles were 
ever subjected. With insufficient food, clothing and shelter, 
and no attention whatever to sanitary conditions, a five-year 
sentence is almost equivalent to the death penalty. The con- 
vict sent to the phosphate mines leaves hope behind. Con- 
siderable profit accrues to the state, but it is at the expense 
of its citizenship and lowers its standard. The crimes per- 
petrated by the authorities of these states against their con- 
victs directly, and against their honest laborers indirectly, 
are a disgrace to our common country. 

There is in the public mind a realization of the truth 
that under the present social system it is quite impossible 
to employ convicts in any manner that will not to some ex- 
tent hurtfully aflfect free labor. If they did not manufacture 
the clothing which they wear, and produce the food which 
they consume, the state would be compelled to go into the 
open market and purchase these things. 

Convicts are certainly inevitable products of our pres- 
ent social system. If they are moral degenerates, which they 
frequently are, and their presence a menace to society, so- 
ciety can not avoid the responsibility, for it has been their 
enemy and has made them what they are. All crime, all 
wrong doing is the result of disease. Disease, either hered- 
itary or acquired, or both. Disease can not be cured by flog- 
ging or hanging, but by environment, influence and by 
educating thought and action away from erroneous and 
into correct channels. Criminals are simply what social con- 
ditions have made them. The state must accept the respon- 
sibility of their presence. That it is adding insult to injury 
to employ convicts in a way that will ever so slightly be det- 
rimental to free labor is self-evident. That to employ them 
In a way that will entirely remove them from the realm of 
competition with outside labor, if it were possible to do so, 
would but slightly inure to the advantage of honest workmen 
is also self-evident. The only real solution of the problem 
of convict labor will come through a reorganization of our 
social system in a way that will render wage slavery outside 
and convict labor inside of prison walls alike impossible. 

Any attempt to settle the question of convict labor and 
at the same time maintain the existing order, must result in 
failure in the future, as it always has in the past. No ques- 
tion is ever settled until it is settled right, nor will this 
one be. 



242 BIENNIAL BBPOBT 

The sentiment among the workers of Colorado as ex- 
pressed in making reply to the several questions relating to 
the subject of convict labor, and included in the schedule 
referred to elsewhere, is one of almost unanimous opposi- 
tion to the employment of such labor in any competitive 
way. 

That the labor of convicts should be utilized in the con- 
struction and improvement of state roads, in the develop- 
ment of mines upon state lands, and in producing as much 
of the food that they consume as possible, in manufacturing 
their own clothing and other articles of necessity used inside 
the prison walls, or in other state institutions, represents 
in brief the general opinion as to the way that this labor can 
be best employed to the least injury of free labor. 

The law fixing an indeterminate sentence for convicts, 
enacted by the Twelfth General Assembly and becoming 
operative August, 1899, marks a very distinct advance in pub- 
lic thought touching upon the proper treatment of convicts. 
Its enactment demonstrates a realization of the truth that 
reformation and cure and not vindictive revenge is the ob- 
ject sought to be attained by the compulsory detention of 
law breakers in x>enal institutions. Many of the prisoners 
doing time at Canon City are young men, scarcely more than 
boys, and can not be hardened in crime. Others are serving 
sentences for crimes committed under conditions that do not 
involve great moral turpitude. A short period of time spent 
at the state prison may, and frequently does, cause an awak- 
ening to the fact that they are drifting down the steep de- 
clivity that levels to ruin. The presence of hardened crim- 
inals will be a warning to be shunned before it becomes an 
example to be patterned after. Some inmates of the state 
prison can, with safety, soon be returned to society and ever 
afterward make valuable and useful citizens. The indeterm- 
inate sentence or parole system of releasing convicts has 
been tried with good results in other states and will undoubt- 
edly prove satisfactory in Colorado. 

Since the penitentiary was first opened to receive pris- 
oners, June 13, 1871, up to February 24, 1900, 4,902 convicts 
have been imprisoned there. This includes both federal and 
state control. The entire expense of supporting the peniten- 
tiary from 1876 to 1900, inclusive, according to statements 
contained in the biennial reports issued by the respective 
wardens, is 12,296,899.74. The figures for the present ad- 



BUBBAU OF LABOB STATISTIOS. 243 

ministration are estimated, as the report has not been issued 
at the present writing. The earnings of the prison during 
the same period, and compiled in the same manner, are f 516,- 
333.90. 

From 1876 to 1898, inclusive, convicts to the number of 
fifty- three escaped, 153 attempts to escape were made, and 
five were killed while attempting to escape. The biennial 
periods 1877-78 and 1889-90 are the only ones in which no 
escapes are recorded. During this period of twenty-five 
years 3,013 prisoners were discharged, 402 were pardoned, 
forty-six were transferred to the insane asylum, and sixty- 
one deaths are recorded. During this period seventy-four 
women were imprisoned at the penitentiary. In point of 
representation, Arapahoe County, by reason of its large pop- 
ulation, is far in the lead, having contributed 1,597 persons 
to the prison management, almost one-third of the entire 
prison population. Pueblo and El Paso Counties come for- 
ward with 488 and 483, respectively, while Lake is fourth, 
having furnished 285 guests to be boarded at state expense 
in Canon City. 

An analysis of the crimes committed and for which pris- 
oners have served sentences from the time that the first one 
was placed behind the bars, will fully substantiate the state- 
ment that poverty, the fear of poverty, the moral depravity 
induced by poverty, is the primary cause of the crime of dis- 
honesty which converts so many citizens into convicts. One 
thousand three hundred and seventy-nine convicts were sen- 
tenced to servitude for larceny, 758 for burglary, and 329 
for burglary and larceny. Three hundred and eighteen con- 
victions were secured for forgery, 269 for grand larceny, 272 
for robbery, ninety-four for false pretenses, ninety-nine for 
larceny as bailee from person and of live stock, sixty-one for 
forgery and uttering forgery, forty-nine for embezzlement, 
sixty-three for assault to rob, and many others for crimes 
prompted by a dishonest attempt to get money. 

Murder, a crime which is not usually caused by the 
money motive, has 353 convictions charged up to it. 



244 



BIENNIAL REPORT 



OCCUPATIONS OF CONVICTS CLASSIFIED. 



OCCUPATIONS OF CONVICTS RECKIVRD AT THB COLORADO STATB PENITEN- 
TIARY FROM DECEMBER 1, 1891, UNTIL NOVEMBER 90, 1898, INCLUSIVE. 
ONLY THOSE ARE ENUMERATED WHO GAVE VOCATIONS OR TRADES. 





u 

a 




a 


OCCUPATION 


OCCUPATION 




i 


1 


s. 


Actors 


5 


Chemists 


4 


Actresses 


2 
2 


Cabinet Makers 


5 


Advertising Agents 


Coopers 


7 


Artists 


4 


Collar Makers 


2 


Assayers 


Confectioners 


3 


Agents... 


2 


Conductor, R. R 


1 


Attorneys 

Bankers 


4 


'Coachmen 


2 


3 


1 Carpet Layer _ 


1 


Rakers 


22 


' Druggists 


8 


Barbers 


R8 
17 


1 Diver 

Dishwashers 


1 


Bartenders 


2 


Brakemen 


5 

8 


, Dressmakers 

Dining-room Girls 


2 


Boilermakers 


2 


Bookbinder 


1 


Electricians: 


7 


Bricklayers 


14 


Engineers 


51 


Brick Moulders . 


2 
65 


1 Editors 

' Engineers 

Expressmen 


2 


Brickmakers 


2 


Bookkeepers 


3 


Blacksmiths 


43 


Farmers 


153 


Butchers 


32 


Firemen 


15 


Bnishmakers 


2 


FlorisU 


2 


Broommakers 


3 


Gardners 


11 


Boxmakers 


2 


Glassblowers 


5 


Blacksmith Helpers 


4 


Gas and Steam-fitters 


2 


Cowboys 


43 


Glasiers 


2 


Carpenters 


54 


1 Gamblers 


3 


Civil Engineers 


6 


Gymnasium Instructor 


1 


Clerks 


49 


Glovemakers 


2 


Cooks 


119 




1 


Commercial Travelers 


2 
9 
11 


Granite Polisher 


1 


Coal Miners 


Hameasmakers 

Hairworker 


6 


Cigarmakers 


1 


Contractors 


4 


Horsemen 


22 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 
OCCUPATIONS OF CONVICTS CLASSIFIED— Continued. 



245 



OCCUPATION 



Housekeepers 

Hotel Men 

Hotel Boys 

Hatters 

Hod Carriers 

Horse Trainer 

Honse Maids 

Hotel Clerks 

Horseshoers 

Iron Moulders 

Insnranoe Agent 

Janitors 

Junkmen 

Laborers 

Laundrymen 

Uveiymcn 

Lithographers 

Locksmiths 

Locomotive Engineers. 

Lathers 

Masons 

Machinists 

Miners 

Meat Cutters 

Millers 

Minister 

Musicians 

Merchants 

Millman 

Painters 

Peddlers 

Plasterers 

Printers 

Plumbers _ 

Pressmen '... 

Porters 






16 

7 
5 

15 
4 
1 
2 
1 
2 

10 
1 
4 
3 
467 
5 
7 
2 
2 
4 
5 
5 

14 
139 
3 
2 
1 
4 
4 
1 

54 
4 

10 

16 

15 
3 
9 



OCCUPATION 



Photographers 

Physicians .• 

Paper Maker 

Planing-Mill Men.... 

Piano Makers 

Polisher 

Nurses 

News Agents 

Nail Maker 

Newsboys 

Restaurant Man 

Ranchmen 

Railroad Men 

Real Bstate Agents .. 

Railroad Clerks 

Stockmen 

Salesmen 

Switchmen 

Stonecutters 

Soldiers 

Steward ^ 

Stenographers 

Saloon Keepers 

Solicitors 

Servants 

Sailors 

Students 

Steel workers 

Shoemakers 

Smeltermen 

Steamfitters 

Sheepherders 

Storekeepers 

Teamsters 

Tailors 

Telegraph Operators 



a 



7 
8 
1 
S 

2 
1 
7 
4 
1 
2 
1 

29 
26 
3 
4 
2 
11 
15 
18 
2 
1 
4 
5 
3 
3 
3 



3 
2 
74 
29 
16 



246 BIENNIAL REPORT 

OCCUPATIONS OF CONVICTS CLASSIFIED— Concluded. 



OCCUPATION 



B 

2 



OCCUPATION 



I 



Typewriters 

TailoreMea 

Tinners 

Teachers 

Tobacconist 

Theatrical Manag^ers 
Telegraph Lineman . 
TaiincxB 



Upholsterers 

Walters 

Wagon Makers 

Waitresses 

Wood Bngrayers 

Watchmakers 

Window Decorators 

Total 



5 

96 
2 
2 
2 
4 
2 

2,219 



BUBBAU OF LABOR STATISTIOS. 



247 



LIST OF CRIMES. 



U8T OP CRIMES CI^ASSIFIBD AND NTJICBBR OP CONVICTS THAT WERB IMPRIS- 
ONED THERBPOR PROM THE TIME THE PENITENTIARY AT CANON CITY 
WAS OPENED, JUNE IS, 1871, UNTII^ PEBRUARY ZL 1900. 



CRIME 



I 



CRIME 



I 



AflMOlt 

ABtanlC to rob 

AMftolt to commit larceny , 

Abortion , 

Attempt to commit abortion 

Afai oat nature 

Amnltand mayhem 

Anon , 

AttemptlniT nip^ 

AasauH to murder 

Abdnction 

Assault to kill - 

Buxslaty , larceny and assault , 

Bigamy 

Bigamy and larceny 

Bigamy and perjury 

Burglary and aasanlt to kill 

Buggery 

Burglary and forgery 

Barglary and larceny 

Burglary.. 

Bur^ry and having burglar's tools. 

Burglary and robbery ._ 

' Conspiracy to murder 

Confidence game 

Confidence game and larceny 

Cheat 

Counterfeiting 

Conspiracy. ...... .--.--..-... 

Embesslemcnt and forgery 

Embesslemcnt 

Bmbezdement from mails 

Bmbesslement and larceny 



10 

63 
4 
2 
4 
8 
1 

16 

54 

171 

1 

22 
2 

18 
4 
2 
2 
1 
1 
329 
758 
5 

10 
2 
8 
2 
5 

14 

21 
1 

49 
4 
5 



Palae imprisonment and larceny 

Pelonious assault 

Palse pretenses 

Porgery and fiilse pretenses 

Palse pretenses and assault 

Porgery and uttering forgery 

Porgery ..... .. . 

Peloniously branding stock 

Grand larceny 

Having burglar's tools 

High misdemeanor 

KilliDg and stealing cattie 

Kidnapping 

Involuntary murder 

Incest 

Illegal voting 

I«arceny and assault to kill 

I«aroeny and felonious assault 

Ubel 

Larceny and receiving stolen goods. 

I«arceny, burglary and receiving 
stolen goods 

I<arceny 

Larceny and forgery 

Larceny as bailee 

Larceny from person 

Larceny of live stock 

Murder 

Manslaughter 

Misusing postoffice 

Malicious mischief 

Maliciously killing horse 

Miscellaneous 

Mayhem 



1 
2 

94 
5 
2 

61 

318 

1 

209 

9 

2 

11 
4 
2 
9 
3 
2 
5 
2 

30 

5 
1,379 

5 
34 
88 
27 
363 
40 

2 
16 

1 



248 



BIENNIAL REPORT 
LIST OF CRIMES— Concluded. 



CRIME 



a 



CRIMB 



e 



Mlsuiing mails 

Obstructing railroad track. 

Perjury 

Passing forged checks 

Passing forgery 

Robbery and assault to kill 

Robbery 

Resisting an officer 

Rape 

Receiving stolen goods 

Robbery and assault to rob. 



3 
5 
U 

2. 

2 

5 
272 

2 

60 
61 

6 



Stealing and killing cattle 

Salting ore 

Sodomy 

Seduction 

Uttering forgery 

Voluntary murder 

Vagrancy 

Voluntary manslaughter .. 

Total 



19 



4,902 



BUBBAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 



249 



LABOR ASSIGNMENT OF CONVICTS AT PENITENTIARY. 



THE POI^LOWING IS AN APPROXIMATB ESTIMATE OP THE MANNER IN WHICH 
THE CONVICTS WERE EMPI^OYED DURING THE PRESENT ADMINISTRA- 
TION. IT IS NOT REPRESENTED AS BEING ABSOI<UTEI,Y CORRECT, BUT 
IS APPROXIMATED. 



ASSIGNMENT 



State garden 

Sandstone quarry 

Limestone quarry . 

Carpenter shop 

Upper lime kilns 

Stone shed 

Blacksmith shop , 

State road 

Tailor shop 

Tobacco shop... 

Shoe shop 

PaintShop 

Harness shop 

Wash house 

Soap house 

Boiler house 

Dynamo 

Cell house No. 1 

Cell house No. 2 

Cell house No. 3 

Gnards' ^itchen 

Convicts' dining room . 

Convicts' kitchen 

Vegetable room 

Kztra gangs 

Bakery 

Bakery kitchen.. 

Guards' laundry 



S 

s 
2 



1 

34 

20 

8 

33 

19 

If) 

20 

22 

5 

4 

7 

1 

29 
2 
15 
7 

10 
12 
5 
9 
15 
10 
8 
33 
13 
2 
3 



ASSIGNMENT 



Stables 

Ranches :. 

South gate 

West gate 

Store room,.., 

Dispensary 

Chapel 

Ubrary 

Warden's ofiBce 

Sidewalk 

Deputy's office 

Deputy warden, laundry . 

Photo gallery 

Pump house 

Barber shop 

Yard 

Warden's house 

Hogpen 

Cow pen 

Night cook 

Hose house 

Marble room 

Road men _. 

Hotbeds 

Coal men 

Root house 

Night men.... 



Total number of men at work . 






2 
3 
3 
3 
1 
2 
3 
1 
2 
1 
2 
1 
3 
15 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
9 
1 
6 
1 
5 



495 



Sick 

Crazy 

Lying-in 

Female prisoners. 



10 



250 



BIENNIAL BEPORT 



e 






o 

S 

s 

s 

o 
u 



I 

i 
i 



si 

a 

h 
O 

& 

O 
u 

OB 

o 






CO 



O 

w 
•J 

p 

g 



jad 99a«ii9)ii|VK 



-a)a)«F[ JO )nnomy 



niax 
JBvpna flV>!Aiio3 
JO jaqnnM 99ju9ay 



nuax 



noefi^ jp fo«ii9dzH 



^na tMo»dxa inox 






a 



iiiiiiiSiS 



3 e » 



9 3 S ^ A » 



gSgg§8Sg§g§ 



S9 S9^S9S338 
^3 3glSgS§§§§ 



§§iS§§§SSSS8§ 
•^' « a s' s g" s' ^ 8 « gf K ^ 



gISSSiiiigS 

55 g s" g ^" s ^ i s 1 i 



^ ^ i! §' M ^ g § § M 




1 

8 




«H iH ^ «H ^ 



BITBBAU OF LABOB STATISTICS. 



261 



« 
z 



o 

» 

ei 
H 



H 

fid 

S 
n 

D 
H 

t9 



■ 213 



e 

M 



ft. 04 
CD ^ 

> So 

< 
O 

I 



> 



o 
o 

ft. 
o 

M 



» 



ndvMS p9)din9))y 



ndvMS 



ti»v»a 



mniity aavt 
-ai o) paJMdjsoux 



p»iiopjiid 



pd8i«qM|a 



•9[«a9d 



udMopii^ 



»l«ais 



pa}Xi«Fi 



jdqanjii mnmiafH 



JsqmnM innm;x«K 



1IU9X 

Sauna 99W19AY 



1IU9X JBnpna 
paApaan jaqmn^ 



06 

< 



ssa"*asa3sa5 



■I 



I 



oo 00 Ob 



M r* 00 



;: S S 83 s 



s s s 



-^SSSSSSggSS 



lO t- -v* 00 «0 O 



a S 53 s 



Q 00 00 



a-ssasaa 



8§gig§g§2§ig 



S8!99S&!SSg§§g 



^^§S§8SS§§S§§ 



32§Sg§9§§i§g 



^sigigggi§g§ 



»§§si§§iii§§ 



§ i 



s^ as s f 



8 3 



262 



BIENNIAL REPORT. 



COUNTY REPRESENTATION. 



NUMBER OP CONVICTS RBCEIVBD PROM THB SBVBRAI« COUNTIBS IN THE 
8TATB AT TKB COLORADO STATE PENITENTIARY PROM 1871 UNTIL PBB- 
RUARY 24, 1900. 



COUNTY 


54. 
% 


1 


I 


1 


1 


i 

i 


ToUl 


Arapahoe 


102 

81 

37 

47 
18 
10 


297 

3 
13 
13 

6 

1 
3 

1 
1 
4 
3 
2 
4 
54 
11 
6 
1 

5 
4 
9 
12 

40 
5 
7 

28 

4 


162 

1 
2 
6 
12 
4 
1 
5 

1 
1 
2 



6 
61 

16 
12 
10 
82 
3 


154 

96 
16 

18 

27 

87 

1 


149 

4 
14 
10 

1 
7 
5 

2 

1 

81 
18 
9 
7 

3 

6 

12 

4 
10 

28 

1 


76 

5 
3 
5 

1 

1 
1 
1 

13 
7 
1 
2 

1 
1 
4 
3 

10 

1 
6 
6 

1 


1.507 

1 
124 


Archuleta 

Baca 

Bent 


Boulder 


104 


Chaflfee 


127 


Cheyenne 


15 
40 


Con^os 


68 


Costilla 


24 


Caster 


13 


D«1U 


5 


Dolores 

Doofflas 

Eagle 


2 
IS 

3 
34 

178 
64 
20 
20 

81 
6 
14 
50 


10 
20 

8 


Elbert 


47 


El Paso 


483 


Preniont ... _.. -->_. 

Garfield 


115 
61 


GUpin 


34 


Grand 

Gnnniaon .^ ^ 


1 
77 


Hinsdale 

Hnerlano 


14 
47 


Jeilerson 

Kiowa 


90 
3 


Kit Carson 


1 
180 
17 
62 
79 

7 


4 


T^ke 


285 


La Plata 


46 


Larimer 

Las Aninias 


108 
210 


Unoolii 


17 



BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS. 
COUNTY REPRESENTATION— Concluded. 



253 



COUNTY 



53 






Total 



Logan 

Mesa 

Mineral 

Kontesuma . . 

Montroae 

UoTgan 

Otero 

Ouray 

Park 

PWlHpa 

Phkin 

Prowera 

Pueblo 

Rio Blanco.. 
Rio Grande . 

Routt 

Saguache 

San Juan 

San Miguel.. 
Sedgwick... 

Summit 

Teller 

Washington. 
Weld 



7 
19 



1 

ir> 

1 

3 
23 
42 



22 

2 

198 



9 
4 
13 
21 
2 

18 



Grand Total 



12 
9 



11 
11 
6 



70 
2 

9 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 



2 
20 



15 
1 
3 
1 
4 
1 

72 

2 
3 
4 



6 
11 
1 
2 
3 
1 
8 
1 
1 

8 
2 
53 



1 

52 
1 
3 
2 
4 
4 
10 
2 



43 



1 
12 



32 

rio 

6 
11 
27 

5 
54 
44 
54 

2 
42 

6 
488 

3 
24 
12 
24 
27 
31 
10 
18 

7 

7 
120 

4,902 



254 



BIBNNIAL REPORT. 



NATIVITIES OP CONVICTS. 



THB FOLLOWING iSHOWS TH8 NATIVITIES OP CONVICTS RKCSIVBD AT THB 
COLORADO STATE PENITENTIARY AT CANON CITY PROM THE DATE THAT 
THE PIRST ONE WAS RECEIVED, JUNE 13. 1871, TO PEBRUARY 24, 1900. CON- 
VICTS BORN IN THE STATE OP COLORADO ARE LISTED SEPARATELY; ALL 
OTHERS BORN IN THE UNITED STATES ARE CLASSIFIED AS AMERICANS. 
BOTH SEXES AND COLORED PRISONERS ARE INCLUDED. 



NATIVITY 


1 


NATIVITY 


1 


Americans .. _... 


8.648 
88 

4 

8 

8 

116 

. 4 

101 

5 

6 

1 

1 

106 

40 

8 

172 

7 

231 


Italians 

Mexico 


70 


Aostrians 


30 


Aufftralians ^^^ ^^ 


Nova Scotia 


8 


Bdffiam 


Norway 


11 


Bohemia 


Polanders 

Pruisia 

Russia 

Scotland 


4 


Canada 


84 


Chineae 


10 


Colondo .. . .* . 


44 


Denmark . 


South America 


4 


Weat Indies 


Sweden 


44 


East Indies 


Switserland 


10 


Bgypt 

Bngfland 


Wales 


11 


Isle of Man 


8 


Prance ,.. 


Prince Edward Island 


2 


Finland ... . 


Spain 


2 


Germany 


Hungary 


3 


Holland 


All other countries 


21 








Ireland 


Total number received 


4,902 







BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 255 



THE PROBLEM OF CONVICT LABOR. 

The problem of convict labor is not a new one, and I 
shall not offer an apology for noticing its local conditions, 
even though I may not be able to offer a panacea. The theory 
that a convict in a penitentiary should be given work is one 
generally accepted. Health, discipline, and the reformatory 
influence of industry demand that he be given employment 
and that it be honorable and productive toil. Here there 
comes in the question of how to provide for and use such 
labor and practically not come into competition with free 
labor. 

To manufacture goods, to build roads, to make lime, 
brick, shoes, or cut stone, dig potatoes, make barrels or pick 
apples is in some degree in competition with free labor. The 
desideratum is to select such employment as will minimize 
the competition. 

The Canon City penitentiary should have been provided 
at an early day with a good farm and a coal mine for the 
use of the institution itself, when both could have been se- 
cured without expense. To properly fence such a farm by 
building a wall around it, and keep it in first-class condition, 
would give employment to a large number of men for a long 
period of time and would have been as nearly non-compet- 
itive as it is possible to be. At present the system of rent- 
ing land for garden and farm crops is but a makeshift. The 
manufacture of lime and cut stone and brick, with the oppo- 
sition against it, brings a small return and is openly antag- 
onized in the markets. 

The grade and tunnel work on the proposed great irri- 
gating ditch, known as State Canal No. 1, furnished health- 
ful employment for the prisoners for a number of years, un- 
til it was practically abandoned by the general assembly. 
The last legislature directed the use of the convicts in cer- 
tain road work. 

Several years ago, under authority of a new statute, the 
prison management made strenuous efforts to induce East- 
ern capital to establish some manufacturing shops in the 
penitentiary, but it seemed as though they were all afraid to 
attempt it, although offered practically their own terms. The 
rising tide of public sentiment, now so strong in this coun- 
try, has caused many states to abandon what seemed to be 
a profitable system of prison management. 



256 BIENNIAL REPORT. 

The general public is being educated against prison- 
made goods, and every device is used to place such goods 
upon the market without their real character being known. 

California had a large plant making chairs by convict 
labor. A few years ago the state yielded to public sentiment 
and the manufacture was discontinued. Now California 
buys its chairs from Chicago, and Joliet penitentiary fur- 
nishes the chairs. 

The records of the National Prison Association furnish 
abundant proof of the outline here given. To-day a very 
large proportion of the chairs in the market are prison-made. 
Perhaps the same can be said of saddle trees, log chains, and 
many other articles. Thousands of people who would re- 
fuse to buy scab goods are year after year wearing prison- 
made shoes and clothing. Convict-made goods supply a con- 
siderable share of the commerce of to-day. The small profits 
of the farm drive many families to the towns and cities, and 
young men are seeking for wage labor in the cities. Here 
they meet with the competition of prison-made goods. 

There are several questions of serious import. Would 
a permanent relief be effected by holding up the price of 
prison-made goods? Does the quantity of prison-made goods 
affect or regulate the price of such articles, or is the price 
fixed by the use of new machinery and cheaper methods of 
production? There is a law of economics which says that 
the selling price of the cheapest goods in the market of a 
given grade determines the rate of wages paid in the manu- 
facture of all goods of a similar kind in the market. Thus, 
if five per cent, of the brick or cut stone offered in Colorado 
markets is convict product, the price for which it is sold will 
go a long way toward fixing the selling price of the ninety- 
five per cent, which is not so produced. 

Are we approaching a stage in modern civilization when 
line after line of manufacture will be abandoned to the con- 
vict, and prison contractors have a monopoly of these lines? 
If they can do it cheaper than by free labor, will it be wisdom 
to yield to this law of commercialism? 

As it is at present in Colorado there seems to be no per- 
manent system of prison labor and no prospect that honora- 
ble and productive toil can be introduced. To dig a hole in 
the ground and fill it up again is a class of exercise that de- 
grades and is much worse than a foot race, ball play or the 
rock pile. A labor that occupies the brain, the inventive tal- 



BUEBAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 257 

ent, and the cunning of hand and eye, brings with it the sat- 
isfaction of labor well done, and is a real good to mankind. 
The development of this element in the human is a preventive 
of crime and a restorative to a decaying factor in society. 

The only legitimate end to be secured by the employ- 
ment of convict labor in any way is the physical and moral 
benefits which will inure to the prisoner, making him a bet- 
ter man and a better citizen by reason of such labor, and not 
the element of gain which incidentally reduces the taxation 
of the citizen. 

The farm seems to be the first natural necessity for the 
Canon City prison. The convict labor there could be prop- 
erly and safely used in the further construction of the state 
canal and the proposed reservoirs. It could be utilized in 
improving the roads. But when the work is too far from 
the prison the state can not well afford the expense of extra 
guards and new buildings. They could be of great value in 
improving the land along the river and straightening its 
channel, but the farm and mother earth appear to be the 
natural provision to sustain and restore man. 

Under the present one-sided system of competition, and 
the industrial struggle going on between the warring forces 
in society, born of the spirit of commercialism, the wealth 
of the state must support the prison. The absorption of 
wealth leaves the other fellow poor. Poverty and squalor 
npon the one hand and inordinate wealth and greed upon the 
other are the chief parents of crime, and the wealth holders 
at present must support their criminal offspring. 

THE STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL AT GOLDEN. 

The third session of the Colorado legislature established 
the Industrial School for Boys at Golden. It was formally 
opened for pupils July 17, 1881. Between that date and the 
present w^riting, April 13, 1900, 1,510 pupils have been re- 
ceived for care and instruction. The entire expense of main- 
taining the State Industrial School, from its establishment 
up to 1898, inclusive, has been $556,044.75. The pupils com- 
mitted to this school must not be less than ten nor are they 
supposed to be more than sixteen years of age. There is a 
state farm of flfty-eight acres in connection with the school. 
Upon this farm is produced a very large portion of the veg- 
etables consumed by the inmates. The boys who are sent 



258 BIBNNIAL BEPOBT. 

here have been raised and not reared, never having had the 
benefit of good home training. In a large majority of cases 
they are orphans, either wholly or in part, and have been 
rendered unmanageable through vicious influences, evil as- 
sociations, brutal treatment, or by all three combined. The 
offenses for which the inmates of this school are received are 
usually incorrigibility, larceny, malicious mischief, burglary, 
vagrancy and various other misdemeanors. The pupils here 
are not looked upon as criminals. The object sought to be 
attained is not punishment, but reformation, education, and 
the inculcation of good habits and correct moral principles 
that will help them to build up a better manhood. The aim 
is to surround the boy with good, pure influences, and thus 
develop the best that he is capable of unfolding. The dis- 
cipline at this school, while not harsh or severe, is strict, and 
is well calculated to convince the boy that his highest good 
can be best promoted by cheerful compliance with it. There 
is an excellent school taught by competent teachers, and the 
best instruction is given. Every boy attends school three 
days in each week. There is a department devoted to manual 
training, and the pupils frequently become quite proficient 
with tools, and develop considerable skill of a mechanical 
kind. 

Manual training, in the opinion of all who have had ex- 
perience qualifying them to pass judgment, is best calculated 
to make of the youth an honest, capable, self-respecting citi- 
zen. A shoe shop, carpenter shop, tailor shop, blacksmith 
shop, laundry department and a printing office are conducted 
in connection with the school. A small paper, which is a 
model of neatness, so far as tyx>ographical appearance is con- 
cerned, is issued semi-monthly. The pupils take much pride 
in this publication, and it is a credit to the boys who perform 
the labor in connection with it. All the labor done around 
the buildings or upon the farm, such as cultivating the gar- 
den, taking care of the stock, making the hay, and such other 
work as may be required, is all performed by the pupils. The 
institution is strictly what the name implies — ^a school — and 
in no sense a prison. No locks, bolts, bars or cells are to be 
found upon the premises. Great benefit has already been 
derived by the people of Colorado by reason of the fact that 
hundreds of boys have by its infiuence been brought back to 
lives of usefulness. Prevention is better than cure. The 
State Industrial School takes high rank as being one of the 



BUBBAtJ OF LABOB STATISTICS. 259 

very best and most useful institutions established by the 
commonwealth of Ck)lorado. 

In accordance with the system of grading that has been 
adopted by the authorities in charge, it is possible for the 
pupil, by exemplary conduct, to win his way out in thirteen 
months from the time of his being committed. 

Number of inmates in scliool Noyember 80, 1898 118 

Number of inmates in school April 13, 1900 160 

The following table gives the number of boys received 
at the Industrial School at Golden, from the time it was first 
opened in 1881 to 1898, inclusive, from the different counties 
in the state. In accordance with arrangements made with 
the Board of Control at the school, fifty-nine boarders were 
received and taken care of from Wyoming, New Mexico, Mon- 
tana, Washington, and from North and South Dakota. 



260 



BIENNIAL REPORT. 
COUNTY REPRESENTATION. 



COUNTY 



a 



Arapahoe ... 
Archuleta . . 

Boulder 

Bent 

Chaffee 

Cheyenne. , 
Clear Creek . 

Conejos 

Costilla 

Custer 

Delta 

Douglas 

Eagle 

EI Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison .. 
Huerfano ... 
Jefferson ... 

Kiowa 

I,ake 

I<a Plata.... 

Larimer 

Las Animas 



458 
1 

62 

8 

22 

1 

22 
12 
2 
U 
3 
3 
1 

68 
46 
17 
15 
1 

10 

11 

48 

2 

98 
21 
19 
23 



COUNTY 



Lincoln 

Logan 

Mineral 

Mesa 

Montezuma 
Montrose.... 

Morgan 

Otero 

Ouray , 

Park 

Pitkin 

Prowers .... 

Pueblo 

Rio Blanco . 
Rio Grande 
Saguache ... 
San Juan... 
San Miguel . 

Summit 

Sedgwick .. 

Weld 

Washington 

Yuma 

Boarders.... 

ToUl 



e 

9 



1 

12 
7 
9 
4 

19 
5 
7 

IK 
4 
143 
1 
4 
2 

3 
3 
8 
1 

44 
1 
2 

59 

1.351 



BURBAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 



261 



NATIVITIES OF BOYS RECEIVED. 



THE POI^LOWING IS A SCHEDULE OP THB NATIVITIES OF BOYS RECEIVED AT 
THE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL AT GOLDEN. FROM THE DATE IT WAS OPENED 
TO NOVEMBER ?0, 1898, INCLUSIVE. 



STATE 


a 


STATE 


1 




9 




a 

5? 


Alabama 


1 

9 


Nevada 


1 


Arkansas 


Nebraaka 


41 


Arixona 


2 
325 


New Mexico 


6 


Colorado _ 


New Jersey 


14 


California 


16 
5 


North DakoU 


2 


ConnecUcut 


Ohio 


26 


Florida 


1 


PennayWania 


59 




57 


Oregon .._._.. ._.. 


3 


Indiana 


22 
1 


Sonth Carolina 


2 


Indian Territory 


South Dakota 


1 


niinoia 


114 


Texas 


16 


Kanaas 


109 


Tennessee 


18 


Kentucky 


18 


UUh 


18 


Louiaiana 


8 


Vermont 


2 


Miaaoari 


91 


Virginia 


3 


Maine 


2 


Wiaconain 


49 


Michigan 


28 


Wyoming 


12 




24 
13 
9 
7 


Waahington 


2 






Minnesota 


Native born... . 


1,188 


MaryUnd 


Foreign born 


162 


Miaaiasippi 






New York.. 


52 


ToUl 


1,351 







262 BIENNIAL BBPOBT. 



THE COLORAJDO STATE BEPORMATORY. 

The Ck)lorado State Reformatory was created by an act 
of the Seventh General Assembly, approved April 9, 1889. 
By the terms of the act one hundred thousand dollars was 
appropriated for the purpose of erecting the necessary build- 
ings, supplying them with the proper equipment, and get- 
ting the institution into working order for the care of future 
inmates. The appropriation proved to be unavailable, and 
only 14,477.19 of it was ever used for the purpose intended. 
The work of establishing the institution was delayed consid- 
erably, and it was not until the summer of 1891 that it was 
formally opened. According to the records, the first candi- 
date for reformation was received on June 8 of that year. 

The reformatory farm, consisting of 480 acres of land, 
together with the water rights necessary for its irrigation, 
was donated to the state by the citizens of Buena Vista. 

The central idea of the law is that prisoners sent here 
for education and treatment are supposed to be not less than 
sixteen nor more than thirty years of age. It is contemplated 
by the statute to confine here only such convicts as are not 
hardened in crime, who are first offenders, and who will 
yield readily to the influences of a reformatory character 
with which they are surrounded. 

Convicts whose conduct is such as to merit clemency are 
sometimes transferred here from the State Penitentiary at 
Canon City. The Board of Penitentiary Commissioners also 
have general supervision here. 

The parole system has been operative from the first, and 
the excellent results which followed its practice undoubtedly 
had much to do with bringing about the present system of 
paroling convicts from the State Penitentiary. According 
to the reports issued by the several wardens, the great major- 
ity of those who serve time here become good and useful citi- 
zens after their release. 

There is an excellent school in connection, where the in- 
mates receive instruction in such branches as will be most 
likely to prove useful to them in future years. There is a 



BUBBAU OF LABOB STATISTIO& 263 

large library for the use of the inmates. Both school and 
library is in charge of the chaplain. 

The cultivation of the reformatory farm proper, together 
with 160 acres leased by the state, furnishes the principal 
employment for the prisoners. A very large part of the sup- 
plies necessary for the maintenance of the institution is pro- 
duced by the labor of the inmates, who do all the work in con- 
nection with the farm. 

The Board of Penitentiary Commissioners, in connection 
with the warden, may at any time terminate the sentence of 
any prisoner if, in their judgment, his prison record proves 
him worthy of such clemency. 

The names of the several wardens who have served since 
the institution was opened are: W. A. Smith, I. G. Berry, 
Mrs. J. M. Berry, J. A. McDonald, Fred J. Radford, C. P. 
Hoyt, and the present incumbent, A. C. Dutcher. 

The entire expense incurred by the state in connection 
with the reformatory, to November 30, 1898, is f 218,587.95. 
This is independent of the earnings of the prisoners. 

The estimated expense for the present biennial report is 
170,000. 

The total number of prisoners received here to the pres- 
ent time is 851. 

Of the 851 inmates who have been confined in this insti- 
tution to date, 705 use tobacco, while 146 do not. 

The Commissioner of Labor has visited the reformatory 
several times within the last two years upon business i)er- 
taining to the collection of the statistics which appear in this 
connection. He found the plant in most excellent condition 
in every respect. The sanitary arrangements are perfect; the 
cell house, the dining room and all other places scrupulously 
clean and well kept. The prisoners were humanely and 
kindly treated, no cruel punishments being permitted. Ev- 
ery reasonable consideration contributing to the comfort of 
the inmates was granted. The food was good, well cooked 
and furnished in sufficient quantities. It was all accom- 
panied by that rigid, but not harsh, discipline which is so 
necessary for the successful management of this kind of an 
institution. 

The administration of Warden A. C. Dutcher has been 
characterized as one of the most successful in the history of 
the reformatory. 



264 



BIENNIAL EEPOET. 



COUNTY REPRESENTATION. 



NUMBER OF CONVICTS RECEIVED AT THE COLORADO STATE REFORMATORY 
FROM THE SEVERAL COUNTIES IN THE STATE. 



COUNTY 

Arapahoe 

Archuleta 

Bent 

Bonlder 

Chaffee... 

Cheyenne 

Clear Creek 

Conejos 

Costilto .. 

Cu5ter 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Eagle 

Elbert 

El Paso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano 

Jefferson 

Kiowa M 

Kit Carson 

Lake 

La Plata 

Larimer 






374 
1 
5 
17 
15 
2 
4 
3 



2 
3 
2 
3 

64 
4 

16 
4 



3 
14 

3 

3 
23 

8 
20 



COUNTY 



I«as Animas 

Lincoln 

Logan 

Mesa 

Mineral 

Montezuma 
Montrose .. 

Morgan 

Otero 

Ouray 

Park 

Phillips.... 

Pitkin 

Prowers 

Pueblo 

Rio Blanco.. 
Rio Grande. 

Routt 

Saguache .. 

San Juan 

San Miguel.. 
Sedgwick.. 

Summit 

Teller 

Washington 

Weld 

Yuma 

Total . 






8 
16 

1 

4 

8 

22 

6 

1 
1 

11 
2 

62 
3 
3 
5 
2 
3 
7 
3 

4 
5 



STtl 



BURBAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 



265 



UST OF CRIMES. 



LIST OP CRIMBS CI^ASSIPIBD, AND THB NUBCBBR OP PRISONERS THAT WBRB 
CONPINKD AT THB COLORADO 8TATB RBPORMATORY POR BACH, PROM 
JUNB 8. 1891, UP TO THB PRBS8NT TIMB. 



CRIMB 






CRIMB 



a 



Larceny 

BariB^lary 

Burglary and larceny 

Porgcry 

AMault to rob 

Robbery 

Porifery and larceny 

Crime against nature 

Palae prettases.. 

Larceny and burglary 

Porgery and false pretenses 

Grand larceny 

Burglary asd grand larceny. 



166 

134 

173 

71 

15 

S6 

2 

1 

5 

9 

1 

131 

3 



Miscellaneous 

Porgery and uttering forgery 

Assault to murder , 

Embesztement 

Manslaughter 

Murder 

Receiring stolen goods 

Arson 

Rape 

Grand larceny and embexxlement 

Bigamy 

Pelony 

ToUl 



15 
18 

7 
4 
2 

13 
2 

18 
1 
1 

851 



266 



BIENNIAL REPORT. 
BIRTH PLACBS OP PRISONERS 



CONFINED IN THE COI,ORA.DO 8TATB RBPORMATORY, AT BUBNA VISTA, 8INCB 

ITS HSTABLISHMBNT. 



PLACE OP BIRTH 


i 


PLACE OP BIRTH 


1 


Alabama 


1 
1 

5 

2 

8 

1 

18 
U 

1 
70 

1 
21 

1 

2 
13 
80 

1 
26 
54 
18 

1 

50 
14 

5 
10 
16 

1 
28 

1 
10 


Missouri. 

Mississippi 

Nebraska 

New Jersey 


78 


Arizona . 


5 


Arkansas 


27 


Anstralia 


8 


Austria 


New Mexico 


4 


Belffium 


Nevada 

New York 


8 


California 


64 


Canada . 


North Carolina 


44 


China . . 


Ohio 


45 


Colorado 


Oklahoma ...... ... 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 




District of Columbia 




England 


88 


Prance ... ... 


Rhode Island 




Georgia 


Russia 

Scandinavia 

Scotland 

Spain 

South Carolina 




Germany 


16 


lUinois 




Idaho 




Indiana 




Iowa 


South DakoU 




IreUnd 


Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Virginia 




Italy 


16 


Kansas 




Kentucky.. . 




Louisiana 


Vermont 

Wales 

Washington 




Maryland 




Massachusetts ... 




Maine 


Wisconsin 


17 


Michigan 


Wyoming 




Mexico , 


Miscellaneous 


21 


Minnesota 











The reformatory population is very largely made up of 
the remnants of broken families, and many of them are the 
creatures of misfortune, not essentially depraved or wicked. 



BUBBAU OF LABOR OTATISTIGS. 267 

but weak. They are for the most part young men reared in 
idleness, one or both of whose parents died when they were 
very young, without habits of industry, the result of bad 
association and where poverty is a leading element. 

Here an effort is made to develop the moral and intel- 
lectual faculties, and to inculcate habits of regular hours and 
industry. The atmosphere of social independence connected 
with farm life is an incentive to correct habits and moral 
development, and is in strong contrast to the rigid confine- 
ment and discipline which usually go with prison life. 



268 BIENNIAL REPORT. 



WAGES, HOURS AND CONDITIONS OF 
EMPLOYMENT. 



The average wages paid to labor in Colorado in the va- 
rious industries requiring the service of skilled and un- 
skilled manual labor is much higher than that paid for sim- 
ilar service in most other states of the Union. In this con- 
nection it is not necessary to go into a statement of causes, 
other than that the organization of labor has much to do 
with prevailing wage rates, but to call attention to the facts. 
The scale of wages paid in the same occupation in different 
sections of the state differs more widely than in the Eastern 
states. The rate of wages paid to metalliferous miners will 
average nearly $3.00 per day. This scale applied to the large 
class of workers employed in mines helps materially not 
only to increase the general wage average, but to pull the 
price of all labor in the state up toward its level. 

In the building trades there has been an upward tend- 
ency of late and the wages of carpenters, hod carriers, brick- 
layers, plumbers, gas fitters, plasterers, stonecutters, paint- 
ers, etc., will compare favorably with that paid to workmen 
engaged at these occupations in other places. There is a 
tendency in these trades to diminish the hours of labor, and 
much progress has been made in the direction of an eight- 
hour work day. In many sections, however, and in numer- 
ous occupations, the number of hours constituting a day's 
labor is still ten. In the smelters the twelve-hour day ob- 
tains with reference to several classes of workmen employed 
there. Bailroad labor of all kinds is among the more highly 
paid classes of work, and has been very constantly employed. 

Bookkeepers, accountants, copyists, clerks and labor of 
this class are frequently very poorly paid for their services 
in T)enver and in the valley towns. In many instances the 
salary paid is niggardly in the extreme. The fame of Colo- 
rado as a sanitarium is world wide, particularly does this 
apply to those affected with consumption, asthma and kin- 
dred diseases. Denver is the Mecca to which they make pil- 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 269 

grimage in large numbers. Once here, and being without 
means, they seek employment of a kind that will not require 
physical strength and which will enable them to pay ex- 
penses. Bookkeeping, clerking and similar kinds of labor 
are the occupations in which they usually find employment. 
Denver has several thousand of this class of residents — 
^^lungers," as they are called. The willingness of these peo- 
ple to work for what they can get in the belief that if they 
remain in Denver its fine climate will restore them to health, 
is a potent influence in reducing the rate of wages paid in 
these occupations. 

In female labor during the last year there has been a 
strong demand for competent domestics, and capable girls 
command from f 15 to f 25 per month. A few servant girls 
receive f 30 per month. This is the best paid class of femi- 
nine labor, as the wages paid includes board and room. 

In the printing offices of Colorado the Typographical 
Union has established the eight-hour day as nearly as local 
conditions will enable them to do so. In the Allied Printing 
Trades in Denver the printers, stereotypers, mailers, photo- 
engravers and pressmen, who work upon daily newspapers, 
work eight hours per day. In computing the wage scale of 
the Allied Printing Trades the computation is based upon 
a six-day week. In the printing trades aside from those em- 
ployed upon daily newspapers the nine-hour day is still in 
vogue. 

Reporters upon daily newspapers in Denver get one day 
off each week without reduction of salary. 

The cigarmakers have fully established the eight-hour 
day and all the shops in Denver are conducted in accord- 
ance with this rule. 

The wages of conductors and motormen employed in the 
street car service in Denver ranges from 18.5 to 23.5 cents 
per hour, according to the length of time they have been in 
the service. 

The average monthly wages of school teachers in Colo- 
rado for the year 1899, according to figures compiled from 
the report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, was 
182.30 for men and $58.21 for lady teachers in graded schools. 
In rural schools the average monthly wages paid was f48.46 
for men and |39.15 for lady teachers. 



270 BIENNIAL BEPOBT. 

SCHEDULE OF WAGES PAID IN COLORADO. 



OCCUPATION 

Awningr makers 

Bakers 

Bindery girls 

Blacksmiths 

Blacksmith helpers 

Boilermakers 

Boot and shoe makers 

Bookbinders 

Brewery workmen 

Bricklayers 

Britk moulders 

Brickyard laborers 

Broom makers 

Butchers 

Bartenders 

Brakemen 

Carpenters , 

Cabinetmakers , 

Coal miners 

Carriagre makers 

Carriage trimmers , 

Cigar makers , 

Carriage painters 

Cooks, with board 

Coopers 

Cornice makers , 

Cowboys, with board 

CItU engineers , 

Drug clerks 

DentisU 

Gas and steam fitters 

Grainers 

Granite cutters 

mcctrldftns , 

mectrical workers 

Farm hands, with board 

Gardeners, with board 

Glassblowers 



Rate 



Time 



1 2 50.... 




per day 


10 00 to 1 25 00 


per week 


700 to 


10 00 


per week 


200 to 


S25 


per day 


1 50 to 


225 


per day 


250 to 


400 


per day 


2 50 to 


850 


per day 


18 00 to 


25 00 


per week 


250 to 


S25 


per day 


4 50 to 


500 


per day 


SOOto 


400 


per day 


1 50 to 


800 


per day 


150 to 


250 


per day 


10 00 to 


20 00 


per week 


12 00 to 


35 00 




65 00 to 


100 00 


.. per month 


250 to 


850 


per day 


2 50 to 


400 


per day 


See coal mining. 




250 to 


300 


......per day 


250 to 


800 


per day 


12 00 to 


2100 


.-..per week 


225 to 


400 


per day 


10 00 to 


25 00 


per week 


250 to 


800 


per day 


2 50 to 


800 


per day 


20 00 to 


80 00 


.. per month 


6 00 to 


15 00 


per day 


10 00 to 


22 50 


. per week 


700 to 


20 00 


per week 


S50to 


400 


per day 


400 to 


500 


per day 


4 00 




per day 


65 00 to 


85 00 


..per month 


3 00 




per day 


15 00 to 


25 00 


. . per month 


20 00 to 


80 00 


..per month 


6 00 to 


10 00 


per day 



BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS. 271 

SCHBDULB OF WAGBS PAID IN COLORADO— Continued. 



OCCUPATION 



Rate 



Time 



Glaxien 

HaraeM makcn 

Batten 

Hod cmrrien 

Hbrseshoen 

Honae iMinters 

Iron moulders 

Job pieaamen 

Janiton 

Jeweien 

linemen 

Laundry girte , 

Lanndxymen , 

Unotypers..^ , 

Uthograpbers 

I/>ck8mltb8 •. 

U>oomotive ens^neen 

Uthers 

Laborers .. .._..»«. ---..._.. ......__..._. . ... 

Marble cttttera and poliahera , 

MUlers 

Plonr min em]>loyei 

Hachine woodworkers 

ICacbinlsts 

Miners, metalliferous—see mining and mining labor.. 

Bfallers -. 

Meat cutters 

Musicians 

Nurses _ 

Plasterers 

Printers 

Plumbers 

Printing pressmen... .. . . ..-..>... .. 

Press assistants 

Photo-engravers ... 

Porters _ 

Honse painters 

Paper hangers 



$ 2 25.... 

2 00 to 

2S0to 

225 to 

2 50 to 

2 50 to 

S25to 

13 00 to 

30 00 to 

2 50 to 

285 to 

4 00 to 

7 00 to 

2100 to 

15 00 to 

2 50 to 

100 00 to 

250 to 

100 to 

4 00.... 

12 00.... 

1 50.... 

2 50 to 
2 SO to 



$ 300 

800 

850 

825 

850 

400 

18 00 

00 00 

500 

800 

10 00 

18 00 

30 00 

2100 

825 

100 00 

325 

250 



825 
400 



per day 

per day 

per day 

per day 

per day 

per day 

per day 

per we^ 

...per month 

per day 

per day 

per week 

per week 

per week 

per week 

per day 

...per month 

per day 

per day 

per day 

per week 

per day 

per day 

per day 



12 00 to 
15 00 to 
8 00 to 

2 50 to 

3 00 to 
15 00 to 

8 50 to 
21 00 to 
12 00 to 
18 00 to 
6 00 to 
300 to 
3 00 to 



20 00 
20 00 
10 00 
400 
425 
80 00 
450 
25 00 
17 75 
25 00 
10 00 
825 
820 



...per week 
...per week 
...per uigbt 

per day 

per day 

...per week 

per day 

—.per week 
...per week 
...per week 
...per week 

per day 

per day 



272 BIBNIJIAL REPORT. 

SCHEDUr.E OF WAGES PAID IN COLORADO— Concluded. 



OCCUPATION 



Pattern makers 

Reporters on daily newspapers. 

Sign painters 

Soap makers 

Soap makers* helpers 

Sawmill men 

Section men 

Stage employes 

Stonecutters 

Stonemasons 

Stationary engineers 

Stereotypere 

Stenographers 

Switchmen 

Smeltermen 

Tailors 



Tile layers 

Tinsmiths 

Teamsters 

Typewriters 

Telegraph operators 

Upholsterers 

Waiters, with meals 

Waitresses, with meals . 
Woodworkers 



Rate 



i 3 25 to I 3 50 
16 00 

2 SO to 4 00 
1 SO to 3 00 

100 

1 50 to 4 00 

1 15 to 2 00 
10 00 to 20 00 

3 00 to 4 00 

2 75 to 3 25 
40 00 to 150 00 
21 00 to 90 00 
35 00 to 100 00 
65 00 to 75 00 

1 25 to 3 50 
13 00 to 21 00 

4 00.. 

2 50 to 4 00 

1 25 to 3 50 
30 00 to 75 00 
50 00 to 80 00 

2 00 to 3 50 
4 00 to 17 50 
4 00 to 15 00 



Time 



per day 

per week 

per day 

per day 

per day 

per day 

per day 

per weelL 

per day 

per day 

...per month 

per week 

. . .per month 
...per month 

per day 

per we«k. 

per day 

per day 

per day 

...per month 
...per month 

per day 

per week 

per week 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 273 



THE UNEMPLOYED IN COLORADO. 

The biennial period covered by this report has undoubt- 
edly been one of greater prosperity for those engaged in farm- 
ing, in mining, and in mercantile pursuits, as well as for 
the men and women who work for wages, than any similar 
period since 1890. Wages, upon the whole, have been bet- 
ter, work has been more easy to secure than at any time dur- 
ing the past ten years. During the summer months there 
existed a strong demand for men to work upon farms and 
ranches in the outlying districts, and from |20 to f25 per 
month, with board, was paid to strong, vigorous men with 
some experience at this kind of labor. 

The Commissioner visited nearly all the mining camps 
and industrial centers of the state for the purpose of gath- 
ering all the information possible concerning the condition 
of the wage working classes, opportunities for employment, 
rate of wages paid, continuity of employment, and all other 
questions that would assist to a better understanding of the 
employed and the unemployed in this state. 

Notwithstanding the improved conditions which ob- 
tained everywhere as compared with years immediately pre- 
ceding, I found considerable numbers of men out of employ- 
ment. 

I have no means of determining the exact proportion of 
the wage workers of Colorado who have been out of employ- 
ment, but would say, after close observation upon my own 
part, and securing the opinion of intelligent men in many 
parts of the state, that about eighty per cent, of the wage 
workers of Colorado have been constantly employed during 
the past two years, estimating 280 days in the year as the 
basis (rf steady employment. That is to say that the average 
proportion of the unemployed of Colorado during this period 
was equal to twenty per cent, of the entire number. 

In the metalliferous mining camps throughout the state, 
Leadville, Breckenridge, Silverton, Ouray, Creede, Black 
Hawk, Central City, Telluride, Rico, and the Cripple Creek 
district, there were at all times large numbers of miners and 
other workmen seeking for employment. In Denver, Pueblo, 
Colorado Springs, Trinidad, Durango and other cities out- 
side of the mining districts mechanics of every description 

10 



274 BIENNIAL REPORT 

and ordinary laborers were many of them involuntorily in 
the ranks of the unemployed. 

Throughout the coal mining districts in most of the 
camps there was a very great dearth of labor during the sum- 
mer months. The mines were worked one or two days in the 
week, sometimes less. Many of the coal miners sought work 
elsewhere. A miner in one of the camps in Fremont County 
stated that he earned f 5.50 in the month of June, 1900. 

"You have a family to support, I suppose?" 

"Yes, a wife and three children." 

"How in the world do you and your family manage to 
live?" 

"Well," he replied, with a shrug of the shoulders, "I have 
often asked myself the same question. You see, we don't 
live, merely exist. We only stay during a portion of the year. 
We sometimes cultivate a small garden patch, our wives do 
a little washing or something of the kind, and earn small 
sums. We occasionally get a day^s work outside of the coal 
mine. We occasionally have a little money saved from the 
winter season, and we pull through, I hardly know how, 
until work again becomes more plentiful. I sometimes won- 
der," said the coal miner, grimly, "why the soul will be satis- 
fled to stay with a body that is treated so shabbily as is that 
of the average working man. We feel ourselves compelled to 
put our children to work when work is to be had for them as 
soon as they are old enough to earn a dollar." 

I became convinced, after acquainting myself as fully 
as possible with the lives of large numbers of wage workers, 
especially in the poorer paid branches of labor, that the earn- 
ings of men with families are less than the cost of living and 
that the balance has to be eked out by the earnings of wives 
and children of school age. Thus do parents feel themselves 
compelled to evade the law prohibiting the employment of 
children by misrepresenting their ages. 

Colorado is one of the richest, also among the newest 
states of the Union. Yet even here the problem of the unem- 
ployed confronts us, though not to the extent that it exists 
in the more densely populated Eastern states. 

The tables of wages compiled from returns received from 
individual workers, and published in another chapter, are 
for the most part representative of intelligent workmen who 
are members of organized labor, and make the most of their 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 275 

opportunities, and does not reach the submerged tenth, that 
resilm of destitution whose only statistics are pauperism, 
epidemics and crime. 

Thus it would seem that we are compelled to ask our- 
selves, why are willing hands associated with hungry stom- 
achs? Under what social system can labor always be em- 
ployed, and, being thus engaged, receive the full product of 
its earnings? For this and nothing short of it constitutes 
the natural recompense of toil. 

In a social state based upon justice, the exchange of 
commodities for that which gives value to all things, namely, 
labor, would be the most easy and safe of all exchanges, and 
competition would be upon the part of employers to obtain 
workmen and not upon the part of employes to secure work. 
It is only, however, by reason of access to land that labor is 
able to fashion and recombine that which previously existed 
into forms which minister to its wants and desires. Thus 
conditions which seem difficult to understand when we are 
forgetful of our dependence upon land, becomes easy when 
we recognize our entire dependence upon it. From this we 
may readily reach the conclusion that the class who own 
natural opportunities become employers and those who have 
not such title are forced into the role of employes. Thus the 
price of labor is not governed as it should be by its product, 
but is forced to the lowest point by the unequal terms upon 
which the two classes approach each other. How could cap- 
ital oppress labor or force it to work for less than its full 
earnings were the field always open to labor to become its 
own employers? With society thus formed, it is quite cer- 
tain that there would still be inequalities because of differ- 
ences in skill, energy and industry. But there could be no 
very rich and no miserably poor. In land monopoly we may 
see the reason why labor-saving machines, while they in- 
crease the efficiency of labor, do not improve the condition 
of laborers. The effect of such improvements is to enable 
land owners to demand and compel land users to pay more 
for the use of land. Land becomes more valuable, but wageff 
tend to decrease, because an increasing number of men are 
being thrown out of work by reason of the improved methods 
and become competitors for employment. What the final 
effect will be if present conditions are not arrested we may 
get an idea of by trying to imagine what the old world would 
have been had there been no America to drain off the surplus 



276 BIENNIAL REPORT 

population. Have the evil eflfects of land monopoly proven 
suflBciently hurtful to demand and make probable a reaction? 
Positively so. Looking at the matter superficially, nothing 
seeems more permanently fixed than our present system of 
land ownership, but it should be borne in mind that the 
feudal tenures of the middle ages were quite as irresistibly 
fixed. It is equally certain that there are no such elements 
of solidity in the present order as in the God established 
order which preceded it. All progress involves instability. 
The greater the progress the greater the placticity and adapt- 
ability. Permanence is neither possible nor desirable. The 
higher conception of the common interest was a conceivable 
idea before the individual was of importance. This was a 
conception upon which we find based the first glimpses of 
civilization. Production and distribution in common. It 
was intended to realize the formula of Louis Blanc, "from 
each according to his abilities and to each according to his 
needs." The ancient village commune of Europe held all 
things in common, none could be wealthy, yet none could be 
poor. The ideal system of the present is to hold in common 
only those things that are national and public in their char- 
acter. The common privilege of the ballot is simply a re- 
serve of power to turn a large amount of individualized priv- 
ilege into common possession whenever the people realize 
such a course to be necessary for the common weal. The tend- 
ency of thought in this age is to increase the common fund 
and to decrease the privileges of monopoly that have been 
grasped by the individual. We are having a backward 
swing from extreme individualism. How much further in 
this direction ought we to go? We shall undoubtedly go so 
far as to own in common the great inventions that convey 
commerce and intelligence, railroads, telegraphs, telephones 
and whatever of the kind is to follow. And last to mention, 
but first in importance, not land which can not be reduced 
to ownership, but land values. All land value arises from 
the pressure of population. A piece of land where there is 
no population, no matter how rich it is, has no selling price. 
A small piece of land, no matter how poor it is in natural 
fertility, in the heart of a large city, has a large selling price. 
The pressure of population creates the value of land. It 
therefore belongs to the community that creates the value. 
Let ground rent and payment for the use of public oppor- 
tunities, franchises, etc., be paid into the public treasury. 
This is the single tax, as fair and just a system as can be 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 277 

devised by the mind of man. Anyone capable of understand- 
ing what creates ground rent and the value of franchises can 
understand what the single tax is. The single tax would 
not be a tax on land at all, but the appropriation by the state 
of that value which all of the people have created. Land, 
like building, mining and in the heart of large cities and 
other franchises of very great value would pay considerable. 
Land of low value, like farm land, would pay but little, while 
land that there was not a demand for, for actual use, would 
pay nothing at all. The value taken would be the equivalent 
that is paid for the exclusive use and enjoyment of a value 
created and therefore owned by the entire people. That is 
economic rent, and in this very fact that economic rent will 
apply solely to land of value and according to value, lies 
one of the chief merits of the single tax. For, it being then 
unprofitable to hold land, now of more or less value, except 
for its best use, in every community large quantities of land 
held now solely for speculation would be abandoned and 
thrown open to use without either rent or tax. It is on this 
absolutely free land that labor would ever have a haven of 
refuge against enforced idleness or unfair wages. 

Herein lies the truth that must revolutionize society. 
The old cry, the, slave must be free, rang through the land 
until the slave was free. The cry that the land must be free 
and wage servitude must be abolished is ringing through the 
land to-day, and very soon the hour on the clock of time 
will strike, the land will be free and there will be no unem- 
ployed in Colorado or elsewhere. 

THE COLORADO HOME AND SOCIAL CONDITION 
OF OUR CITIZENSHIP, PAUPERISM, ETC. 

The home is the unit of society. The basis upon which 
every civilization rests is the fireside. The loyalty with 
which the home is maintained is the gauge of respect, esteem 
and confidence in which the citizen is held by his fellows. 
The homes of a people are the reflex of their social condition, 
and the social condition is an outgrowth of the economic or- 
ganization of the production and distribution of wealth. The 
social condition of the mass of the wage earners and others 
in Colorado is much better than that of their fellows in most 
of the other states of the Union. They live better, dress bet- 
ter, provide more liberally for their families, receive better 
wages and enjoy more of everything that makes life desirable 



278 BIENNIAL REPORT 

than in other parts of the country. Especially in the mining 
camps of Colorado one very seldom meets that dire destitu- 
tion which is seen so frequently in other localities. While, 
in this connection, a detailed examination of causes is un- 
necessary, it is quite proper to call attention to the fact that 
the undoubted reason of our better social condition is that 
the vast mineral and other natural resources of our state 
have not yet been fully appropriated. These public mineral 
and agricultural lands have enabled workmen to either be- 
come their own employers, by reducing such lands to private 
ownership, or to compel those who did do so to pay them 
fairly decent wages. To this fact and the fairly effective or- 
ganization of labor may be traced whatever degree of pros- 
perity the industrial classes enjoy. 

The search for the precious metals haa ever acted as a 
magnet to draw out the best and strongest qualities of energy 
and endurance that the yeomanry of the world was capable 
of unfolding. It was the best, the most energetic, the most 
ambitious men from farm, factory and workshop that broke 
the trammels of conventional restriction, traveled westward, 
and built up the empire known to the world as the mining 
camps of Colorado. It has long been a matter of common re- 
mark among business men in the mountain districts that the 
average consumption of each family is greater than in any 
state where they ever did business. This is as it should be. 
The toilers, to whose unflagging industry Colorado is so 
much indebted, are entitled to the very best that is produced. 
The social condition of the masses has improved materially 
during the last twenty years. It is especially noticeable of 
late years that an era of economy and intelligent, reflective 
thought is making its presence known to large numbers of 
workingmen. The drunken debauch, the midnight revel, the 
free and easy shooting, cutting and stabbing affrays of earlier 
days are growing less and less frequent each year. It is un- 
fortunately true that the saloon and the dance hall still do a 
fairly lucrative business, but it is growing less with each suc- 
ceeding year. 

Gambling halls still continue to exist and their main- 
tenance is largely contributed to by workmen. Many a hard- 
earned dollar, that ought to be used in the support of home 
and family, finds its way into the bank roll of the faro dealer. 
It is not, however, carried on to nearly the extent of former 
years. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 279 

The trend of thought in Colorado is favorable to high 
wages and not to the opposite. The fundamental law under- 
lying the wages of labor must alw^ays be borne in mind. The 
comi)ensation of labor comes out of its earnings, and from no 
pre-existing fund. Under the wretched wage system, as now^ 
understood, wages must always be somewhat below its real 
earnings to furnish a margin for the employer. If conditions 
are of such a character that a given amount of labor will pro- 
duce less wealth than under other circumstances, then wages 
will be reduced to conform to the change. 

Undoubtedly some of the most pitiable wrecks in the 
form of paupers to be found anywhere will be met in the 
mining camps of this state. The average pauper in most 
places is an elderly person, who is broken down and penni- 
less, after a lifetime of service in the industrial army. Not 
so the pauper of the class to which we refer. He or she is 
broken down, but from an entirely different cause. A min- 
er's whole financial and social condition in life is frequently 
changed by the development of a prospect. Not all men are 
capable of using wealth suddenly acquired in a manner that 
is conducive to their happiness and prosperity in future Ufa 
The change in the mode of living is so great that they plunge 
to the other extreme. A career of debauchery, drunkenness 
and all-around dissipation is entered upon. Business is neg- 
lected, and the wealth so suddenly acquired, fades away like 
a morning dew before the noonday sun. Fortune is jealous 
of her gifts and seldom confers them the second time, when 
not appreciated in the first instance. With fortune gone, 
the man finds himself with broken health and habits con- 
tracted which prevent future success. The downfall from 
this time forward is rapid and consists of but few steps. He 
becomes discouraged and gives up; he has lost his grip, as 
the saying is. He becomes an habitual frequenter of the 
dance hall, a patron of the free lunch table. He sleeps in 
chairs or under the tables in saloons. His face assumes a 
sallow, haggard, wretched, emaciated expression. The ele- 
ment of hope, which is said to spring eternal in the human 
breast, has departed. The attention of the police is directed 
to him and a series of sentences upon the chain gang follow. 
After a time he is not desired even there, and to the poor- 
house he is sent straightway. In a few weeks, a few months, 
or a few years at the very most, the last harbor is reached in 
life's stormy sea. 



280 BIENNIAL REPORT 

The social gulf which sepai*ates the workman from the 
capitalist, while it exists, is neither as wide or as deep as 
in the Eastern states. Class distinctions are not so rigidly 
drawn. The elegant mansion is not so far removed from the 
cottage. The matron who presides over the richly furnished 
residence upon Capitol hill receives her friend from the cot- 
tage with a cordiality uninfluenced by any aflfectation of su- 
periority. 

The home of the metalliferous miner is usually an unpre- 
tentious dwelling, of which he is sometimes the owner, and 
sometimes not. It is usually neatly but inexpensively fur- 
nished. A carpet is on the floor, a piano or organ in one cor- 
ner, a book case stands near the wall, a cheerful coal fire is 
burning in the grate. He usually earns from |50 to |75 per 
month when employed. 

The larder is well stocked and he lives well when his 
earnings will permit. He frequently has small accumula- 
tions in the shape of a bank account, or an investment of 
some kind. He usually belongs to two or three societies. His 
wife is a member of one, at least, of the women societies 
which have come to be so much in evidence of late years. She 
attends the theatre occasionally in the company of her hus- 
band or a lady friend. Occasionally she makes a visit to the 
old homestead in an Eastern state and spends a few months 
among the scenes of her girlhood days. His children attend 
the public school. Here class distinctions are forgotten, and 
they are as well dressed and as proficient in study as is the 
child of the capitalist, the magnate or the mine manager. 
He has not been entirely cured of the habit of frequenting 
the saloon and the gaming resort, but less time and money 
are used in that way than formerly. His home life contains 
much that is healthful and uplifting, that tones downw^ord, 
softens, modifies and sweetens the uncouthness that fre- 
quently goes with manual toil. 

The miner goes down hundreds of feet toward the in- 
terior of the earth, and there surrounded with foul, poison- 
ous air, powder smoke, falling rock and caving timbers, earns 
that wage used for supplying home and family with the nec- 
essaries and comforts of life. 

When he kisses the baby good-bye in the morning, and 
with dinner bucket in hand climbs the hill and goes down the 
shaft, he is never quite sure that he will be brought to the 
surface in the same condition as when he went down in the 



BUBBAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 281 

morning. He may have said his last good-bye to Mary or 
Maggie or Tommy or Joe. He may have opened up an ore 
shoot with the discharge of a single shot that makes an Inde- 
pendence, a Gold Coin, or a Jonny. 

Not everybody goes to the watering places and the health 
resorts in the summer season, or enjoys the pleasures to be 
had in the capital city. The women whose husbands have 
been killed in mine accidents or met with other untimely 
deaths manage, by economy and prudence, to keep their fam- 
ilies intact and to rear their children to lives of respectabil- 
ity and usefulness. This class takes high rank among the 
world's greater heroes. 

In the city of Denver our observation convinces us that 
there are large numbers of families dangerously close to the 
brink of starvation. So close, in fact, that they are in grave 
danger of falling in at any time. The tales of squalor, 
wretchedness, hardship and suffering related by these peo- 
ple are heartrending. Their lives appear to be one continued 
struggle to provide themselves with the merest necessaries 
of life. Their wages are ridiculously small and work irreg- 
ular. Many of them show evidences of better days, while 
others appear to have been born and spent their entire lives 
in an atmosphere of vice, ignorance, brutality and poverty, 
conditions which usually accompany each other. Their home 
lives, if, indeed, the places where they eat and sleep may be 
called home, contain nothing calculated to elevate charac- 
ter, but everything in the way of destroying it. Mere animal- 
ism alone is left. A fierce struggle for existence in which 
all the finer and better qualities that enrich and beautify 
character are killed and the baser ones given unrestricted 
action. 

Among the most poorly paid class of workers are shop 
girls who are employed at various kinds of work in stores and 
other places of business. Their wages run from f 2.50 to |7.00 
per week. Out of this they must pay room rent, pay for 
their meals and dress respectably. How they manage to do 
80 is an unsolved problem. Not long since, while eating din- 
ner in a restaurant, two girls, whom I was afterwards in- 
formed by the proprietor were clerks in a store, came in and 
ordered dinner. The price of the dinners ordered was 15 
and 25 cents. Said one to the other : "Mary, you can't af- 
ford such a high-priced meal as that." "It's too bad," replied 
the one addressed, "if I can't eat a decent meal once a week." 



282 BIENNIAL REPORT 

In contradistinction to the neat, well kept, comfortably 
cared for cottage homes of the miner^ the mechanic, the mid- 
dle class workman generally, the dire destitution of the sub- 
merged tenth, the pinching economies of the underpaid 
women workers in Denver, you are ushered into one of the 
typical homes in that part of the city which is given \^^ to 
th^ residence of wealth and afHuence. The air is laden with 
the fragrance of luxury. The magnificence of the grounds 
and all the appointments outrival the palaces of Oriental 
splendor. You sink to the ankles in the soft and yielding 
texture of the carpet. A mahogany book case, grained and 
polished in the highest style of art, stands at one side of the 
room. Your glance runs rapidly across the rows of books, 
and you feel yourself in the presence of the distilled wisdom 
of the best authors who have advanced thought and enriched 
literature from Plato's time to the present. The paintings, 
with which the walls are decorated, are rich, bright, beautiful 
and expensive. The furnishings are in every part ipdicative 
of wealth, ease, luxury and comfort. You do not wish to 
detract from the happiness of this home, but you would 
bring the other toward its level. You can not help but think 
if all the homes in Colorado could be built and furnished 
along these lines, the gambling house would not need judi- 
cial interference. Nor would the saloon or the social evil re- 
quire a police force for its regulation. For so many bet- 
ter things would be enjoyed at home that these coarse and vul- 
gar forms of amusement would simply die for want of pat- 
ronage. Your lady host treats you courteously and in an 
entertaining manner makes you feel perfectly at home. The 
mistresses of these homes of wealth are ladies of intelligence, 
refinement and kindly qualities, one and all. They are char- 
itable and usually most hospitable, and the thoughtful study 
given by these women of leisure and wealth to the social 
problems of our day is one of the best signs of better condi- 
tions in the future. A club woman soon asks for work to 
do. A theory mastered, she puts into practice as soon and 
as far as possible. Why should they not be? They have 
lived in an environment of elegance and intelligence and 
have drunk in its refining, elevating influence with every 
breath. 

The only thing that must detract from perfect happiness 
here is the knowledge of the fact that it is indirectly secured 
through a system which impoverishes others. 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 283 

It becomes the especial duty of this class, situated as 
they are upon the social mountain peaks, to use their every 
endeavor to bring about a social and an economic revolution. 
An ethical reformation that will awaken the moral energies 
of our civilization and lead to a higher and truer order 
of life. A system of justice that will include the teachings 
of Jesus, Plato, Socrates, Marcus Aurelius and Henry 
George, the exalted ethics of the Golden Rule, the moral 
fervor which characterized the pioneers in the field of social 
equality. 

Wh^n the new era of duty and justice is realized it will 
morally energize the people. It will exalt life, giving it a 
dignity and a divinity which is not as yet dreamed of. The 
advent of the new time is not so far distant as many suppose. 
From every side signs of a change may be seen, as one sees 
in Nature when spring breaks the spell of winter. And when 
it comes it will establish the best social system that Colorado 
and the world has ever seen. 

LABOR DAY. 

Labor Day, as a distinct state and national holiday, con- 
secrated to the wage earners, and given up to be celebrated 
in honor of the labor cause and that for which it stands, is 
one of the latter part of the nineteenth century achieve- 
ments of organized labor in the United States. The Sixth 
General Assembly of this state passed a law, approved 
March 15, 1887, designating the first Monday in September 
as Labor Day. Since this holiday has been established by 
law the day has been very generally observed in Colorado 
through the cessation of most work of a public character. 

The Trades Assembly of Denver has each year celebrated 
the day by a picnic and a parade, both of which have inva- 
riably proved to be a very marked success. At the last re- 
currence of this holiday celebrations were held under the 
auspices of the Trades Assemblies and the local unions at 
Denver, Colorado Springs, Pueblo, Florence, Ouray, Lead- 
ville, Silverton, Telluride, Cripple Creek, Victor and many 
other places in the state. 

These demonstrations were accompanied with a large 
labor parade in which all the local and visiting unions took 
part, as well as others in sympathy. A band of music, a 
picnic and an address upon economic questions and Indus- 



284 BIENNIAL REPORT 

trial conditions delivered by some laboring man added vfery 
materially to the pleasures and benefits derived through the 
observance of the day. / 

The address delivered by Edward Boyce, president of the 
Western Federation of Miners, at Cripple Creek, upon last 
Labor Day was a masterpiece of clear, convincing logic and 
was appreciated very highly by those who were present. 

The legal recognition of Labor Day is one of the results 
of the evolution of the working classes from a condition of 
serfdom to higher industrial life. In each state where this 
holiday has been legally recognized organized workmen have 
been active in promulgating sentiment to influence legisla- 
tion to this end. 

Agitation favorable to the holiday b^an in New York 
in 1882. In September of that year the Knights of Labor 
held its general assembly in New York city. The labor 
unions of that city, who were largely affiliated with the 
Knights of Labor, selected Monday, September 5, as the date 
for the annual parade, and invited the general assembly, then 
in session, to review the procession. As the procession was a 
very large one, and as it passed the reviewing stand, some 
one remarked to R. F. Trevelleck, the General Worthy Fore- 
man of the Knights : "This is Labor Day in earnest, Uncle 
Dick." 

From this time forward agitation in behalf of the first 
Monday in September as a legal holiday became active. 

Labor organizations everywhere began to adopt the first 
Monday in September as their annual fete day, and it became 
generally known as Labor Day. In 1885 the general assem- 
bly of the Knights of Labor passed a resolution urging the 
membership everywhere to work for the legal recognition of 
Labor Day as a general holiday. New York was the first 
state to introduce the law, but the third to enact it. Oregon 
was the first state to enact the law and Colorado the second. 

Labor Day is now recognized as a legal holiday in thirty- 
six states of the Union and in the District of Columbia. This 
very general observance makes it practically a national holi- 
day. 

The statement following gives the states in which Labor 
Day is a legal holiday, and the dates when the acts were ap- 
proved making it such : 



BURBAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 
LABOR DAY. 



285 



STATE 



Date 



STATS 



Date 



FIRST MONDAY IN 8BPTBMBBR 

Alabama.. 

California (a) 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia.. 

lUinois.. 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansaa 

Maine 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

New HamfMihire 



Dec. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Feb. 

June 

April 

Oct. 

June 

Mar. 

April 

Mar. 

Feb. 

May 

May 

April 

April 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Mar. 



12,1892 
23.1897 
15. 1887 
20.1889 
14.1893 
28.1891 
29.1898 
16,1891 
17, 1891 
9,1891 
5.1890 
4,1891 
10. 1891 
11, 1887 
12.1898 
18.1893 
9. 1895 
19, 1896 
29.18^9 
31, 1891 



FIRST MONDAY IN SBFTBMBBR 

New Jersey 

New York 

Ohio 

Oregon (c) 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Ctah 

Vermont 

Virginia... 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

TWENTY-FIFTH OF NOV, 

Louisiana (Parish of Orleans) 

FIRST THURSDAY IN SBPT. 

North Carolina 

FIRST SATURDAY IK SBPT. 

Pennsylvania (*) 



April 
May 
April 
Feb. 
May 
Dec. 
Mar. 
Feb. 
Feb. 

NOY. 

Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
April 



8.1887 
6,;i887 

21.1893 
26,1898 
22.1891 
11,1891 
11,1898 
23,1892 
26,1898 
5.1892 
24,1891 
21.1899 
19,1893 



July 7, 1892 



Mar. 6, 1899 



May 81. 1893 



a Present law. Under the original law, approved February 21, 1887, the first Saturday 
in June was observed. 

b Present law. Under the original law, approved April 25. 1889, the first Monday in 
September was observed. 

c Present law. Under the original law, approved Mny 23, 1893, the first Monday in 
October was observed. 



286 BIENNIAL REPORT 



PUBUC EMPLOYMENT AGENC3ES. 



THE STATE LAW REGULATING EMPLOYMENT 

AGENTS. 

The following is the state law, approved April 6, 1891, 
regulating employment offices in Colorado (reproduced by 
general request) : 

An act to regulate the business of employment or Intelligence agents, 
and repealing other acts. 
Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Colorado: 

Section 1. That from and after the passage of this act it shall be 
unlawful for any person or persons to open or establish in any city or 
town, whether incorporated under special charter or general law, or else- 
where within the limits of the State of Colorado, any intelligence or em- 
ployment ofSce, for the purpose of procuring or obtaining, for money or 
other valuable consideration, either directly or indirectly, any work, em- 
ployment, or occupation for persons seeking the same, or to otherwise 
engage in the business, or in any way to act as a broker between em- 
ployers and persons seeking work, without first having obtained a license 
so to do from the city or town where such intelligence or employment 
office is to be opened, or such business is to be carried on. Any person 
violating any of the provisions of this section shall, upon conviction 
thereof, for each and every offense, be subject to a fine not exceeding one 
hundred ($100) dollars. 

Sec. 2. Every city or town in this state shall, by ordinance, provide 
for the issuing of licenses as contemplated by this act, and shall estab- 
lish such rules and regulations as are not herein provided for the carry- 
ing on of the business or occupation for which such license may be issued. 

Sec. 3. Any person or persons applying for a license under the pro- 
visions of this act, shall make application to the city council, or board 
of trustees, through the city or town clerk for the same, and shall deposit 
with the city or town treasurer, in advance, the annual fee for such a 
license, to be evidenced by the receipt of the city or town treasurer en- 
dorsed on the said application. If the city council or board of trustees 
refuses to order the issuance of such license to the party or parties apply- 
ing for the same, the sum so deposited with the city or town treasurer 
shall be refunded to him, her, or them, without any further action of the 
city council or board of trustees. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 287 

Sec. 4. Any person or persons licensed under the provisions of this 
act shall pay an annual license fee of not more than one hundred ($100) 
dollars in advance, and before such license shall be issued, shall deposit 
with the city or town treasurer a bond In the penal sum of two thousand 
($2,000) dollars, with two or more sureties, to be approved by the officers 
designated by ordinance; such bond shall be made payable to the city or 
town where such business Is to be carried on, and shall be conditioned 
that the person or persons, company or corporation applying for the 
license will comply with this act, and shall pay .all damages occasioned 
to any person by reason of any misstatement or misrepresentation or 
fraud or deceit of any person or persons, their agents, or employes, in 
carnring on the business for which they were licensed. If at any time; 
in the opinion of the mayor and city or town treasurer, the sureties, or 
any of them, should become irresponsible, the person or persons holding 
such license shall, upon notice from the city or town treasurer, give a 
new bond, to be approved as hereinbefore provided. Failure to give a 
new bond within ten days after such notice shall operate as a revoca- 
tion of such license, and the license shall be immediately returned to the 
city or town treasurer, who shall destroy the same. Licenses granted 
under this act may be transferred by order of the city council or board 
of trustees, but before such transfer shall be authorized, the applicant 
for the same shall deposit with the city or town treasurer the sum of 
five ($5) dollars, which shall be endorsed upon the application, and the 
person to whom such license is transferred shall also deposit such a 
bond as is required of an applicant for an original license, as hereinbefore 
described, and to be approved in the same manner. 

Sec. 5. Upon the granting of a license by the city council or board 
of trustees, under this act, the city or town treasurer shall, within one 
week after payment of the license fee, issue to the party or parties enti- 
tled to the same, a certificate setting forth the fact that such a license 
has been granted, and it shall be the duty of all persons, who may obtain 
such certificate, to keep the same publicly exposed to view in a conspic- 
uous place in their office or place of business. Every person paying a 
fee for employment shall receive a receipt for the same, which receipt 
shall state in plain terms the agreement between the intelligence or em- 
ployment agent or broker, and the person paying such fee, and if the 
terms of the said agreement are not fulfilled, the said fee shall be forth- 
with returned to the person who paid the same. 

Sec. 6. It shall be lawful for any person or persons, or his or their 
agent, runner or employe, whether acting with or without compensation, 
engaged in the business of an employment or intelligence agent or broker, 
to charge any person applying for work a fee for his services equal, in 
the case of males, to five (5) per cent., and no more, on one month's 
wages and board, and in the case of females, three (3) per cent, and no 
more, on one month's wages and board. 

Sec. 7. Any person or persons, as aforesaid, keeping an intelligence 
or employment office, who shall send out any female help to any place of 
bad repute, house of 111 fame or assignation house, or to any house or 



288 BIBNNIAL REPORT 

place of amusement kept for Immoral purposes, shall be liable to arrest, 
and to pay a fine of not less than one hundred ($100) dollars, and to im- 
prisonment until such fine is paid; and on conviction thereof, in any 
court, shall have his or their license rescinded. 

Sec. 8. Any person or persons who shall send out any help, male or 
female, without having previously obtained a written bona fide order, 
with proper references of two responsible persons, shall be subject to the 
same penalties as are provided in Section 7 of this act 

Sec. 9. Any person or persons, as aforesaid, keeping an intelligence 
or emplosnment office, sending out help to contractors or other employers 
of help, and dividing the office fees with sub-contractors and employers 
of help, or their foreman or any one in their employ, shall, on convicti<m 
thereof in any court, have their license at once forfeited, and be fined in 
a sum of not less than one hundred ($100) dollars. 

Sec. 10. Bvery person, company, or corporation (duly) licensed un- 
der this act, shall enter upon a register to be kept for that purpose, every 
order received from any corporation, company, or individual desiring the 
service of any persons seeking work or employment, the name and ad- 
dress of the corporation, company, or individual, from whom such order 
was received, the number of persons wanted, the nature of the work or 
employment, the town or city, street and number, if any, where such 
work or employment is to be furnished, the wages to be paid, and a cor- 
rect record of the names of all persons who have been sent and the time 
of sending such persons to procure work or employment on such order. 
No order for help shall be considered a bona fide order unless the same 
be entered on the register, as herein provided. There shall also be entered 
upon said register the names of all applicants depositing a fee for the 
purpose of registering their names with the view of obtaining work or 
emplo3rment, and the nature of the work or employment wanted. The 
said register shall be open at all reasonable hours to the inspection of 
any peace official of any municipality in this state. 

Sec. 11. If any person or persons, or his or their agent or employee 
engaged in the business of employment or intelligence agent or broker, 
duly licensed, as provided in this act, shall give any false information or 
shall make any misstatement or shall make any false promises concerning 
any work or employment or occupation, or shall fail to keep such a reg- 
ister as is described in the preceding section in this act, or shall wilfully 
make any false entries in such register, or shall violate any other provi- 
sions of this act, for which violation penalties are not hereinbefore pro- 
vided, shall, upon conviction thereof, for each and every offense, be fined 
in any sum not exceeding two hundred ($200) dollars, and the license 
under which such person or persons have been permitted to conduct the 
business of any emplosrment or intelligence office, shall forthwith be for- 
feited. 

Sec. 12. All claims or suits brought in any court against any em- 
ployment or intelligence agent, may be brought in the name of the party 
injured upon the bond deposited with the city or town treasurer by said 
employment or intelligence agent, as provided in Section 4. and may be 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 289 

transferred, as other claims, for damages in ciyil suits; the amount of 
damages claimed by the plaintiff, not the penalty named in the bond, 
shall be the test of the Jurisdiction of the court in which the action is 
brought. 

Sec. 13. Nothing herein shall be construed so as to require any 
religious. or charitable association which may assist in procuring situa- 
tions or emplosnoient for persons seeking the same, to obtain a license 
so to do under the provisions of this act, provided it receives no payment 
whatever for its services in the way of fees. 

Sec. 14. All acts, whether the same be general or special acts, in- 
consistent with the provisions of this act, be and the same are hereby 
repealed. 

Sec. 16. That in the opinion of this general assembly an emergency 
exists; therefore, this act shall take effect and be in force from and after 
its passage. 

The enactment of this law worked a very marked im- 
provement in the conditions nnder which employment had 
been obtained by those seeking it through the medium of 
these offices before that time. So numerous and flagrant 
were the outrages that were perpetrated upon honest and un- 
suspecting applicants for work that employment agents came 
into such thorough disrepute that a deep-seated prejudice 
was engendered against them, which exists up to the present 
time. When the eighth general assembly enacted the pres- 
ent statute, and the city governments of all large cities in the 
state passed ordinances upon the subject, the unprincipled 
agents w^ere driven out of business, and a change for the bet- 
ter was effected through a general observance of the present 
law. 

There are at the present writing twenty-four employ- 
ment offices in the State of Colorado, eighteen of which are 
located in the city of Denver. During the last two years a 
very large number of complaints have been filed in the office 
of this bureau against many of the employment agents doing 
business in the city of Denver. 

The parties complaining in a number of instances stated 
that the employment office had sent them out of the city with 
the promise of work, and upon arriving at the point to which 
they were shipped no work was to be had. All these com- 
plaints were carefully investigated, and in cases where state- 
ments made were found to be true the agent was compelled 
to refund the office fee paid, together with such traveling ex- 
penses as were incurred by the person sent out. 



290 BIENNIAL REPORT 

Not always, however, was the fault found to be with 
the employment office. In one instance the grievance ap- 
peared to be, upon the statement of the man who filed the 
complaint, a very aggravated case. It was found, upon in- 
vestigation, that he had obtained employment as promised 
and worked for nearly two months. Upon his return to Den- 
ver he imposed upon this office a statement, setting forth the 
shapieful manner that he had been treated by the agent, that 
was found, upon investigation, to be absolutely false. Upon 
another occasion two men had been shipped from Kansas 
City to work for the Union Pacific Bailroad Company. They 
complained that a valise containing goods to the value of 
flOO had been entrusted to the employment agent in Den- 
ver, and had been lost in transit. They were told that, if the 
property could not be recovered, the agent was under a 
legal obligation to make good to them its value. After some 
delay the mislaid property was recovered and fully identified, 
but found to contain nothing of any value whatever. The 
owners were notified, but never appeared to claim their prop- 
erty. 

There is a habit prevalent among those who desire to 
secure help, of leaving their order at several different offices, 
then hiring the first person sent by any of them, whose ap- 
pearance strikes the employer favorably. Applicants for 
work subsequently sent by the others are returned unen- 
gaged. When this occurs in the city of Denver it is not so 
serious. When the applicant for work is sent out of the city, 
carrying a receipt for the office fee paid, only to find upon his 
arrival that the situation has been filled yesterday or this 
morning, it works a very great injustice, and the respon- 
sible party ought to be held to a strict accountability, how- 
ever thoughtlessly it might have been done. As the employ- 
ment agent is the only one that can be reached, at present, he 
is compelled to reimburse the aggrieved person for office fee 
paid and expenses incurred. 

Owing to the migratory character of our population and 
the very large number of wage workers who are attracted to 
Colorado, by reason of the higher rates of wages paid here 
than are to be obtained elsewhere, the employment offices of 
Denver have always done a much larger business than in 
other cities farther East, with the same or even with a greater 
population. 

For the purpose of ascertaining the volume of business 
done by the several employment offices located in Denver dur- 



BUBBAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 291 

ing the year 1899, the Commissioner requested and received 
a statement from each as to the number of situations secured 
for working men and women from January 1 to December 31 
of that year. 

According to the reports thus received from the sixteen 
licensed offices in the city of Denver, 48,561 situations were 
secured. Almost three-fourths of this large volume of busi- 
ness was done by three offices, and almost one-half of it was 
turned in by one employment agent, who had several offices 
located in different parts of the city. The business done by 
the three offices mentioned consisted very largely in supply- 
ing men for the different railroad companies operating in 
the state, also to the contractors who were engaged at rail- 
road construction work in Colorado and Wyoming. It will 
not be understood that the number given above represented 
that many distinct individuals, as in many instances situa- 
tions were secured several times during the year for the same 
person. Nearly all the help engaged by these three offices 
doing the largest business were males, the one doing the larg- 
est business not handling female help at all. It was found 
impossible to ascertain the exact number of males who ob- 
tained employment through these offices. Some of them kept 
their accounts in a way that would enable them to give this 
information, while others did not. It is, however, safe to say 
that nearly, if not quite, two-thirds the situations secured, 
leaving out the three offices referred to, were engaged by 
women. 

One lady agent reported 3,467 situations secured, of 
which number 967 were men and 2,500 were women. This 
lady further reported having secured 1,267 situations for 
which she received no office fee. This office, like most of the 
others, leaving out the three large ones, furnished no help 
to railroads or large contractors, but was engaged principally 
in supplying domestic help, ranch hands, etc. 

Throughout the year 1899 there were two free employ- 
ment offices conducted in the city of Denver and supported 
by private contributions. One by Mrs. M. A. Sharp, at 1604 
Curtis street ; the other by Parson Uzzell, and known as the 
"Helping Hand," located in the basement of the tabernacle 
building at 1923 Blake street. 

These two offices secured situations for 3,106 persons, of 
whom more than 80 per cent, were women and girls. 



292 BIENNIAL REPORT 



FREE PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT OFFICES. 

COLOEADO'S NEED OP THEM — THE LAW IN OTHER STATES SATIS- 
FACTORY — MANNER OP ITS OPERATION. 

The first and highest duty of the state is to throw the 
largest possible measure of protection and the most numer- 
ous safeguards around those least able to protect themselves. 
To make it easy for the citizen to do right and diflftcult to do 
wrong. The man or woman who applies at an employment 
office for a situation and pays the required fee, ranging from 
50 cents to |2, the average about |1, usually needs employ- 
ment and needs it badly. 

The fee paid is sometimes the last cent that the appli- 
cant for work has, and frequently, when sent out of the city, 
it uses up all his or her resources to reach their destination. 
The Commissioner has been brought into frequent contact 
with the proprietors of these private employment offices dur- 
ing the last two years, and can truthfully say that they will 
compare favorably, considered as a class, with men and wo- 
men engaged in other lines of business enterprise. The em- 
ployment agents doing business in Denver are not the soul- 
less sharks that they have been represented, but are usually 
fair-minded men and women, who do not aim to defraud their 
customers or to receive money without procuring employ- 
ment. 

The fact remains, nevertheless, that their revenues are 
derived from a class of men and women who can but illy 
afford to pay the money which make up their incomes. Like 
most other kinds of business under the present industrial 
system, these offices are conducted for private profit and not 
for the public good. The hardship which these agencies im- 
poses upon the unfortunate poor, who find it necessary to em- 
ploy their services in securing work, is not due, as many 
seem to imagine, to any special depravity or rascality upon 
the part of the agent, but to the system which makes him a 
commission merchant in the noblest attributes of man — hu- 
man labor. The employment agent is an average citizen, 

neither more nor less. 

» » • . » • » 

But little is known here in Colorado concerning the sys- 
tem of free public employment offices, that have been estab- 
lished in other states of the Union, in some of the countries of 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 293 

the old world, and the helpful and beneficial efifect of such 
agencies in dedivering the working classes from this form of 
oppression. 

The growing wants of parties who wish to employ labor 
should also be taken into consideration in establishing such 
state institutions, maintained at state expense here in Colo- 
rado. The advantages which would accrue to employers by 
being able to secure reliable help from state agencies would 
be very great, and furnishes a strong argument in favor of 
the state taking such action. 

In sending out the schedule of questions to wage work- 
ers, referred to in another part of this report, to the ques- 
tion, "Are you in favor of free public employment offices?" 
706 replies were received. Of this number, 662 were in the 
affirmative and 44 in the n^ative. It is quite evident from 
this expression of opinion that the value of such offices is 
quite fully appreciated by the laboring classes. 

So much interest has been taken in the subject, not only 
by wage workers, but by students and thinkers upon social 
questions, and so many letters have been received at this of- 
fice from citizens of other states making inquiry about the 
operation of the system of state offices here, evidently not 
aware of the fact that we had none in Colorado, that I 
thought best to give the laws upon the subject in some of the 
states, and the practical operation of the system in the states 
and countries where such offices are being successfully con- 
ducted. 

The feasibility and practicability of free public employ- 
ment offices is no longer in the experimental stage. It has 
been tried with most satisfactory results by Ohio, Missouri, 
New York, Illinois, Montana and Washington. The expense 
to the state will be slight when compared to the benefits re- 
ceived, and the system can be easily inaugurated when thb 
necessary legislation has been secured. 

The following extract is taken from a most excellent ad- 
dress upon the subject, delivered by David Ross, commis- 
sioner of the Illinois bureau of labor statistics, at the opening 
of the free public employment offices in Chicago, August 1, 
1899: 

As showing the extent of the field for such legislative effort In our 
own borders, It Is shown that In the city of Boston, with less than half 
the population of Chicago, 119 private employment agencies received over 
600,000 applications for work during one year; also that In St. Louis, six 



294 BIENNIAL REPORT 

private agencies received over 100,000 applications in the same period, 
and that in Kansas City 88,000 applications were made in a year to twelve 
private agencies; moreover, that all these figures are notorious under- 
statements, having been obtained from the private agents themselves, all 
whose interests He In minimizing the real number. But, assuming the 
substantial completeness of the figures given for the city of Boston, which 
are doubtless the most trustworthy we have, and applying them to the 
196 private agencies which were licensed in the city of Chicago in 1896, 
we are confronted with the startling probability that during periods of 
depression approximately 1,000,000 applications for work must be made in 
the course of a year to the tribute gathering offices in this city. 

EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES IN EUROPE. 

As an evidence of the efficiency of the tree service rendered at public 
cost by the various home and foreign governments, we find that partial 
returns from the various municipal offices in the city of Paris show that 
in the year 1897 employment was secured, without cost to the applicant, 
for 47,979 persons, and that in the first ten months of 1898 work was found 
for 26,270 others, and this, notwithstanding the fact that free agencies are 
also maintained in that city by 421 different trade unions, by seventy-six 
convents, and by fifty-nine friendly societies. 

The five so-called "labor bureaus" in London, and five in other cities 
of England, together with the agencies of the Salvation Army and of the 
Association for Befriending Toung Servants, secured situations, free of 
charge, In 1898, for 14,994 persons out of 16,382 who made application; In 
addition to these, fifteen temporary registries were established for various 
periods, and special permanent offices have long been maintained in Lon- 
don for securing, without charge, employment for seamen, for discharged 
soldiers, for reserve corps soldiers, for army and navy pensioners, and for 
discharged prisoners. The free employment agencies in Germany secured, 
during the year ended July, 1898, occupation for 222,595 idle persons out 
of 387,991 who sought occupation. 

The result of the operation of the law creating offices of this kind in 
the State of Ohio is found to be a total of 103,112 situations secured in the 
five cities, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton and Toledo. In St. 
Louis an office imperfectly equipped obtained situations In 1898 for 4,661 
men and women out of work. The California office, in 1896, had 18,920 
applications, and found places for 7,983 unemployed poor. 

Attention is drawn to the further fact of significance that it is not 
alone those who patronize the private agencies who need the sort of relief 
afforded by a free public service. There is a class who have no last dollar 
to lose — who have already lost it in the intelligence office or In the pur- 
chase of bread, and who cannot even command the equivocal services of 
the private agency. One man conducting such an office in St. Louis says 
that only about one-half of those applying to him for work are able to pay 
the fee necessary for registration. What shall be said of these? The 
man who needs employment most of all is the man who really has nothing 
at all. These are the submerged, the helpless, the hopeless, a constant 
menace to society, for whom there is no relief except in such state help 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 295 

as will enable them to recover their footing and again become self-helping 
contributors to the common weal. 

England, France, Germany, Bavaria, New Zealand, Aus- 
tralia, and even Bussia, representatives alike of the oldest 
and the youngest civilizations, as well as numerous cities in 
this country, have all reached the common conviction, by a 
common experience, that the needs of the unemployed are of 
legitimate concern to the state. 

The following is the Illinois statute, creating free public 
employment ofSces in that state : 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the people of the 8tate of Illinois, repre- 
sented in the General Assembly: That free employment offices are hereby 
created as follows: One in each city of not less than fifty thousand popula- 
tion, and three in each city containing a population of one million or over, 
for the purpose of receiving applications of persons seeking employment, 
and applications of persons seeking to employ labor. Such offices shall be 
designated and known as Illinois Free Employment Offices. 

Sec. 2. Within sixty days after this act shall have been In force, the 
state Board of Commissioners of Labor shall recommend, and the Gov- 
ernor, with the advice and consent of the senate, shall appoint a superin- 
tendent and assistant superintendent and a clerk for each of the offices 
created by section 1 of this act, and who shall devote their entire time to 
the duties of their respective offices. The assistant superintendent or the 
clerk shall in each case be a woman. The tenure of such appointment shall 
be two years, unless sooner removed for cause. The salary of each super- 
intendent shall be $1,200 per annum, the salary of such assistant superin- 
tendent shall be $900 per annum. The salary of such clerks shall be $800 
per annum, which sums, together with the proper amounts for defraying 
the necessary costs of equipping and maintaining the respective offices, 
shall be paid out of any fimds in the state treasury not otherwise appro- 
priated. 

Sec. 3. The superintendent of each such free emplojnnent office shall, 
within sixty days after appointment, open an office in such locality as shall 
bave been agreed upon between such superintendent and the secretary of 
the Bureau of Labor Statistics as being most appropriate for the purpose 
intended; such office to be provided with a sufficient number of rooms or 
apartments to enable him to provide, and he shall so provide, a separate 
room or apartment for the use of women registering for situations or help. 
Upon the outside of each such office, in the position and manner to secure 
the fullest public attention, shall be placed a sign which shall read in the 
English language, Illinois Free Employment Office, and the same shall 
appear either upon the outside windows or upon signs in such other lan- 
guages as the location of each such office shall render advisable. The 
superintendent of each such free employment office shall receive and 
record in books kept for that purpose names of all persons applying for 
employment or help, designating opposite the name and address of each 



296 BIENNIAL REPORT 

applicant the character of employment or help desired. Separate registers 
for applicants for employment shall be kept, showing the age, sex, nativity, 
trade or occupation of each applicant, the cause and duration of non- 
employment, whether married or single, the number of dependent children, 
together with such other facts as may be required by the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics to be used by said bureau: Provided, that no such special regis- 
ters shall be open to public inspection at any time, and that such statistical 
and sociological data as the Bureau of Labor may require shall be held in 
confidence by said bureau, and so published as not to reveal the identity of 
any one: And, provided, further, that any applicant who shall decline to 
furnish answers to the questions contained in special registers shall not 
thereby forfeit any rights to any employment the office might secure. 

Sec. 4. Each such superintendent shall report on Thursday of each 
week to the State Bureau of Labor Statistics the number of applications 
for positions and for help received during the preceding week, also those 
unfilled applications remaining on the books at the beginning of the week. 
Such lists shall not contain the names or addresses of any applicant, but 
shall show the number of situations desired and the number of persons 
wanted at each specified trade or occupation. It shall also show the 
number and character of the positions secured during the preceding week. 
Upon receipt of these lists, and not later than Saturday of each week, the 
secretary of the said Bureau of Labor Statistics shall cause to be printed a 
sheet showing separately and in combination the lists received from all 
such free employment offices; and he shall cause a sufficient number of 
such sheets to be printed to enable him to mail, and he shall so mall, on 
Saturday of each week, two of said sheets to each superintendent of a free 
employment office, one to be filed by said superintendent, and one to be 
conspicuously posted In each such office. A copy of such sheet shall also 
be mailed on each Saturday by the secretary of the State Bureau of Labor 
Statistics to each state inspector of factories and each state Inspector of 
mines. And it Is hereby made the duty of said factory Inspectors and coal 
mine inspectors to do 'all they reasonably can to assist in securing situa- 
tions for such applicants for work, and describe the character of work and 
cause of the scarcity of workmen, and to secure for the free employment 
offices the co-operation of the employers of labor in factories and mines. 
It shall be the duty of such factory inspectors and coal mine inspectors to 
immediately notify the superintendent of free employment offices of any 
and all vacancies or opportunities for employment that shall come to their 
notice. 

Sec. 5. It shall be the duty of each such superintendent of a free 
employment office to immediately put himself in communication with the 
principal manufacturers, merchants, and other employers of labor, and to 
use all diligence in securing the co-operation of the said employers of labor, 
with the purposes and objects of said emplo3rment offices. To this end it 
shall be competent for such superintendents to advertise in the columns 
of daily newspapers for such situations as he has applicants to fill, and he 
may advertise in a general way for the co-operation of large contractors 
and employers in such trade Journals or special publications as reach such 
employers, whether such trade or special journals are published within the 



BUBBAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 297 

State of Illinois or not: Provided, that not more than four hundred dollars, 
or as much thereof as shall he necessary, shall he expended hy the superin- 
tendent of any one such office for advertising any one year. 

Sec. 6. It shall he the duty of each such superintendent to make re- 
port to the State Bureau of Lahor Statistics annually, not later than De- 
cember first of each year, concerning the work of his office for the year 
ending October first of same year, together with a statement of the ex- 
penses of the same, including the charges of an interpreter when necessary, 
and such reports shall be published by the said Bureau of Labor Statistics 
annually with its coal report. Each such superintendent shall also perform 
such other duties in the collection of statistics of labor as the secretary of 
the Bureau of Labor Statistics may require. 

Sec. 7. No fee or compensation shall be charged or received, directly 
or Indirectly, from persons applying for employment or help through 
said free employment offices; and any superintendent, assistant superin- 
tendent or clerk who shall accept, directly or indirectly, any fee or com- 
pensation from any applicant, or from his or her representative, shall be 
deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not 
less than twenty-five nor more than fifty dollars and imprisoned in the 
county jail not more than thirty days. 

Sec. 8. In no case shallthe superintendent of any free employment 
office created by this act furnish, or cause to be furnished, workmen or 
other employes to any applicant for help whose employes are at that time 
on strike, or locked out; nor shall any list of names and addresses of appli- 
cants for employment be shown to any employer whose employes are on 
strike or locked out; nor shall such list be exposed where It can be copied 
or used by an employer whose employes are on strike or locked out. 

Sec. 9. The term "applicant for employment" as used in this act shall 
be construed to mean any person seeking work of any lawful character, 
and "applicant for help" shall mean any person or persons seeking help 
in any legitimate enterprise; and nothing in this act shall be construed to 
limit the meaning of the term work to manual occupation, but it shall in- 
clude professional service, and any and all other legitimate services. 

Sec. 11. Whenever, in the opinion of the Board of Commissioners of 
Labor, the superintendent of any free employment office is not duly dill- 
gent or energetic in the performance of his duties, they may summon such 
superintendent to appear before them and show cause why he should not 
be recommended to the Governor for removal, and unless such cause is 
clearly shown the said board may so recommend. In the consideration of 
such case an unexplained low percentage* of positions secured to applicants 
for situations and help registered, lack of intelligent interest and applica- 
tion to the work, or a general Inaptitude or inefficiency, shall be consid- 
ered by said board a sufficient ground upon which to recommend a re- 
moval. And if, in the opinion of the Governor, such lack of efficiency can- 
not be remedied by reproval and discipline, he shall remove as recom- 
mended by said board. 

Sec. 12. All such printing, blanks, blank books, stationery and post- 
age as may be necessary for the proper conduct of the business of the 
offices herein created shall be furnished by the Secretary of State upon 



298 



BIENNIAL EEPORT 



requisition for the same made by the secretary of the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics. 

Approved April 1, 1899. In force July 1, 1899. 

It was found to be impossible to complete all arrange- 
ments for opening the offices, July 1, as the statute directs. 
They were formally opened a month later. 

Weekly reports, setting forth in detail the results at- 
tained by the three free public employment offices, established 
in the city of Chicago, were compiled by Secretary David 
Ross, of the Illinois bureau. These reports, covering the 
business transacted by each office in Chicago, were received 
at the office of the Colorado bureau, weekly. The aggregate 
results of the period of eight months is given in the following 
summary : 



SUMMARY OP THE THREE OFFICES. 



AUGUST 2, 1899, 


TO MARCH 31, 1900. 








Applications for 
Employment 


Applications for 
Help 


OFFICES 


h 




1^ 


1, 




North Side Office-Mal€a 

North Side Office- PemalM 


6,416 
3.453 


3.680 
8.429 


2,736 
24 


5.363 
3.810 


1,683 
381 


Totals 


9.869 


7,109 


2.760 


9,173 


2,064 


South Side Office-Males 

South Side Office— Females 


10.676 
5.472 


5.519 
5,412 


5.157 
60 


7,071 

6,975 


1.552 
1,563 


Totals 


16.148 


10.931 


5,217 


11.016 


3.115 


West Side Office— Males 


5.018 
2 273 


2,317 
2.113 


2,701 
160 


2.317 
2.113 




West Side Office— Females 








Totals 


7.291 


4,430 


2.861 


4.430 








Totals, 35 weeks— Males 

Totals, V& weeks — Females 


22.110 
11.198 


11.516 
10,954 


10.594 
244 


14,751 
12.898 


3.236 
1,944 






Grand totals 


83.306 


22.470 


10,838 


27,649 


5,179 







BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 299 

It will be seen from the forgoing that during the thirty- 
five weeks covered by this showing, 33,308 applications were 
made at these oflftces for employment. The number of situa- 
tions secured for applicants, from August 1, 1899, to March 
31, 1900, is 22,470, or 67.46 per cent, of all those making ap- 
plication were successful in securing situations. Separated 
as to sex, it may be seen that the applicants for work con- 
sisted of 22,110 men and 11,198 women and girls. 

The percentage of positions secured for women and girls 
is much larger than is the case as applied to men and boys. 
The percentage of males who are furnished with employment 
is 52 per cent., while of the 11,198 women and girls who ap- 
plied to these agencies for the purpose of securing work, 
10,954, or 97.8 per cent, of those applying, were furnished 
with work. 

All of these facts go to prove the very great benefit which 
these agencies have been to the members of both sexes who 
were looking for employment. Great as it is, however, it 
does not represent the entire advantage of the system, for 
it will be further seen that 27,649 applications were made at 
these oflSces for help, of which 12,898 were for female help. 
It will be seen that 1,700 more persons applied at these of- 
fices for the purpose of securing female help, than fe- 
males applied for the purpose of securing employment. That 
244 females applied for work who did not secure it, is prob- 
ably explained by the fact that the kind of work that the 
agency could supply to the applicant was not the kind that 
the person looking for help wished to employ. 

The record made by these employment offices under state 
management, in Chicago, during the first eight months of 
their operation is a very high tribute to the efficiency, the 
fidelity and the business ability that has thus far marked 
their history. 

FREE PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT OFFICES IN OHIO. 

To Ohio belongs the honor of being the first state in the 
Union to create free public employment offices. One of the 
latest reports issued by the bureau of labor statistics of 
that state makes the following statement concerning the op- 
eration of these offices : 

The Municipal Labor Congress of Cincinnati, an organization com- 
posed of all the trades and labor unions in that city, started the agitation 



300 BIENNIAL EBPOBT 

In favor of something of this kind in all the large cities of the state. 
The law creating them was, undoubtedly, an experimental departure in 
legislation. The result of that act has been a success. I am glad to say 
that these offices stand well in favor with employers of labor, and work- 
ingmen and women consider it a great privilege to have a place of this 
kind in their city where they can go for Information or to secure employ- 
ment without being charged a fee or being imposed upon in any way. 
If the kind of work they desire can be had they get It freely. The army 
of idle men seeking situations has been alarmingly great in cities at 
times and few of our people are cognizant of the expense to which the 
laboring people are often subject in seeking employment through private 
employment offices. 

Before the inauguration of the free public employment offices by 
the state, these pay offices were springing up on every comer, and were 
getting fat by their methods of doing business. There are now but a few 
of them left, and where they still exist they are not working in that high- 
handed manner as was the case a few years ago. 

The law creating these offices in Ohio is a very good one 
in most respects. It does not, however, provide that the state 
offices shall not supply help to an employer whose employes 
may be out upon a strike. In this respect and in some others 
it is not up to the Illinois statute upon the same subject. 
The Ohio law, creating free public employment offices, was 
passed by the legislature of that state, March 24, 1891. 

We have been enabled to secure statistics concerning the 
free public employment offices established in Ohio and lo- 
cated in the cities of Cincinnati, Cleveland, Toledo, Dayton 
and Columbus from the time that they were opened in 1890 
to 1899, and the tables herein given for each year, together 
with the aggregate, will, it is to be hoped, convince the mem- 
bers of the Thirteenth General Assembly of Colorado of the 
successful operation of the system elsewhere and induce them 
to give it a trial in our own state. 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 



301 



TABLES OF CINCINNATI, CLEVELAND, TOLEDO. COLUMBUS, AND 
DAYTON EMPLOYMENT OFFICES. 



FOR T^S YSAR 1800. 





Situations Wanted 


Help Wanted 


Positions Secured 




Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Cincinnati 

Cleveland 

Colnmbus 

Toledo 

Dayton 


4,768 
. 2,523 
1,966 
2,884 
2.044 


1.U8 

1.277 

710 

719 

1.083 


2,808 
8.189 
1,102 
2.886 
1,384 


2.787 
1.231 

722 
1.088 

878 


1.880 
1.383 

684 
1.329 

389 


1126 
847 
525 
497 
418 


ToUls 


14,529 - 


4.907 


11.463 


6.701 


5,575 


3.413 



FOR THE YEAR 1881. 





Situations Wanted 


Help Wanted 


Positions Secured 


• 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Cinciniiati 

Clewland 

Co nmbns . 


4,811 
6.306 
3,128 
3.889 
3,351 


3.428 
8,830 
1.739 
1.799 
2.118 


3.368 
925 
1.534 
2.481 
1.886 


3.291 
3,471 
2.268 
2,479 
2.004 


2.312 
886 
916 

2,064 
790 


2.129 
2.506 
1.481 


Toledo 

Dayton 


1.391 
1.119 


Totals 


21,457 


12.914 


0.686 


13.518 


6,967 


8.628 



FOR THB YEAR 1892. 





Situations Wanted 


Help Wanted 


Positions Secured 




Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Cincinnati 

aevdand 

Colnmbus 

Toledo 

Dayton 


3.139 
3.666 
2.906 
3.160 
2.671 


2,789 
3,539 
1.658 
1.964 
1,474 


1.980 
1.162 
2.018 
1.810 
1.282 


2.782 
4,587 
2,162 
2,654 
1.770 


1.497 
1.000 
1.244 
1.361 
883 


1,613 
2.664 
1.152 
1.442 
969 


Totals 


15.533 


11.424 


8.247 


13,955 


6,965 


7.860 



302 



BIENNIAL REPORT 
FOR THE YEAR 1893. 





Situations Wanted 


Help Wanted 


Positions Secured 




Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Cindnnati 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Toledo 

Dayton 


2,740 
2.964 
3.219 
2,194 
3.052 


2.536 
4,157 
2,000 
25)99 
1,833 


1.344 
935 

1,142 
792 

1,618 


2.531 
2.671 
1.879 
2,032 
2,290 


933 
768 

1.165 
579 

1,121 


1,541 
2,825 
1,166 
1,477 
1.627 


Totals 


14,109 


12,685 


5,826 


11,403 


4.566 


8,635 



FOR THB YEAR 1894. 





Situations Wanted 


Help Wanted 


Positions Secured 




Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Cincinnati 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Toledo 

Dayton 


2,778 
2,942 
2,672 
2.472 
8.657 


3,162 
3,517 
2.226 
1,950 
3.761 


297 
283 
605 
441 
800 


1.383 
2,065 
1.852 
1.693 
2,447 


287 
273 
456 
367 
777 


1.144 
1,846 
1,343 
1.359 
1.934 


ToUls 


14.521 


14,616 


2,428 


9.440 


2,140 


7,626 



FOR THB YBAR 1896. 





Situations Wanted 


Help Wanted 


Positions Secured 




Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Cincinnati 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Toledo 

Dayton 


2.442 
1,980 
2.887 
8.167 
3,680 


2,774 
2,732 
2,187 
1,649 
4,451 


326 
450 
725 
645 
905 


1,095 
2.963 
2.358 
1,659 
3,197 


319 
444 

499 
647 
868 


1,592 
2.009 
1.590 
1.236 
2,621 


ToUls 


14.165 


13,793 


3,051 


12,172 


2,6n 


9.048 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 

FOR THE YBAR 1896. 



303 





Situations Wanted 


Help Wanted 


Positions Secured 




Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Cincinnati 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Toledo 

Dayton _ 


1.821 
1,290 
3,422 
2,557 
8,578 


2,181 
3.479 
2.476 
1.987 
4,957 


262 
323 

700 
909 
884 


1,568 
3.720 
2.350 
1885 
3.100 


237 
323 
585 

836 
800 


1.233 
2.691 
1928 
1.616 
2.696 


Totals 


12,668 


15,030 


3,078 


12.632 


2,781 


10.164 



FOR THE YBAR 1807. 





Situations Wanted 


Help Wanted 


Positions Secured 




Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Cincinnati 


1.399 


1,606 


163 


905 


160 


764 


Cleveland 


2.684 


3,244 


919 


3.320 


855 


2.608 


Colnmbus 


3,725 


2.792* * 


798 


2.635 


610 


2,424 


Toledo 


2.481 


4,780 


1,650 


5.233 


1,481 


4.324 


Dayton 


2,870 


3,729 


759 


2,731 


806 


3015 


Totals 


13.159 


16451 


4.289 


14.824 


8,912 


13.135 



FOR THE YEAR 1898. 





Situations Wanted 


Help Wanted 


Positions Secured 




Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Cincinnati 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Toledo 

Dayton 


1.620 
8,725 
3,872 
2,426 
2.475 


1,760 
3.870 
3,152 

4.772 
3.138 


178 
1.269 

746 
1,378 

927 


1.061 
8,361 
3.135 
. 5532 
3.038 


173 
1,084 
1.493 
1.249 

980 


871 
2.562 
2.889 
4.407 
2.937 


Totals 


14.118 


16.692 


4,498 


16,147 


4,929 


13.666 







304 



BIENNIAL REPORT 



It may be seen by an analysis of the figures given in the 
preceding tables that during the first five years that free 
public employment offices were conducted in the principal 
cities of Ohio, 80,217 applications for employment were made 
by males. Of this number 25,233, or 31.4 per cent., were fur- 
nished with situations. During the same period 57,246 fe- 
males applied at these offices for work, while of this number 
situations were secured for 36,160, or for 63 per cent, of those 
making application. Work was secured through these agen- 
cies, including both sexes, for 44.7 per cent, of those seeking 
it. From 1895 to 1898, inclusive, 54,110 applications for em- 
ployment were filed at these offices by males and 61,666 by 
females ; while of thie former 14,289, or 26.4 per cent., and of 
the latter 46,013, or 74.6 per cent., were successful in obtain- 
ing it. 

The following table shows the entire volume of business 
done and included in the preceding tabulation, from 1890 
to 1898, inclusive, and presents valuable information respect- 
ing the specific results attained and the benefits derived both 
by employers and employes from the establishment of free 
public employment offices in the state of Ohio. 

Grand totals to January. 1, 1899, of all business transac- 
tions in the free public employment offices of the state since 
such offices were opened in 1890 : 





MALES 


PBMALES 




ii 


5 


11 


h 
1^ 


1 

a 


11 
P 


Total Busi- 
ness 
Transacted 


Cincinnati 


25,513 


10.722 


7,728 


22,054 


18,323 


12.018 


96,353 


Cleircland 


28,071 


9,455 


6,966 


29,645 


27,389 


20.560 


122.066 


Columbus 


27.798 


9,455 


7.651 


19.000 


19.361 


14.497 


97,762 


Toledo 


24,650 


12,991 


9.813 


21,609 


24.250 


17.749 


111,122 


Dayton 


28,287 


9,940 


7.374 


26,544 


21,464 


17,856 


110.965 


Totals 


134,319 


52,568 


39,532 


118,912 


110,787 


82.175 


538.288 



The preceding tabulation shows the entire volume of 
business transacted by the free public employment offices of 
the state of Ohio for the nine years covered by the compila- 
tion. It will be noticed that the total number of entries made 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 305 

upon the books of the several offices reaches above the half 
million mark. The total number of applicants for work, in- 
cluding both sexes, was 253,251, of which 121,707, or 48 per 
cent, of those applying, were furnished with situations. Di- 
vided with reference to sex, it is found that 29.4 per cent, of 
males and 69 per cent, of females were furnished with em- 
ployment. During these years employers made application 
for male help to the number of 52,563 and for female help 
to the number of 110,787. The very large number of employ- 
ers who make use of these offices to secure help proves quite 
clearly that employers appreciate the fact quite fully that 
the results are much more apt to be satisfactory than when 
help is secured through the private agency. The public em- 
ployment agent has no pecuniary motive in placing a work- 
man where he will not give satisfaction to the employer. 
Nor has the agent any motive in sending the applicant for 
work to a place that he does not think will prove satisfactory. 
Thus the service is usually fairly satisfactory to all parties 
concerned. It will be remembered that the figures given in 
the tables do not represent the number of individuals af- 
fected, but the number of situations wanted, the number of 
employes wanted, the number of situations secured, etc. 

THE LAW IN NEW YORK. 

PBEB PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT BUREAU. 

As a result of the agitation carried forward for many 
years by the labor organizations of New York state, the legis- 
lature of that state, in 1896, enacted a law establishing such 
offices in cities of the first class. The following is the New 
York law: 

The Commissioner of Labor Statistics shall organize and establish 
in aU cities of the first class a free public employment bureau, for the pur- 
pose of receiving applications of persons seeking employment, and appli- 
cations of persons seeking to employ labor. No compensation or fee shall 
be charged or received, directly or indirectly, from persons applying for 
employment or help through any such bureau. Such commissioner shall 
appoint for each bureau so organized, and may remove for good and suf- 
ficient cause, a superintendent and such clerical assistants as, in his Judg- 
ment, may be necessary for the proper administration of the affairs 
thereof. The salaries of such superintendent and clerks shall be fixed by 
the commissioner. Such salaries and the expenses of such bureaus shall 
be paid in the same manner as other expenses of the Bureau of Labor 
statistics. 

11 



306 BIENNIAL REPORT 

Sec. 41. Duties of superintendent — The superintendent of each free 
public employment bureau shall receive and record, in a book to be kept 
for that purpose, the names of all persons applying for employment or 
for help, designating opposite the name and address of each applicant, 
the character of employment or help desired. 

Each such superintendent shall report, on Thursday of each week, to 
the commissioner of luabor statistics, the names and addresses of all per- 
sons applying for employment or help, during the preceding week, the 
the commissioner of labor statistics, the names and addresses of all per- 
sons receiving employment through his bureau. Such superintendent 
shall also perform such other duties in the collection of labor statistics, 
and in the keeping of books and accounts of his bureau, as the commis- 
sioner may require, and shall report semi-annually to the commissioner 
of labor statistics the expense of maintaining his bureau. 

Sec. 42. Applications; list of applicants. — Every application for em- 
ployment or help made to a free public employment bureau shall be void 
after thirty days from its receipt, unless renewed by the applicant. 

The commissioner of labor statistics shall cause two copies of a list 
of all applicants for employment or help, and the character of the em- 
ployment or help desired, received by him from each free public employ- 
ment bureau, to be mailed on Monday of each week to the superintendent 
of each bureau, one of which copies shall be posted by the superintendent, 
immediately on receipt thereof, in a conspicuous place in his office, sub- 
ject to the inspection of all persons desiring employment or help, and the 
other shall be filed in his office for reference. 

Sec. 43. Applicants for help; when to notify superintendent. — If an 
applicant for help has secured the same, he shall, within ten days there- 
after, notify the superintendent of the bureau, to which application there- 
for was made. Such notice shall contain the name and last preceding ad- 
dress of the employes received through such bureau. If any such appli- 
cant neglects to so notify such superintendent, he shall be barred from 
all future rights and privileges of such employment bureau, at the discre- 
tion of the Commissioner of Labor Statistics, to whom the superintendent 
shall report such neglect. 

The following is taken from a recent report, issued by 
John J. Bealin, superintendent of the New York free public 
employment bureau, included in the report of the bureau of 
labor statistics of that state, and covers in a brief but com- 
plete manner the workings and operation of the system 
there : 

The general public is gradually beginning to understand the char- 
acter and work of this bureau. At first we suffered from the belief among 
many that we were in some way connected with the charitable and cor- 
rectional institutions of this state, and were engaged principally in se- 
curing employment for the discharged inmates of such institutions. 
Every day new patrons ask us, "Who is it that controls this office, and 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 307 

how is It that there are no fees or charges? What class of servants do 
you get?" A careful and intelligent answer is given to all such inquirtes, 
and in order that the bureau may be placed in its proper light before the 
public we prepared the following circular, which was mailed to employ- 
ers and handed to our patrons in the office: 

We take the liberty to call your attention to the free emplo3rment bu- 
reau, feeling that we can be of service to you as you are in the habit of 
employing help. This bureau is conducted by the state of New York and 
is free to employer and employe. There is no need of being in want of 
help or paying to procure such when you can have your orders filled here 
promptly. All classes of male and female help are on hand. Domestic 
servants are in waiting from nine until two o'clock. The office hours are 
from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m., except on Saturdays, when the office is closed at 
noon. Out of town orders should state precisely the class of help de- 
sired, giving us notice in advance of visit to the office. A ];>ersonal call at 
the office gives better satisfaction to employers. All references are in- 
vestigated. 

Copies of this circular were mailed during the spring and summer 
months to the numerous summer hotels and boarding houses, where we 
secured employment for many people. 

Each day attention was given to the advertisements for help in the 
various daily papers, and notice of the work of the bureau was sent to 
those employers whose orders we believed we could fill. We also sent the 
following letter to many servants who advertised for employment, when 
we had vacancies in their particular line of work: 

New York State Free Employment Bureau, 
30 West 29th Street. 

Seeing your advertisement in to-day's paper, we desire to call your 
attention to the New York State free employment bureau. There are no 
charges made at this office, and servants with good references can always 
secure situations. The hours for waiting are from nine until two o'clock. 
If you would like to register your name and address here, call in the morn- 
ing and bring your references. 

Employers who visit us now understand that we are able to give 
them better satisfaction than they can get elsewhere, as we have no de- 
sire to place a person unless that person is qualified for the position. 

On the other hand, applicants for employment find that in making 
use of this bureau for the placing of their labor that they are not lowering 
their dignity nor losing character, but are simply making use of a state 
labor exchange. From the inception of this bureau the equality of the 
employer and employe has been maintained. The employer desires to 
purchase labor, the employe has labor to sell, and both contribute equally 
through the public tax for the maintenance of this office, consequently 
their equality is a matter of right. 

The fears of some people that this bureau would be taken advantage 
of by unworthy parties is not borne out by our experience, as the investi- 
gation of the applicant's reference and the record made with present em- 
ployes demonstrates beyond a doubt. 



308 BIENNIAL REPORT 

While every effort is made to get emplo3rment for applicants^ yet 
cafe is taken not to create an opinion that employes should be discharged 
because their places can be filled with ease. In this matter we observe a 
position of strict neutrality, having no desire to make a record at the ex- 
pense of the employer or employe. 

While giving attention to women who seek an outlet for their work, 
we also, to the best of our ability, and as far as our small accommoda- 
tions permitted, kept in view the claims of men who filed their applica- 
tion for labor with us. 

From time to time we sent out circulars to employers, calling their 
attention to the fact that we had on our registry all classes of male help, 
such as hall boys, elevator men, engineers, firemen, farm laborers, factory 
employes, store and office employes, etc. 

So far as manual labor on public improvements in New York city is 
concerned, we find that the market is not free, and that to get a day's work 
as a common laborer one has to have a "pull" of some kind. A letter 
from an alderman will place a man as an every day laborer, while it would 
take a letter from a state senator to get a position as a watchman." 

During the year ending December 31, 1898, 5,100 persons registered 
for employment. Of these 2,487 were men and 2,613 were women. 

Following the custom of the bureau, as each person filed his or her 
application, a circular letter was sent to the last employer, making In- 
quiry as to the character and ability of such person, and asking for in- 
formation that would give us a knowledge of the applicant's fitness to fill 
the position desired. This we do in order that we may have as full a 
knowledge as possible of our applicants for employment before we intro- 
duce them to employers. The replies received from former employers 
were, with few exceptions, such as warranted us in recommending our 
applicants to those needing their services. 

Of the 2,487 men, 1,526 were foreigners, and 961 were Americans; 786 
men were married, 275 of which number reported having 691 children, 520 
of them dependent for support 

Of the 2,613 women registered, 1,941 were foreigners and 672 were 
Americans; 142 women reported having 235 children, of which 164 were 
de];>endent' on them for support. 

While 3,467 are registered as foreigners, yet their residence in the 
United States is of such duration as to warrant us in saying the greater 
number of them are Americans in all things save accident of birth. 

Of the 2,487 men who registered for employment, 2,475 could read and 
write, while only 12 were illiterate. Of the 2,613 women, 2,364 could read 
and write and 249 were illiterate. The total number who could read and 
write is 4,839, and the illiterates 261. 

Of the 261 illiterates who were tabulated, but a very small percentage 
of them were under 40 years of age, making it evident that the young 
people, so far as education is considered, have but little to complain of, 
whether foreigners or Americans. And although the 261 are tabulated as 
Illiterates, we find that they possess average intelligence, and in their 
various avocations meet all that is required of them. 



BUBBAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 



309 



Our table of the duration of Idleness shows a falling off In the per- 
cental^ when compared to that of 1897. This condition can be attributed 
to the revlyal of business, yet there Is room and need for Improvement In 
this particular, as very many worthy ];>eople are still unemployed. 

There is a change gradually taking place In the readjustment of 
domestic servants to meet present conditions. This change, for the pres- 
ent, at least. Is not very agreeable to women who have accustomed them- 
selves to any one particular branch of such service. Owing to the large 
numbers of families desiring to reside In flats and apartment houses, de- 
mands for women who do general housework Is on the Increase, while 
calls for waitresses, chambermaids, cooks, etc., correspondingly decrease. 
We find it Impossible to get girls to fill all our calls for general house- 
work, as women who heretofore were employed at other branches of do- 
mestic service are very reluctant to make the change. For as cooks, 
chambermaids and waitresses, they say that they have regular hours, 
while as general house workers they contend that their lanor Is hardly 
ever at an end, and many of the women are physically unable to perform 
the more laborious tasks of general housework. 

Reports received from employers whom we have supplied with help 
are of a most pleasing character, going to show that their employes gtye 
satisfaction. While on the other hand, but few complaints have been re- 
ceived from employes, and in each case a communication from this office 
adjusted the difficulty. 

During the year 1898 there were 302 applications for men and 2,344 
for women, an Increase of -594 over the year ending December 31, 1897. 

For the year 1898 we placed 39.6 per cent, of our applicants for em- 
ployment, as against 20 per cent, for 1897, and 5.5 for the five months of 
1896. 

The following is a statement by the New York free pub- 
lic employment bureau of the business done, the number of 
applicants for work, the number of applicants for help and 
the number of situations secured for the three months end- 
ing June 30, 1898, and 1899 : 



1^ 



ltd 



II 



Quarter ending June 30, 1898. . 
QoArter endinir Jvbc 90, 1899 . 



1,330 
1.381 



644 
964 



493 
746 



Per cent, of Increase of altuations secured, .51. 



310 BIENNIAL BBPOBT 

THE LAW OF MISSOURI. 

Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Missouri as follows : 

Section 1. The Commissioner of Labor Statistics shall organize and 
establish in all the cities of Missouri containing one hundred thousand 
inhabitants or more a free public employment bureau for the purpose of 
receiving applications of persons seeking employment, and the applications 
of persons seeking to employ labor. No compensation or fee shall be 
charged or received, directly or indirectly, from persons applying for em- 
ployment or help through any such bureau. Such Commissioner shall 
appoint for each bureau one superintendent, and may appoint for each one 
clerk, and may remove the same for good and sufficient cause. The salary 
of the superintendent shall not exceed $100 per month, and the salary of 
the clerk shall not exceed $75 per month. Such salaries and expenses of 
such bureaus shall be paid in the same manner as the other expenses of 
the Bureau of Labor Statistics. 

Sec. 2. The superintendent of each free employment bureau shall 
receive and record, in a book kept for that purpose, the names of all per- 
sons applying for employment or for help, designating opposite the name 
and address of each applicant the character of employment or help desired. 
Such superintendent shall perform such other duties in the collection of 
labor statistics and in keeping of books and accounts of his bureau as the 
Commissioner may require, and shall report monthly to the Labor Com- 
missioner the expense of maintaining his bureau. 

Sec. 3. Every application for employment or help made to a free 
public employment bureau shall be void after thirty days from its receipt 
unless renewed by the applicant If an applicant for help has secured the 
same, he shall, within ten days thereafter, notify the superintendent of the 
bureau to which application was therefor made. Such notice shall contain 
the name and last preceding address of the employe received through such 
bureau. If any such applicant neglects to notify such superintendent he 
shall be barred from all future rights and privileges of such employment 
bureau, at the discretion of the Commissioner of Labor Statistics, to whom 
the superintendents shall report such neglect. 

The following extract is taken from the report of the 
labor commissioner of the state of Missouri^ and bears cor- 
rect and truthful tribute to the excellent results which have 
followed the establishment of these offices in that state : 

The Missouri free employment department was inaugurated in con- 
nection with the Bureau of Labor, October 1, 1897. While the idea of 
employment offices supported and controlled by the sta.te is comparatively 
new, it has been tried In several states, notably New York, Ohio, Nebraska 
and Montana, and generally proven worthy of public confidence and legrls- 
lative support * 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 311 

To the State of Ohio is due the credit of having established the first 
free employment office. Such offices have long been in successful operation 
in several of the European countries, but, so far as we can ascertain, the 
"Ohio idea" was without precedent in the United States. 

As heretofore stfited, the free employment office in this state was 
opened in 1897 in connection with the office of the State Factory Inspector, 
915-916 Chemical building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Owing to the failure of the St. Louis authorities to appoint a factory 
inspector, as provided by law, it was felt that the state inspector was not 
justified in giving all of his time to St. Louis,, to the exclusion of other 
cities, hence the necessity of turning the office to practical account sug- 
gested the free employment agency in connection with the other work of 
the department, without extra expense to the state. Practically the same 
force employed in the inspector's office has conducted the work in the free 
employment department. 

With a slight increase in the office force much better results would 
have been obtained. At no time were more than three persons employed, 
and much of the time only two, including the superintendent 

While no legislative authority was sought prior to the inauguration 
of the system, the matter was communicated to the Governor, who endorsed 
the plan, since which being put in operation has been warmly espoused by 
the press and public. It is gratifying indeed that not one single protest 
has been made anywhere throughout the state against the operation of 
this department, but, on the contrary, words of commendation and praise 
come from every quarter, from the employers and employes alike. 

The bringing together of the employer in need of help and the worthy 
unemployed seeking work, free of expense to both and at a minimum cost, 
is the chief function of the state employment office. The state itself 
cannot furnish employment, and the class who patronize this department 
60 understand. 

In establishing the free employment system in Missouri, without a 
special appropriation for that purpose, it was necessary to exercise the 
closest economy, and to that end the most simple and effective business 
methods were adopted. 

All applicants, whether for help or employment, are required to use 
a blank furnished by the department, which, after being properly filled 
out, is returned to the office by mail or in person, and the name, address, 
etc, of the applicant is there registered for thirty days. All applications 
are canceled after the expiration of thirty days, but those not finding 
employment may renew their applications every thirty days until em- 
ployment Is secured. 



312 



BIENNIAL REPORT 



FORM OF APPLICATION FOR ElfPLOTMENT. 

Registration hours: 8 a. m. to 12 m. 



State of Missouri, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

Thomas P. Rixey, Com'r. 



Classiflcatidh. 



Free Employment Department, 

835 Century Building, 

St. Louis. 

Application for Employment. 

App. No Date.. 

Name Address 

Nationality Married or single 

No. of de];>endent children 

Occupation Kind of work desired 

Name and address of last employer 

How long idle How long employed in last place. 

How long a resident of this state Cause of idleness 

Wages desired 

Can you read and write 

Remarks 



Age. 



References. 

P. O 

Street No.. 



Signature. 



.Mo. 



HEADING IN REGISTER FOR EMPLOYES. 



STATS OP MISSOURI, BUR8AU OP LABOR. PRB8 BMFI^OYMBNT DBPARTMBNT. 

BSTABUSHBD 1897. 

BMPLOYB'S RBGISTBR. 



1 


1 


Name 


1 


1 


5l 


^ 


1 


Ii 

11 


0*8 


Last am- 
player 






^1 


1 


1 


-- 


- 






-- 


-- 


__ 


- 


-- 


.... 




-- 


.... 


-- 


- 


- 



BUBBAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 
HEADING IN REGISTER FOR EMPLOYERa 



313 



STATE OP MISSOURI, BUREAU OP LABOR, PRB9 BMPLOYMBNT DBPARTMBNT. 

BSTABLI3HBD 1887. 
BMPLOYBR'S RBGISTBR. 



1 


1 


M>me 


Addrcn 


Help Desired 


"is 

1- 


5 


Remarks 


1 





.... 










.... 




.... 






.... 



Applications for help and employment are classified and recorded 
under different headings, representing the various kinds of labor in such 
a manner that it requires only a moment to ascertain the name, qualifi- 
cation, or standing of an applicant 

It will be observed that the method of registration and communicar 
tion between the two classes is as convenient and simple as it is possible 
to devise. 

The work is carried on without the slightest friction, and very few 
mistakes have been made in placing applications for positions, consider- 
ing the large number registered. Not all those who apply for work can 
be provided for, but no favoritism is shown. The one who is best qual- 
ified for certain positions and produces the most satisfactory recom- 
mendations or reference, as a rule, is the one chosen to fill the position. 
In most cases the employer makes his own selection from several appli- 
cants. 

Fop the year ending October 1, 1899, the state free public 
employment office at St. Louis, Missouri, received and placed 
on file 3,933 applications for employment from males. Em- 
ployment was procured for 1,647, or for about 42 per cent, of 
. those applying. During this year 916 females applied for 
situations, and work was secured for 671, or for 73 per cent, 
of those applying. 

Free public employment agencies have been endorsed 
everywhere by labor organizations, and the system has re- 
ceived the warmest approval of the best and most thought- 
ful citizens. The problem of the unemployed is one that ever 
presses forward for solution. It is not claimed that the sys- 
tem of free agencies, as a medium to enable the working 
classes to find employers and employers to secure employes. 



314 BIENNUL REPORT 

will prove a panacea. But it is an eminently practical way 
of helping men and women to help themselves. Under the 
present industrial system employment oflftces are necessary, 
and enable employer and employe to become acquainted with 
the wants of each other much more easily than they other- 
wise would. 

It has been our purpose, in reviewing the work done and 
the law upon the subject in other states, to demonstrate the 
helpfulness of the system wherever tried. 

We would recommend to the Thirteenth General Assem- 
bly of Colorado the establishment of such oflSces in all the 
cities of the state having more than 10,000 inhabitants. The 
benefits derived will be substantial and valuable; the neces- 
sary expense will be small. Such offices can be conducted in 
connection with the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and can be 
made a useful adjunct to it in the way of securing statistical 
information upon various subjects. Being brought into im- 
mediate contact, as the officials necessarily will be, with 
wage workers, much useful and interesting data can be ob- 
tained that will give a better understanding of industrial 
and social conditions. 

In the Ninth General Assembly such a bill, establishing 
such offices in the cities of the first and second class, was in- 
troduced, but failed of final passage. It is highly probable 
that a somewhat similar measure will be favorably consid- 
ered by the Thirteenth General Assembly. 

A free public employment office has been established in 
the city of Seattle for several years. Concerning its success 
the superintendent in charge says : 

During the time that the public employment office has been in exist- 
ence it has been of incalculable value in bringing together employers and 
employes to the number of many thousands, and has saved in cash to 
the laboring classes fully $25,000. 

I would also recommend that free reading rooms be au- 
thorized and required in connection with these offices wher- 
ever established. 

MINES AND METALLIFEROUS MINING. 

Colorado reached high water mark in 1899, when refer- 
ence is made to the aggregate value of gold, silver, lead and 
copper mined within her borders. Each year in the history 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 316 

of the state, from territorial days, showed an increase in the 
value of metaJs produced until 1893, when the product fell 
nearly three millions of dollars below that of the preceding 
year. In 1897 it again rose above the result of 1892, since 
which time it has been steadily increasing. When the figures 
for 1900 are finally made they will undoubtedly show an in- 
creased production, as compared with 1899. 

During the past two years all the old mines and mining 
camps have more than sustained the reputation acquired in 
former days, while many new mines have been added to the 
lists as shippers. The total value of the mineral product of 
the state for 1899 was $48,320,341.98. This result is unex- 
ampled in the history of the state, and was attained notwith- 
standing a partial cessation of production during two months 
of the year. Colorado is the foremost state in the Union in 
the quantity of both gold and silver produced. 

The occupation of mining is among the more highly paid 
classes of labor in the state, the work being considered extra 
hazardous. The wages of miners varies according to local- 
ity and circumstance, but will run from $2.50 to $4 per day, 
$3 being considered miner's wages in most mining camps. 
There are probably more miners in the state working for less 
than $3 per day than are receiving more than that amount. 
It is quite certain that the average wages paid, if all the 
miners in the state be considered, is slightly less than $3 
per day. The number of hours worked for a shift is from 
eight to ten, by far the larger number working ten. Engin- 
eers, firemen, pumpmen, and sometimes others, frequently 
work twelve-hour shifts. 

The wages of trammers are from $2.50 to $2.75 ; eagers, 
from $2.50 to $3.25 ; nippers, from $1 to $2 ; timbermen, from 
$3 to $4 ; topmen, from $2 to $3 ; laborers, from $2 to $2.50 ; 
engineers, from $3 to $4.50 ; pumpmen, from $3.50 to $4.50 ; 
ore sorters, from $2 to $3; blacksmiths, from $3 to $5 per 
day. 

In many mines there is a system of compulsory insur- 
ance, which is very objectionable to the men. Under this 
system men working in and around mines are insured upon 
such terms and under such conditions as the management 
may make with the insurance company assuming the risk. 
The consent of the workman is neither requested nor re- 
quired. He becomes insured by reason of his becoming an 
employe of the company, the premium of which is usually 



316 BIENNIAL BBPOET 

very excessive, being deducted from his wages. I would rec- 
ommend to the Thirteenth General Assembly the passage of 
a law prohibiting this form of insurance, with severe penal- 
ties for its violation. 

The mineral output of the state for the year 1899 is di- 
vided among the four metals, as follows: gold, $26,508,- 
675.57; silver, |13,771,731.10 ; lead, $6,170,765.53; copper, 
11,869,169.78. 

The statistics relating to production and the value of 
output in Colorado for 1899 are taken from figures fur- 
nished by H. A. Lee, Commissioner of Mines, and show an 
increase for every metal over the returns for 1898. The in- 
crease in silver is very slight, being but |81,465.95 ; the value 
of the gold produced was $2,974,144.29 in excess of the value 
of that mined the former years, and the value of copper pro- 
duced was increased by $564,665.50. The largest proportion- 
ate advance was in lead produced, which increased in value by 
$2,053,722.29. 

It is worthy of note that, as compared with 1889, the 
value of silver mined has suffered a decrease from $19,665,245 
to $13,771,731.10, or a loss of $5,893,513.90. During the same 
period the value of gold produced has increased from $4,- 
150,000 to $26,508,675.57, an increase of $22,358,675.57. 

Almost exactly one-third of the state mineral production 
is credited to Teller County, which includes the Cripple 
Creek district, while more than one-half of the totals is 
mined in Teller and Lake counties. 

During the year 1899, 3,391,196 ounces of gold were pro- 
duced in the United States, with a valuation, computed at 
$20.67 per ounce, of $70,096,021.32. This is an increase of 
$5,013,591.10 over the production of 1898. The value of the 
silver produced in the United States in 1899 was $34,036,168, 
as compared with $33,065,482, the former year, an increase 
of $970,686. More than one-third of all the gold and silver 
produced in the United States is mined in the State of Colo- 
rado. 

The world^s production of gold in 1899 amounted to 
15,108,804 ounces, with a valuation of $312,307,819, as 
against 13,874,322 ounces, or $286,803,462 in 1898, repre- 
senting an increase of $25,504,357. More than one-fifth of 
the world^s production of gold in 1899 was mined in the 
United States. 



BUBBAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 317 

The total production of silver in the world for 1899 was 
174,723,363 ounces, with a commercial value of f 104,100,163. 
The production in Colorado represents more than one-eighth 
of the entire silver production of the world. 

The production of copper in the United States for 1899 
was 581,319,091 pounds. The famous Calumet and Hecla 
mine surpassed the record of any preceding year, with an 
output of 98,002,137 pounds. Montana leads all the copper- 
producing states in the quantity produced. 

The total amount of lead produced in the United States 
for the year 1899 was 217,085 tons. Of this amount Colorado 
contributed 69,024 tons, or almost one-third of the total. 
Lake County produced 24,299 tons and Pitkin County 12,729 
tons. 

The statistics herewith given, referring to production 
and valuation of metals produced, aside from those relating 
to Colorado, have been taken from volume VIII, Mineral In- 
dustry, a recognized standard authority on all subjects 
pertaining to metals or mining statistics. 

The State School of Mines, located at Golden, is one of 
the most widely known institutions in the state. It was es- 
tablished by an act of the territorial legislature in 1874. 
There are more than 200 students in attendance at present. 
The instruction given is the very best, and includes every- 
thing pertaining to metallurgy, scientific, expert and prac- 
tical mining; engineering, etc. The graduate, who has taken 
the full course of instruction and received a diploma, is very 
proficient and is qualified to fill any position in his line in a 
creditable manner. A majority of those in attendance and 
who have graduated from this school are from Colorado, 
though students may be found here from many other states 
and even from foreign countries. Graduates from this school 
are filling important positions not only throughout Colorado, 
but in all the mining states and territories. 

The appended table gives the precious metal production 
for Colorado during 1899, as compiled by Harry A. Lee, Com- 
missioner of Mines for Colorado : 



318 BIBNNIAL REPORT 

PRECIOUS METAL PRODUCTION IN COLORADO DURING 1899. 



COUNTY 

Arapahoe 

Archuleta 

Boulder 

Chaffee 

Clear Creek ... 

Conqjoa 

Costilta 

Custer 

Delta 

Dolores 

Douglas 

«agle 

Huerfano 

Fremont 

OUpln 

Grand 

Garfield 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Jefferson 

Lake 

LaPlaU 

Larimer 

Las Animas... 

Mineral 

Montrose 

Mesa .... 

Montezuma... 

Ouray 

Park 

Pitkin 

Rio Grande... 

Routt 

Saguache 

San Juan 

San Miguel ... 

Summit 

Teller 

ToUl 



Gold 



Silver 



Lead 



Copper 



Total 



^ 268 71 

10S8K 

547,858 36 

216,662 94 

546,824 85 

6,263 01 

806 13 

1,054 17 

206 70 

66,846 78 

82 68 

46,094 10 

124 02 

9.404 85 

1.906,060 56 

124 02 

723 45 

70.112 64 

88,842 85 

1,864 22 

2.196,497 55 

25.672 14 

2.067 00 

206 70 

91.671 45 

723 45 

124 02 

15.419 82 

1.604.940 00 

153,040 68 

52.233 00 

19.202 43 

11.554 53 

3,885 96 

996.273 33 

1,376,704 68 

260.566 02 

16.068.564 34 



1 19 

25 62 

45,501 84 

87.784 58 

895,427 82 

13,695 65 

75 07 

3.577 18 

596 

153.151 59 

U30 

26.449 35 

298 

2.367 70 

202.960 46 
7 75 

10 18 

79.231 27 

92,886 41 

209 13 

4.307.704 SO 

1.883 92 

80 43 

1 79 

2.262,192 42 

27,477 70 

2,454 70 

135 26 

1,397,862 39 

42.979 22 

2.477,778 23 

1,619 38 

757 26 

8.523 51 

710,108 40 

719.961 74 
157,810 74 

49.033 74 



$ 1,253 52 

53.830 41 

322.566 82 



37,409 16 

91,466 57 

53,100 47 

511 50 
58,660 35 



62,550 82 

472,684 18 

34 42 

2,172,962 78 

14197 



258.769 14 



337.770 45 

24,175 96 

1.137.989 59 

73 08 

152 20 

19.716 96 

715,721 96 

175.174 07 

180.249 67 



I 13.879 50 
122.696 21 
51,591 31 



162 54 

7,838 08 

1,084 76 

1,179 52 
182,689 84 



8,133 36 

8,747 94 

44 73 

1,137.576 94 

37 16 

436 67 



3.561 27 

13,206 56 

818 87 



53.741 67 

1.391 72 

3.407 71 

59 17 

6.219 68 

210,908 10 

28,218 09 

11,540 01 

48 43 



t 26990 

128 97 

606,493 21 

480,473 14 

1,816.410 80 

19.968 06 

88120 

42,203 06 

212 66 

319,302 97 

9698 

126.678 68 

127 00 

18.463 57 

2.440,371 21 

131 77 

733 58 

220.027 58 

612,56138 

1,652 50 

9,814,141 57 

27,786 19 

2,583 10 

208 49 

2,611.194 28 

41.409 71 

3.397 69 

L^555 07 

3,484,314 51 

22i;587 57 

3,671.388 62 

20,964 06 

12.463 99 

38,346 10 

2.633.011 79 

2.300.068 58 

610.166 44 

16.107,646 51 



126,608.675 57 



1 13.771.731 10 



16.170.765 53 



11.869.169 78 



148.320,34108 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 



319 



The forgoing table was carefully compiled, care being 
taken to avoid duplications. It is as nearly correct as can 
be. 

METALLIFEROUS MINES^ SMELTERS^ ETC. 

Statistics showing number of miners, ore haulers and 
smeltermen employed exclusively in and around metallifer-. 
ous mines and smelters, in the several counties of Colorado, 
during the years 1899 and 1900, according to figures com- 
piled by H. A. Lee, Commissioner of Mines. These figures 
are based upon 300 days' labor for a year's work. 



Namb of County. 



Arapahoe... 
▲ichalcta... 

Boalder 

Chaffee 

Oear Creek. 

Conejos 

CoadlU 

Cttster 

DclU 

Dolores 

Douglas 

Bagle 

BlPaso 

Premont..,. _ 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale.... 

Huerfano 

Jefferson 

Uke 



1899 


1900 . 


2.082 


2.002 


10 


6 


1.530 


1,597 


988 


944 


1.981 


2.012 


35 


15 


82 


44 


340 


419 


485 


497 


43 


5 


818 


302 




115 
496 


410 


10 


8 


8.017 


3.124 


24 


35 


580 


585 


678 


538 


8 


7 


57 


45 


8.738 


7.470 



Namb of Couxtv. 



La Plate 

Larimer 

Las Animas. 

Mineral 

Montrose 

Mesa 

Montezuma . 

Ouray 

Pueblo 

Park 

Pitkin 

Rio Blanco . . 
Rio Grande . 

Routt 

Saguache.... 
San Juan.... 
San Miguel . 

Summit 

Teller 

Totel 



1899 



360 

110 

12 

1,040 

182 

55 

126 

1.878 

2.064 
448 

1.835 

5 

188 

191 

315 

1.347 

1.812 
568 

7.928 




1900 



307 

88 

10 

992 

115 

28 

100 

1.807 

2.064 

874 

1.580 

6 

75 

115 

378 

1.405 

1.723 

574 

7.920 



40.111 



Figures for 1900 subject to slight change. 



320 BIBNNIAL REPORT 

PRODUCTION OF SILVER IN THE UNITED STATES. 



STATB OR TERRITORY 



1896 
Value 


1897 
Valne 


1896 
Valoe 


1899 
Value 


1 2.065.700 00 


1 2.700.000 00 


$ 2.820.000 00 


$ 5.125,000 00 


2.579.000 00 


2.700.000 00 


2.400,000 00 


2.575.000 00 


15*285.900 00 


15.000,000 00 


15,800.000 00 


143)0.000 00 


14.867.971 00 


19.579,637 00 


23.534.581 00 


26,508.675 00 


2,155,800 00 


2.000.000 00 


2,060,000 00 


1,750.000 00 


37.200 00 




5.274.913 00 




4.824.700 00 


4,496.431 00 


4.810.157 00 


2.410.538 00 


8.000,000 00 


8.000,000 00 


2.871.882 00 


475.800 00 


470.000 00 


480.000 00 


500.000 00 


1,226.000 00 


1,854,583 00 


1.216 669 00 


1.275.000 00 


4.919,000 00 


5,800,000 00 


5,7i0a4)00 


5.800.000 00 


264.800 00 


249.737 00 


263.153 00 


500.000 00 


1,899,900 00 


1,845.988 00 


2,872.442 00 


8,506.582 00 


405.700 00 


449.664 00 


600.000 00 


750.000 00 


29.200 00 


64 795 00 


77 722 00 


44.725 00 


152.886 209 00 


$59,210.796 00 


165.082.480 00 


1 70.096.021 00 


8461.023 00 


12,091.599 00 


22,024.600 00 


29.422.691 00 



▲risona 

California 

Colorado ...i 

Idaho 

Michigan 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Oregon 

South Dakota 

Ik>uthern States.... 

Utah 

Washington 

Other States 

Total domestic. 
Foreign 



BUBBAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 
GOLD PRODUCTION OP THE WORLD. 



321 



COUNTRIBS 



1897 
Value 



1898 
Value 



1899 
Value 



North America: 

United SUtes 

Canada 

Newfoundland 

Mexico 

Central America 

South America : 
Argentina 

Bolivia 

Braril 

Chile '.... 

Columbia 

Bquador 

Guiana (British) 

Guiana (Dutch) 

Guiana (Prench) 

Peru 

Uraguay 

Venezuela .- 

Europe: 
Austria 

Hungary 

Prance 

Germany 

Italy 

Norway 

Portugal . . . ... 

Russia 

Spain 

Sweden _._. .. . 

Turkey... 

United Kingdom 

Africa: 

South African Republic 

Rhodesia 

Soudan 

West Coast .. 

Madagascar 



M.210.786 00 

6,027,016 00 

02,010 00 

7,121.179 00 

525,000 00 

187.700 00 

843,500 00 
1,462.120 00 
1,407,628 00 
8,900.000 00 

132.900 00 
2,096.098 00 

681,784 00 
1.287,310 00 

465,220 00 

88.506 00 

1.0&7,379 00 

44,927 00 

2,038.998 00 

183.480 00 

240,890 00 

213,014 00 

666 00 

11,098 00 

21.538.490 00 

37.888 00 

75,299 00 

7.975 00 

34,962 00 

56,718.679 00 

Nil. 

56,830 00 

999.653 00 

400 000 00 



$ 65,062.430 00 

18.700.000 00 

62.010 00 

8,236.720 00 

505,096 00 

137.700 00 

343.500 00 
1,583.700 00 
1,240,000 00 
3,700,000 00 
39.500 00 
2.048,297 00 

568,898 00 
1,644.280 00 

652.598 00 
88,506 00 

996,900 00 

47.520 00 

1.839.506 00 

177,448 00 

78,771 00 

124.878 00 

665 00 

11,098 00 

24,734,418 00 

39.873 00 

83,672 00 

7.75100 

36,32100 

78.070.761 00 
433,682 00 

55,830 00 
720,248 00 

65,110 00 



$ 70,006,021 00 

21,049.730 00 

62.010 00 

9,277.351 00 

485,158 00 

137,700 00 

343.500 00 

1.583,700 00 

1.129,820 00 

8,400,000 00 

39,500 00 

2,238,040 00 

557,532 00 

1,605.068 00 

657,905 00 

•38,506 00 

963,670 00 

47,520 00 

1,839,506 00 

177,448 00 

73,771 00 

124.878 00 

666 00 

11.098 00 

23.963.017 00 

39,878 00 

83,672 00 

7,751 00 

10,000 00 

72,961 501 00 

1,121.170 03 

55.830 00 

700.000 00 

65,110 00 



322 BIBNNIAL BBPOBT 

GOLD PRODUCTION OP THB WORLD— Concluded. 



COUNTRIES 



1897 
Value 



1886 
Value 



1890 
Value 



Asia: 

Borneo 

China 

India (British) 

Jap*n 

Korea 

Malay Peninsula 

Australasia, 7 cols 

Other countries 

ToUls 



110,977 00 
6.641,190 00 
7,299,554 00 

713,800 00 
1,094,000 00 

516,790 00 
52,491,279 00 

450,000 00 



110,977 00 
6,641,190 00 
7,765.807 00 

790,826 00 
1,145,760 00 

516,750 00 
62,294,481 00 

450.000 00 



110.977 00 
6,645,612 00 
8,385,467 00 
1,200,000 00 
1,145,769 00 

524,997 00 
79.206.190 00 

500.000 00 



$237,833.984 00 



$286,803.462 00 



$ 312,307,819 00 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 



323 



SILVER PRODUCTION OP THE WORLD. 



COUNTRIES 



1898 

Commercial 

Value 


1899 

Commercial 

Value 


$ 33.066.482 


$ 34.086,168 


2,616.110 


1.834,371 


83.546.885 


32,788,565 


957.900 


862,001 


226,301 


228.526 


6455,084 


6,215.784 


3,439,480 


3,480,430 


971,217 


980.764 


4.779 


4,826 


8,411.116 


3.411.116 


764,347 


772.063 


266.600 


360.106 


272.017 


274,090 


8.287,898 


3.320,215 


768,850 


771.512 


823.968 


832.068 


101,784 


102.784 • 


2,267 


3.481 


164.324 


155,^ 


10,812 


10,919 


4'343.922 


3.245,930 


88,563 


38,943 


132.916 


134,223 


124,722 


125,947 


759 


766 


979,326 


969,154 


8,742,499 


9.131.688 


28,453 


28.733 


$ 106,364.505 


$ 104,100.163 



America. North 

United SUtee 

Canada 

Mexico 

Central America 

America, South 

Argentina , 

Bolivia 

Chile 

(^lumbia 

Bquador 

Peru 

Europe: 

Austria 

Hungary 

Prance 

Germany 

Greece 

Italy... 

Norway 

Portugal 

Russia 

Serria 

Spain 

Sweden 

Turkey 

United Kingdom 

Asia 

Dutch Eaat Indies 

Japan r 

Australasia 

Other countries 

ToUls 



324 BIENNIAL BBPOBT 



DIVIDEND PAYERS. 

Following is a tabulated statement of the amount of 
dividends paid by incorporated mining companies operating 
in the Cripple Creek district. The total disbursed for divi- 
dends since the opening of the camp reaches the sum of 
112,053,157.57. The rapid growth and present wonderful 
prosperity of the district is shown by the fact that f 4,626,- 
256.86, or more than one-third of the total amount, was paid 
during the last year, while many of the leading companies 
hold large sums, in the aggregate approximating (5,000,000, 
of undivided profits. The first work of any importance done 
on the camp was in 1893 : 



BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS. 



325 







8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


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8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


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BIBNNIAL BBPOBT 







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BUREAU OF liABOB STATISTICS. 



327 



79,500 00 

4.940 00 

976.000 00 


790,000 00 
10.000 00 
85,000 00 

156.000 00 


■i 


8 8 8 8 

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Dec.. 1899 
Dec.. 1809 
Nov., 1899 
June, 1899 


ill 

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10.000 00 
4.940 00 
488,000 00 
25,000 00 
10,000 00 
35.000 00 


11.660 00 
100.000 00 
45.000 00 
50.750 00 
10,500 00 




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976,000 00 
aOO.000 00 
10,000 00 
36.000 00 
156.000 00 


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1,000,000 00 
1,000.000 00 
1,000,000 00 
1.000,000 00 
1.000,000 00 
50,000 00 


1,250,000 00 
1.000.000 00 
485.000 00 
1.200.000 00 
1,000.000 00 




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328 BIENNIAL REPORT 

TOTAL PRODUCTION OP PRBCIOUS MBTALS IN COLORADO. 





Value of 
Gold 


Value of 
Silver 


Value of 
I.c«d 


Value of 
Copper 


Total 
Value 


Previous ) 

to 1870 S '— 


$ 27,213.081 00 


$ 3SO.O0OOO 




$ 40,000 00 


$ 27,588.061 00 


1870 


8t015,000 00 


660,000 00 




20.000 fO 


8.605.O0OOO 


1871 


3,683.961 00 


1.029.068 00 




30.000 00 


4,693.009 00 


1872 


2,646,463 00 


2,015.001 00 


$ 5,000 00 


45.000 00 


4.7U464 00 


1873 


1.835.248 00 
2.065,595 00 


2,185.014 00 
3.066.926 00 


7.078 40 
37,502 40 


65.000 OU 
90.197 00 


4,002 340 40 


1874 


5.280.220 40 


1875 


2,321.065 00 


2,873,591 00 


96.706 00 


90.000 00 


5.3804»2 00 


1876 


2,726,311 00 


2,960.256 00 


81.774 20 


70,000 00 


5.8:!8.341 20 


1877 


3,000.000 00 
3.366 404 00 


4.180.138 00 
4,807,001 00 


08.490 60 
481.50180 


98.796 64 
89.000 00 


7.372.425 24 


1878 


8.743.906 80 


1879 .... 


8,225.000 00 


10.162,508 00 


1,960207 20 


131.000 00 


15.478.710 20 


1880 


3.200.000 00 


15,055,302 00 


3.565,989 20 


184.000 00 


22,085 24120 


1881 


3.300.000 00 


15,104.092 00 


3.900.621 40 


161.000 00 


22.465 713 40 


1882 


3,360.000 00 


14,436.136 00 


5.401.000 00 


276.300 00 


23,473,526 00 


1883 


4.100.060 00 


14,912.756 00 


6.096.124 80 


182.750 50 


25.291.631 80 


1884 


4.250,000 00 


13.964.066 00 


4.724.742 00 


278 800 50 


23.237.608 50 


1885 


4,200,010 00 


13,014.927 00 


4,345.000 00 


127,485 20 


21,687;»2 20 


1886 


4,450,000 00 


12.813,404 00 


5.463,400 00 


44.990 00 


22.271,794 00 


1887 


4.000 000 00 


11,345,608 00 


5.670.000 00 


226,850 00 


21.241.968 00 


1888 


3.758.000 00 


13,813.906 00 


5,790.200 00 


270.058 60 


28 632.164 60 


1889 


3.883.859 00 


17,199.486 00 


5.423,400 00 


426.250 00 


26,932,995 00 


1890 


4.150,000 00 


19.665,245 00 


4,883,200 00 


945,000 00 


29.643.445 00 


1891 


4,600,000 00 


20,906.554 00 


5,568.000 00 


883 400 00 


31.957,964 00 


1892 


5.30O.O0O 00 


23.082.000 00 


5,030,700 00 


837.375 00 


34 250,675 00 


1893 


7 527.000 00 
9.549.731 00 


20,205.785 00 
14.638.696 00 


3.147.970 80 
3,200.000 00 


765.585 13 
624.097 26 


81.646.290 03 


1894 


28 012,524 26 


1885 


13.559.954 00 


11,683.232 00 


2,954.714 00 


659,090 00 


28,%6,9S0 00 


1896 


15.267.234 00 


14,458.536 00 


2,821.109 40 


820.260 86 


82,867,149 26 


1897 


19,579.687 00 


12.602 448 00 


2.731.032 40 


960.917 13 


85.964.084 62 


1898 


23.534.531 28 


IS 690.265 15 


4.117.0i3 24 


1.304.504 28 


42.646 343 95 


Total...... 


1196,618 064 28 


$326,482,532 15 


1 87.131.457 93 


1 10.742.167 10 


$ 620.974,211 46 



Note— In the above table the calculation is on the average market price of the metals 
for each year. 



BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS. 329 



COAL MINING. 

Coal mining in Colorado has of late years reached such 
large proportions as to properly take rank as one of the lead- 
ing industries. The area of Colorado which is coal-producing 
is about 25,000 square miles, and underlies wholly or in part 
the surface of twenty-two of the counties in the state. Ex- 
tensive coal mining operations have, up to the present time, 
been confined to eight or ten counties. Almost every variety 
of coal mined anywhere in the world may be found in Colo- 
rado. As far as the coal fields are developed the deposits of 
anthracite coal are confined to Gunnison county, and, while 
the quality is not up to the standard of the hard coal pro- 
duced in the anthracite regions of Pennsylvania, it is eagerly 
sought for, and commands a good price in the markets of 
Colorado and adjoining states. It is estimated by competent 
authorities that, at the present rate of mining coal in this 
state, it will require 8,500 years to exhaust these coal meas- 
ures. It will thus be seen that nature has not been at all 
niggardly in supplying a large and rapidly increasing popu- 
lation with fuel. Under normal conditions, there can never 
be a coal famine. 

Five hundred tons of coal were mined in Colorado in 
1864, the first year in which a record was kept of the product, 
since which time the output has been steadily increased. 

There are at the present time about one hundred pro- 
ducing coal mines in Colorado. The output for 1899 was 
4,806,879 tons. The estimated output for 1900 is about 
5,000,000 tons. Las Animas leads all the other counties, 
having produced more than two-fifths of the entire product 
for the year 1899. 

A number of new mines, which are as yet small produc- 
ers, have been opened up during the present year. There 
were eighty-eight coal mines in operation during the year 
1899, employing 7,321 coal miners. These men were, how- 
ever, not employed regularly throughout the year. The sum- 
mer months are usually dull ones around most coal mines. 

There were 41 fatal accidents ; miners employed for each 
life lost, 178; number of tons of coal mined for each life lost, 
117,241. Non-fatal accidents, 97 ; 75 men employed for each 
non-fatal accident; 49,555 tons of coal mined for each non- 
fatal accident. 



330 



BIENNIAL REPORT 



With 1,124 coke ovens in operation in the state and a 
product of 455,783 tons, Colorado ranks as the fifth state in 
the Union in the production of coke. The value of the coke 
at the ovens is nearly $1,500,000. Nearly 1,000,000 tons of 
coal were used in connection with the coke ovens, about one- 
fifth of the entire amount produced in the state. Coke is 
used largely around smelters, and its production increases 
proportionately with the increase in the tonnage of coal 
mined. The coke ovens are located principally near the 
coal mines, south of the Arkansas river. 



COAI, PRODUCT OP THE UNITED STATES. 



TOTAL ANNUAL PRODUCTION OF ANTHRACITB AND BITUMINOUS COAL IN 
THB UNITED STATES PROM 1880 TO 1900, IN TONS OP 2.000 POUNDS. 



YBAR 


Anthracite 


Bitnminottg 


ToUl 


1880 


28,649.811 
31,920,018 
35.121.256 
38.456.845 
37.^6,847 
38,335.974 
39.085,446 
42,088,1»7 
46,619,564 
45.544,970 
46.468.641 
50.665,481 
52,472.504 
53.967.543 
51.921.121 
57,999.337 
54.346,061 
52,481.763 
53.217,408 


42,831.758 

53,961,012 

68,164,533 

76,7551280 

82.578.204 

72,621,548 

73,707.957 

87,887.360 

102.089.838 

95.684.543 

111,320.016 

117,901.237 

126.856.567 

128,385.231 

119,488.372 

135,991.596 

188.906.526 

146,573.226 

165.275,282 


71,481,569 


1881 


85.881,080 


1882 

1888 

1884... 

1885 


108.285,789 
115,212,125 
119,785,051 
110,957.522 


1886 

1887 

1888 


112.743.408 
129,975.557 
148,659,402 


1889 

1890 

1891 _. 

1892 


141,229,513 
157.788,657 
168.566,668 
179.828.071 


1898 

1894 

1896 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 ... 


182.352.774 
171.409.493 
198,990.988 
198.252.607 
199.004.989 
218.492.640 
258,589.660 









BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTIGS. 331 

PRODUCTION OP COLORADO COAL MINES PROM 1873 TO 1900. 



THK POLLOWINO TABI^B OP STATISTICS UPON COAL MINING IN COLORADO 
GIVBS THB ANNUAL PRODUCTION IN TONS OP 2,000 POUNDS, MINED PROM 
1873 TO 1900. 



YBAR 


Tons 


YEAR 


Tong 


1873 


69,977 


1887 


1,791,735 


1874 


87.372 


1888 


2,185,477 


1875 


98,838 


1889 


2,400.629 


1876 


117,666 


1880 


3,075,781 


1877 


160.000 


1891 


3.512,682 


1S78 


200,630 


1892 


8,771,284 


1879 , 


322,732 
375,000 
706,744 


1898 

1894 

1895 


3,947,066 


1880 , 


3,021,028 


1881 


3.339,495 


1882 


1,164,479 


1896 


3,395,733 


1883 


1,220.593 


1897 


3;i79.610 


1884 


1,130,024 


1898 


4,184,937 


1885 


1,396,796 
1.436,211 


1899 


4.806.879 


1886 





332 



BIENNIAL REPORT 



COAL PRODUCTION. 



run FOLLOWING TABLB GIVES THE PRODUCTION IN 
ERAL COUNTIES FOR THE YEARS 1896 TO 1899 


TONNAGE OF THE SEV- 
. INCLUSIVE. 


COUNTIES 


1886 


1897 


1888 


1889 


Arafmhoe 

Boulder 

El Paso 


396 

504.947 

82,016 

282.459 

227.280 

260.875 

965,648 

18.105 

1.331,115 

99.116 

20.457 

33,887 

162.271 

22.159 

26,000 


413 

607.890 

27,906 

319.641 

237,277 

819.116 

361,702 

7.650 

1,406,4% 

74,805 

27,611 


514 
401503 

48.388 
437.086 
240.961 
361.113 
553,196 

11,025 

1,684.183 

107,706 

19,167 

182.927 
22.506 
22,843 


439 

582.682 
67,729 


Fremont 

Garfield 

Gunnison 

Huerfano 

Jefferson 

L*s Animas 


629.825 
137.066 
308.685 
d07.U5 
8.551 
2.122,345 


LaPIaU 


116,577 


Mesa 

Park 


23.823 


Pitkin 

Weld: 

Other counties, small mines.. 


147,461 
21.733 
26.000 


176406 
31.436 







The counties other than those named above, in which 
coal is to be f ound, or in which it is or has been mined, are 
Delta, Douglas, Larimer, Montezuma, Rio Blanco, Routt and 
San Miguel. The tonnage in each, being inconsiderable, was 
not fully reported to the Coal Mine Inspector, and was there- 
fore approximated, but it is very nearly exact. 

The following table shows the coke production for the 
year 1899 : 



NAME OF PLANT 


Tonnage 


Average 

Number of 

Ovens 


Starkville 


56.177 
106,876 
68.458 
121.667 
54.178 
19.029 
80.908 


134 


Sopris 


221 


Cardiff 


190 


El Moro 


238 


CrestedButte 


158 


Gray Creek _ 


78 


Hastings 


100 






ToUls 


455,783 


1.124 







BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 



333 



BRIBP STATISTICS. 



STATISTICS CONCBRNING TH« PRODUCTION OP COAL IN COLORADO, NUMBSR 
MIN8S IN OPERATION, NUMBQR MEN SMPLOYED, ACCIDBNTS, ETC. 



1897 



1899 



Number of mines in operation 

Tons of bituminous coal produced 

Tons of semi-bituminous coal produced 

Tons lignite coal produced 

Tons anthracite coal produced 

Tons coke produced 

Number of men employed at mines 

Number of fatal accidents at mines 

Number of non-fatal accidents at mines 

Number of men employed for each fatality 

Tons of coal produced for each life lost 

Number of men employed for each non-fatal accident 

Tons of coal mined for each non-fatal accident 



106 


107 


88 


1,752,050 


2.075,034 




L077,912 


1.462.408 


.^ .._._. 


071,502 


577.670 
48,831 




64,007 


38.348 


320,738 


445.025 


• 455,783 


7,018 


7,425 


7,821 


35 


24 


41 


54 


72 


07 


200 


300 


178 


101,876 


173,018 


117,241 


130 


103 


75 


66.031 


57.073 


40,555 



The coal product of the United States lor the year 1899 
for the first time exceeded that of Great Britain, and is 
larger than that of any country in the world. In 1868 the 
coal production of the United States was 28,258,000 tons. In 
1899 it had increased to 258,539,650 tons, or more than nine 
times the production of 1868. During the same period the 
coal production of Great Britain has only a little more than 
doubled. The world's coal production is chiefly in the hands 
of the United States, Great Britain and Germany. During 
the last thirty years five-sixths of the world's coal production 
has been confined to the three countries mentioned. 



334 



BIENNIAL BBPOBT 



SCHEDULE OF WAGES PAID 



TO THE DIPPBRBNT CLA88B8 OP WORKMAN IN THB COAl« MINING INDUSTRIES 

OP COLORADO. 



OCCUPATION 



Rate 



Time 



Miners 

Pit boss 

Blacksmiths 

Weighmen 

Car loaders 

Inside laborers 

Blacksmith helpers 

Mnle drivers 

Trimmers 

Dumpers 

Piremen. ....-__.._..-_.....-. 

Tradcmen 

Carpenters 

Check weighmen, paid by miners. 

Engineers 

Pire boss 

Outside laborers 

Bojrs 

Timbermen 



r90c. screened lump ) 
l60c. run of mine... \ 

13 00 1 

12 50 to $3 50 

12 25 to 12 75 

12 00 

12 50 to 13 00 

12 00 to 12 25 

12 50 to 13 00 

12 00 to 12 50 

$2 25 to 12 50 

12 25.. 

|2 50to|2 75 

12 50 to IS 00 

About 12 50 

12 50 to 13 00 

175 00 to $85 00 

12 00 to 12 50 

$100 ton 25 

12 75 to 13 00 



Per ton 

Per day 

Per day 

Per day 

Per day 

Per day 

Per day 

Per day 

Per day 

Per day 

Per day 

Per day 

Per day 

Per day 

Per day 

Per month 

Per day 

Per day 

Per day 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 335 



THE RISE AND GROWTH OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS 
IN THE UNITED STATES* 



The important position now occupied by organized labor 
in this country makes its history, the varying vicissitudes 
that have marked its growth and development a sub- 
ject of no little interest. That the labor organizations of the 
United States have exercised an ennobling, uplifting educa- 
tional and in every way beneficial influence upon the indus- 
trial classes is evident to the most casual observer. That our 
entire social system has been lifted to a higher level through 
the ujitiring efforts of these organizations no thoughtful per- 
son will deny. No one can get even a fairly good conception 
of these orders as they now are without an understanding of 
their growth from their first beginnings. Every union of 
labor, past or present, has contributed something to the stock 
of knowledge. Organized labor stands to-day, as it ever has, 
for all that is moral, true and just. It is a protest against 
every injustice practiced upon the humblest and weakest of 
the human race. It is always constructive and not destruc- 
tive. It builds up manhood and womanhood in character. 

The first industry to spring up along the Atlantic coast, 
at a very early period, was that of ship building. The work- 
men engaged in this industry came mainly from the county 
of Kent, in England, where labor organizations already ex- 
isted. A bond of social interest prompted an organization. 
Several isolated clubs, composed of ship carpenters and calk- 
ers, existed before the war of the Revolution, in New York, 
Boston, Philadelphia, and perhaps other places along the 
Atlantic coast. A number of the members of these clubs took 
a leading part in the events leading up to the war of the Rev- 
olution, many of them taking part in the famous Boston tea 
party and the Boston massacre of 1770. 

It is a historical fact that at one of the meetings of the 
carpenters and calkers the policy of overturning the tea in 
Boston harbor was determined upon. Thus one of the first 
blows struck for American liberty was delivered by members 



336 BIENNIAL REPORT 

of the earliest labor organization of which we have any ac- 
count upon this side of the Atlantic. Tories were not found 
among the craftsmen of that day, but came from the 
wealthier classes. 

Upon July 4, 1790, a labor demonstration took place in 
Philadelphia, in which a number of unions participated. In 
1793 a seamen's union was organized in New York city, and 
within the next three or four years others were started in 
Philadelphia and Boston.. These unions were locals, and 
there is no record of any affiliation between them. The only 
strike of the eighteenth century, of which there is any record, 
occurred in Boston, July 4, 1796. It was ordered by the sea- 
men's unions, and was against some of the more obnoxious 
abuses to which the sailors of that day were subjected. While 
unsuccessful, it called attention in a very convincing way to 
the hard lot of the sailor, and helped to bring about an im- 
provement in his condition. The first strike of the present 
century occurred in the city of New York, August, 1803. The 
crews of several vessels struck for an advance in wages. It 
was settled, as other strikes have been since that time, by the 
arrest of a number of those engaged and their imprisonment 
in jail. 

One of the first trades to organize in the present century 
was that of the tailors, the first union of that craft having 
been organized in Philadelphia in 1806. It was composed 
principally of tailors of English birth, who had before that 
time retained their membership in the tailors' unions of Eng- 
land. During the following sixty years, numerous local 
unions were organized in nearly all cities of any consider- 
able importance in the country. It was not until Septem- 
ber, 1865, that in response to a call issued by the Philadel- 
phia local tailors' union, a national convention was held and 
the Journeymen Tailors' National Trade Union was organ- 
ized. This union had a fairly prosperous existence until 
early in the eighties, when it went to pieces by reason of the 
defalcation of the treasurer, who disappeared, taking with 
him all the funds, something over f 3,000. 

The present Journeymen Tailors' National Union of 
America was organized in 1883. It has engaged in several 
strikes, and has been reasonably successful in resisting reduc- 
tion of wages. At the present time the tailors have 293 local 
unons affiliated, of which 15 are in Canada. The total mem- 
bership is about 11,000. J. B. Lennon, Bloomington, Illinois, 
is general secretary-treasurer. 



BUBBAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 337 

One of the earlier classes of craftsmen to appreciate the 
advantages of organized effort were the hatters, who first 
organized in 1819. The membership of this union has in- 
cluded nearly all the workmen engaged since the manufac- 
ture of hats became a recognized industry in this country. 
The hatters have always been very active in maintaining the 
principles of unionism. In 1854 delegates from several local 
unions met and organized the National Trade Association 
of Hat Finishers. It went out of existence after meeting 
twice in national convention. In the month of April, 1869, 
delegates from a number of locals met at Danville, Connecti- 
cut, and organized the National Hatters' Association, an or- 
ganization that, with some unimportant changes in detail, 
exists and controls the industry in all its branches up to the 
present time. The hatters have engaged in several hard- 
fought strikes during the last thirty years, and in every in- 
stance, save one, have these strikes been won. The registered 
union label to be found under the sweat band of all union- 
made hats is conclusive that the hat is fair and was made by 
union labor. 

Among the unions of a very early period in this century 
is mentioned that of the New York Society of Journeymen 
Shipwrights, which was incorporated April 30, 1803, and a 
local society of house carpenters, which was organized in 
New York city in 1806. There is no continued account of 
these organizations, and they probably soon were dissolved 
and were reorganized at a later date. 

The first organization of printers was effected in New 
York city in 1806. It was incorporated in 1818. A society 
of printers was organized in Philadelphia in 1822, one in 
Boston in 1823, one in Baltimore in 1824, and one in Cincin- 
nati in 1827. 

A period of no little interest in the organization of labor 
is from 1830 to 1850. During these twenty years a very large 
number of local unions, representing craftsmen engaged in 
almost every branch of production, were organized. Many 
of them lived for but a few years and were merged into other 
organizations, with new names and new methods, as the exi- 
gencies of the time seemed to make necessary. 

These twenty years may be really designated as the form- 
ative period in the organization of labor. While those active 
in the labor movement of the time were not forgetful of the 
broader meaning of the labor question, as the literature of 

IS 



338 BIENNIAL REPORT 

that day will bear ample eyidence^ a good deal of the hard^ 
practical work of the time was in the direction of securing a 
reduction in the hours of toil from twelve and fourteen and 
the establishment of a uniform ten-hour day. Between 1830 
and 1850 a number of strikes occurred throughout the New 
England states to secure a ten-hour day. During these 
twenty years the shipwrights, calkers, carpenters, cabinet 
makers, cordwainers, blacksmiths, tailors, hatters, printers, 
bricklayers, stonecutters, masons, factory operatives and 
others ent^ed upon strike for the shorter work day. Most 
of these strikes were in a measure successful, as some conces- 
sions were usually secured. The ship carpenters secured a 
ten-hour day for repair work in 1837 and for new work in 
1840. 

The trade unionists of the country, together with their 
friends and sympathizers, to the number of many thousands, 
memorialized congress to enact a ten-hour law, to apply to 
those employed upon public works. This memorial was read 
in congress in March, 1836, and after debate was laid upon 
the table. Public opinion became so pronounced in favor 
of the ten-hour day that upon April 10, 1840, President Van 
Buren issued a proclamation making ten hours a day's work 
for all employes of the United States government. 

The house carpenters in New York city, after a pro- 
tracted strike, were successful in establishing a ten-hour day, 
after having engaged in an unsuccessful strike in 1836 and 
again in 1838. 

An address issued to the public by the representatives 
of 106 firms employing labor, when the strike of 1840 was in 
progress in New York city, shows quite clearly that the same 
general arguments were urged against a ten-hour day that in 
our own time is being urged against an eight-hour day. To 
quote from the report : "It is unreasonable to suppose that 
as much wages will be paid for ten as for twelve or fourteen 
hours' labor. • • • We aim to check the unreasonableness 
of the attempt to thwart and embarrass those by whom they 
are employed and their labor so liberally rewarded." 

Governor Ford, of New Jersey, was the first executive 
to recommend to a state legislature the enactment of a ten- 
hour law. In a message to the legislature in 1841 he said : 
"Constant and unremitting toil prevents intellectual im- 
provement, and leads to physical and moral debasement." 
No action was taken by the legislature upon the governor's 
recommendation. . 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 339 

. In 1846 petitions containing several thousand names 
were presented to the Massachusetts legislature, praying for 
the establishment of a ten-hour day by statute. The commit- 
tee to whom the petition was referred expressed themselves 
substantially as did one of the state supreme courts of fifty- 
four years later when a similar question was involved, 
namely, to the effect that it would be interfering with the 
freedom of contract; that if the individual felt disposed to 
work twelve, fourteen or sixteen hours per day, that the legis- 
lature would not object. 

Six years later, in 1852, a ten-hour measure was intro- 
duced in the Massachusetts l^islature. It passed in the 
house, but, though vigorously pushed, was defeated in the 
senate. 

In 1847 the legislature of New Hampshire passed a law 
fixing ten hours as a day's work, where a greater number of 
hours was not provided for by express contracts. Notwith- 
standing the very serious defect in the law, it was accepted 
by the trade unionists of the time as a recognition of the jus- 
tice of the demand for a shorter work day. 

In the years 1848 and 1850 numerous petitions were for- 
warded to congress from various parts of the country where 
labor was organized, asking for a ten-hour law for adults 
and an eight-hour law for children, and otherwise regulating 
the employment of children. 

Until 1834 there is no record of different locals of the 
same or other trades being affiliated with each other in any 
way whatever. The active workers in the movement saw the 
advantages to be secured by a more perfect organization of 
the trades. 

Early in 1834, in response to a circular sent out by the 
Typographical Union of Boston, and setting forth a plan of 
organization, sixteen of the local unions of that city and vi- 
cinity came together and organized a central body. This may 
properly be considered the parent trades assembly, and 
marks the beginning of the unification of labor in the United 
States. 

In 1835, as the result of an unsuccessful strike for the 
ten-hour day in Philadelphia, a number of unions represent- 
ing different trades were organized. In July of that year 
delegates from a number of unions came together and organ- 
ized the second trades assembly. This organization secured 



340 BIENNIAL BBPOBT 

some concessions regarding hours, among which was a ten- 
hour day upon Saturdays. 

The panic of 1837 drove many organizations out of ex- 
istence. In 1841-42 unions again began to multiply and 
gather strength. 

The New England Workingmen's Association, an organ- 
ization partly along political and partly along trade union 
lines, w^as organized at Fall Kiver, Mass., in the summer of 
1845. It held a second session at Lowell, in October of that 
year, and took strong ground in favor oif the strike then in 
progress by the factory operatives of New England for a ten- 
hour day. It also adopted radical resolutions upon the land 
question and other proposed reforms. 

The first industrial congress was organized in 1846, and 
held its second session in New York city, June 10, 1847. It 
was the first attempt to federate the many isolated unions of 
different trades into a national body. One hundred and ten 
organizations were represented, and delegates were present 
from seven states. In June, 1850, the industrial congress 
again convened at Chicago, 111. The era of national craft 
organizations had not yet set in. The composition of this 
industrial congress corresponded in a measure to that of the 
present Colorado State Federation of Labor and similar 
bodies in other states. It continued in existence for several 
years and gave great impetus to the organization of the unor- 
ganized trades. 

Several local unions of the glass blowers were organized 
before 1850, but no national organization was effected until 
many years later. At present the membership of the several 
organization of glass blowers numbers about twenty-nine 
thousand. 

The first newspaper devoted exclusively to trades 
unionism, and which was published for any length of time, 
was the Voice of Industry, at Fitchburg, Mass., in 1845. 

THE INTEBNATIONAL TYPOGBAPHIOAL UNION. 

The first distinctive trade to organize upon a national 
basis was that of the printers. They have the oldest national 
trade organization in this country at the present time. On 
December 2, 1850, delegates from printers' societies in five 
states assembled in the city of New York and organized the 
National Association of Journeymen Printers. This organ- 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 341 

ization has had an unbroken continuity of life from that day. 
It has invariably been convened in annual convention, save 
in 1861, 1895 ad 1897. 

At Cincinnati, May 6, 1852, a constitution was fully 
adopted, and the name was changed to the National Typo- 
graphical Union. 

The oldest local now living is No. 12, at Baltimore, which 
has had a continued existence since 1831. 

At the Albany session, June 11, 1869, the name was 
changed to the International Typographical Union of North 
America, which name it still carries. The history of the I. 
T. U. is a 16ng series of battles with employers over hours 
and scales of prices, trade privileges, the right to enforce 
union rules, etc. The number of strikes in which it has en- 
gaged is legion. 

It is estimated upon competent authority, although 
there are no exact figures obtainable, that fully seventy-five 
per cent, of the strikes declared by the I. T. U. have been won, 
the balance resulting in defeat or compromise. 

The I. T. U. has been the pioneer in enforcing trade 
union rules. It has not only protected its own members and 
maintained a fair scale of prices, but it has set the pace for 
other unions, who were slow to appreciate the advantage of 
compact organization and a large defense fund. No other 
union controls the labor of its craft so completely as does the 
I. T. U. No other class of workmen have felt the effect of 
machine labor taking the place of hand labor to a greater ex- 
tent than have the printers. 

The Childs-Drexel Home, located at Colorado Springs, 
this state, was built and equipped with funds raised by the 
membership of the International Typographical Union, with 
the exception of a gift of f 10,000 made to the order in June> 
1886, by the gentlemen after whom the home is named. It is 
maintained exclusively by the order, with the single excep- 
tion of the interest upon an endowment of $1,045, which is 
used for its support. Mr. Ehrich, of Colorado Springs, do- 
nated eighty acres of land for the purposes of a home. For 
several years after the gift mentioned each union compositor 
was assessed once each year the amount received by him for 
one thousand ems. Several special assessments and many in- 
dividual contributions from members and unions were re- 
ceived. Work upon the construction of the home was com- 
menced in 1891, and it was formally opened May 12, 1892. 



342 



BIENNIAL REPORT 



The home is supported by a levy of ten cents per month per 
member. Chas. A. Deacon is the superintendent in charge. 

The original cost of building and furnishing was $ 70,114.44 

The entire cost of maintenance since opening to June 30» 1900. . 176,939.00 
Building and furnishing hospital 13,829.72 

Total $260,883.16 




Any member of the International Typographical Union 
who has been a member in good standing for the period of 
five consecutive years is eligible to admission upon being 
properly endorsed by his local union. 

The stereotypers, electrotypers, mailers, photo-engrav- 
ers, newspaper writers and type founders each have separate 
and distinct unions, but receive their charters from the Inter- 
national Typographical Union. The last renort shows 429 
chartered locals in good standing, of which 77 are unions of 
the various crafts forming, in conjunction with the I. T. U., 
the allied printing trades. The aggregate membership is 
about 38,000. 



ORGANIZATION AMONG THE IRON WORKERS. 

The first union of the iron workers was that of the iron 
moulders, who organized in Cincinnati, in 1849, and carried 
a strike in that city in the same yefar to a successful conclu- 
sion. 



BUEBAU OF LABOE STATISTICS. 343 

The next was known as the United Sons of yulcan^ and 
was composed of boiler makers and puddlers. It was organ- 
ized at Pittsburg, Pa., April, 1858. The name was changed 
to that of the National Forge in 1862. In a few years it had 
obtained complete control of the trade. This union engaged 
in 87 strikes between the date of organization and 1875, of 
which 28 terminated in favor of the workmen, 22 favorable to 
employers, 21 were compromised and 16 are doubtful. 

The next union of the iron workers to organize was the 
Associated Brotherhood of Iron and Steel Rail Heaters of 
the united States. Next the Iron and Steel Roll Hands' 
Union. Then the United Nailers. 

At Pittsburg, Pa., August, 1876, the several organiza- 
tions of iron workers surrendered their individual organiza- 
tions, and the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel 
Workers was organized. The rate of wages is established an- 
nually, and is fixed by what is known as the sliding scale. 

This union has ever exercised a powerful influence in 
maintaining a respectable scale of wages. Like its prede- 
cessors, it has declared and taken part in many strikes. 
About sixty-five per cent, of these strikes have been won by 
the Amalgamated Association. The membership at present is 
about 12,000. 



By far the most important of the organizations belong- 
ing to the craft of leather was that of the Knights of St. Cris- 
pin. The first lodge of the order w^as organized at Milwau- 
kee, in 1867. The first grand lodge was held in Rochester, 
N. Y., in 1868, fifty delegates being present. Within the next 
five years it grew to a membership of 40,000, with more than 
four hundred lodges, but became practically extinct by 1876. 
It was undoubtedly the foremost trade organization that had 
existed up to that time. It fought, and with almost invari- 
able success, against reductions in wages. It brought many 
advantages to its membership, it elected many of its members 
to the legislatures of several states, and was altogether a 
power to be reckoned with. Discord, jealousy and distrust 
crept into its councils, and its decline was as rapid as its 
growth had been phenomenal. Various forms of organiza- 
tion succeeded the dissolution of the Knights of St. Crispin, 
prominent among which were many local assemblies of the 
Knights of Labor, some of which still exist. 



344 BIENNIAL BEPOBT 

The Boot and Shoe Workers' Union, an organization 
with about 7,000 members, is at present the most important 
organization of labor in the shoe piaking industry. 

MUSICIANS^ UNIONS. 

Several unions of musicians were formed between 1850 
and 1860. In 1862 the Musicians' Mutual Protective Union 
of New York city received a charter from the state. It is the 
strongest local union of musicians in the world, having about 
5,000 members. At present it is not affiliated with the Na- 
tional Federation of Musicians. 

The National League of Musicians was organized in 
1869. It lived but for a few years. 

Delegates from seven states met in New York city in 
March, 1886, and organized the United League of Musicians 
of the United States of America. This organization rapidly 
increased in membership, and gave to its membership much 
needed protection against swindling theatrical troupes and 
in other ways benefited them. 

May 6, 1897, at the Kansas City convention, the name 
was changed to and it has since been known as the American 
Federation of Musicians. This was accomplished after no 
little trouble, in which the aid of the courts was invoked. 
This is now the great national body of musicians of the Amer- 
ican continent, comprising 115 locals, with a membership of 
about 12,000. This order has elevated the standard of music. 
It has bettered the condition of the musician by raising his 
wages and enabling him to be respected as the interpreter of 
the grandest and noblest of the arts should be. 

BABBEBS' UNIONS. 

In 1878 the Barbers' Protective Union was organized in 
Philadelphia, Pa. Prior to this local unions had been organ- 
ized in the large cities. The Protective Union was not a suc- 
cess. Many of the locals were organized as Knights of Labor 
assemblies in the next few years. 

The present Journeymen Barbers' International Union 
of America was organized at Buffalo, N. Y., December 5, 
1887. Its growth has been checkered, and until 1895 it 
fought for existence. During the last five years the Journey- 
men Barbers' International Union of America has been grow- 
ing steadily and is now upon a sound financial basis. It has 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 345 

207 local unions affiliated, located in twenty-four states and 
in the Dominion of Canada. The membership is 8,700, and 
new unions are being constantly organized. The order is fra- 
ternal and benevolent. Much has been done that is beneficial 
to the craft. W. E. Klopelsky, of Syracuse, N. Y., is general 
secretary-treasurer. 

BICYCLE WORKERS. 

The International Union of Bicycle Workers and Allied 
Mechanics was organized at the national convention of the 
American Federation of Labor in Cincinnati, December 5, 
1896. Since this time this union has been gradually growing 
in membership and at present is in condition to control the 
different trades coming under its jurisdiction. It has a 
union label, which is issued jointly by the Polishers, Ma- 
chinists and Bicycle Workers' International. Every union- 
made bicycle has the union label. The present membership 
Is about 2,500. 

BRICKLAYERS AND MASONS. 

Before the civil war unions of bricklayers existed and 
thrived in many cities of the Union. October 16, 1865, the 
International Bricklayers' Union of America was organized. 
In 1874 the naime was changed to the National Bricklayers' 
Union. It had grown to sixty-nine unions, with a member- 
ship of ten thousand. In 1883 the name was again changed 
to its present form, that of Bricklayers' and Masons' Inter- 
national Union of America. The order is protective in a na- 
tional sense, but all the locals have beneficiary features. It 
had on its roll at the last report 314 unions and a member- 
ship of 23,000. It has gradually increased the wages of its 
members, and steadily decreased the hours of labor until 
eight hours is the recognized work day in this craft. This 
union is well disciplined and powerful. It publishes a 
monthly journal. 

BOILER MAKERS AND IRON SHIPBUILDERS. 

The International Brotherhood of Boiler Makers and 
Iron Shipbuilders was organized in the city of Chicago, 111., 
in 1880. It extends all over the United States and Canada. 
There is one union of this craft in Colorado, located at Pu- 
eblo. It has been aflftliated with the American Federation of 



346 BIBNNIAL REPORT 

Labor since 1886. This union is charitable and benevolent in 
character. It has won all the strikes in which it has engaged, 
though it has had some very hard ones to manage. There 
are 221 affiliated lodges, with a membership of about 18,000. 

ORGANIZATION AMONG THE RETAIL CLERKS. 

The Eetail Clerks' International Protective Association 
was organized at Detroit, Mich., in December, 1890. Bien- 
niel conventions are held, in which all locals in good stand- 
ing are entitled to representation. There are at present 420 
locals, with an aggregate membership of 37,500. These locals 
are scattered from Vermont to California, and from the gulf 
of Mexico to British Columbia. The association is rapidly in- 
ceasing in membership. It is affiliated with the American 
Federation of Labor and has the good will and support of its 
1,000,000 members. 

The organization is strictly a fraternal one, and all 
clerks, without reference to sex, are eligible to membership, 
except those engaged in the liquor traffic. 

A death benefit of fifty dollars is paid to the family of 
each deceased member in good standing. 

The organization has been very successful in shortening 
the hours of labor for retail clerks, and in educating the pub- 
lic to make their purchases in day time. 

Max Morris, of Denver, is general secretary-treasurer 
and editor of the official paper, which is published in this 
city. Since the election of Mr. Morris, through his zeal and 
energy, a large number of new locals have been organized 
and the membership and influence of the association largely 
increased. 

CARPENTERS. 

Reference has already been made to the early unions of 
the carpenters. The first attempt at national trade organiza- 
tion was made in 1854, the second in 1867. Neither of these 
elBforts were attended with perfect success. The present 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America 
was organized in Chicago, 111., August 12, 1881. Its begin- 
ning consisted of twelve local unions, with 2,042 members. 
Its early days were those of trial and adversity. 

The order has met and surmounted the difficulties that 
are usually encountered by trade unions when first organ- 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 347 

ized. The carpenters' union has grown from this small be- 
ginning to 553 branches, with an aggregate membership of 
about 52,000 members. The brotherhood is a benevolent so- 
ciety as well as a protective trade union. It has advanced 
the wages of carpenters in almost every city where it has an 
organization, and in many ways improved the condition of 
the craft. It has reduced the hours of labor to eight per day 
in 108 cities, and to nine hours per day in more than 400 
cities. The order has been careful to avoid strikes if it were 
possible to do so, but has contested those in which it has en- 
gaged with great persistence, and, as the records show, has 
won sixty-five per cent, of regularly declared strikes. A 
member's funeral benefit ranges from f 100 to $200, also a 
wife's funeral benefit of from f25 to $50. It also provides 
for sick and strike benefits. About $650,000 have been paid 
out from the general fund, and nearly $800,000 have been 
paid in the shape of sick and strike benefits by the several 
locals. 

AMALGAMATED CARPENTERS. 

The Amalgamated Society of Carpenters is an English 
trade union organization. It was organized in that country 
in 1860. In 1869 the first branch in this country was organ- 
ized in New York city. There is an excellent insurance feat- 
ure connected with this union. It is composed of first-class 
workmen, who are for the most part of foreign birth. There 
is one branch in Colorado and thirty-four in the United 
States. 

FACTORY OPERATIVES^ UNIONS. 

Before 1850 several local unions of factory operatives ex- 
isted for short periods in the New England states. In 1858 
there was a pretty thorough organization of the textile work- 
ers, and some concessions were secured from the manufac- 
turers. These unions were almost extinct during the war, 
as were nearly all the organizations of labor. In 1866 the 
Spinners' Union was reorganized and wages were advanced. 

The Spinners' Union has conducted a number of strikes 
in a most excellent manner. It is mostly confined to the 
Middle and New England states. The membership is about 
10,000. 

ORGANIZATIONS AMONG THE COAL MINERS. 

The first efforts made by coal miners to organize was in 
1857 and 1858. The efforts, however, were confined to dis- 



348 BIENNIAL REPORT 

tricts. In 1861 the organization became national, and the 
American Miners' Association was organized on the Belle- 
ville Track, Illinois. The organization grew and prospered 
apace. In the years following the war it fought and won 
several strikes and established very good conditions thirough- 
out the coal producing districts. Internal dissensions de- 
stroyed it, and about 1870 the American Miners' Association 
passed into history. Some local organizations continued to 
exist. The next organization was the Miners' and Laborers' 
Benevolent Association, which was absorbed by the National 
Association of Miners, organized at Youngstown, Ohio, Oc- 
tober 14, 1873. In 1874 the order had grown to 224 lodges, 
with 21,200 members. The year 1875 was a critical one in 
the history of many labor unions. There were several unsuc- 
cessful strikes. The coal miners became very much demoral- 
ized. 

About this time the miners began to orjs:anize into as- 
semblies of the Knights of Labor, and in 1874 they under- 
took, by way of a strike, to secure an increase of wages, 
which were very low. After being out for ten weeks the un- 
dertaking was attended with success. In 1882 the Ohio 
Amalgamated Association, a federated body composed of or- 
ganizations of coal miners, was organized. It was under good 
management and benefited the miners materially. In 1885 it 
was merged into the National Federation of Miners and Mine 
Laborers. This organization did its utmost to establish the 
principle of arbitration, but without being able to secure 
perfect co-operation upon the part of the operators. 

No other craft has such a record for strikes as have the 
coal miners. It is a fact, amply verified by a careful review 
of the many battles fought by these toilers upon the indus- 
trial field, that the merits of each controversy have usually 
been upon the side of the miner as against the employer. 
The great Hocking valley strike, in 1884'-85, lasted for nine 
months and terminated unfavorably for the miners. The syn- 
dicate won, but lost more than four millions of dollars, and 
won nothing but a general recognition of the unjust condi- 
tions that they were enabled for the time being to force upon 
their employes. In 1887-'88 district assemblies Nos. 25 and 
135 of the Knights of Labor, national craft unions, embraced 
a membership of 95,000 coal miners in good standing. 

In 1890 the two principal organizations which existed 
among coal miners was the National Progressive Union and 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 349 

District Assembly 135, Knights of Labor, with a member- 
ship of about 15,000 each. The continuous warfare that was 
kept up between them was to the decided disadvantage of 
both. In 1890 the two organizations amalgamated, with a 
joint membership of 30,000. In 1894 a strike was declared, 
which, after lasting four months, resulted in a compromise. 
In 1897 the earnings of miners had been reduced to such an 
extent, and the conditions had become so unbearable, that 
upon July 4 of that year another great strike was inaugur- 
ated. It continued in effect for three months and a half, when 
a settlement was reached, which advanced the wages of min- 
ers twelve and one-half per cent. From this on the growth 
of the organization was steady. In January^ 1898, there was 
a paid-up membership of 25,000. Early in January, 1898, 
at a joint conference of miners and mine owners, held in the 
city of Chicago, and lasting eleven days, an agreement was 
reached, which advanced the wages of miners eighteen and 
one-half per cent, and reduced the hours of labor from ten to 
eight. In January, 1900, as reported at the Indianapolis 
convention, the membership had increased to 113,000 in good 
standing. 

At this convention an agreement was entered into be- 
tween the executive board of the United Mine Workers and 
representatives of the mine operators, by which the wages of 
miners were advanced 21 21/100 per cent. 

Throughout the year 1900 the growth of the organiza- 
tion has been phenomenal, and at the present writing it has, 
according to a letter received from the national president, 
John Mitchell, and dated November 4, 1900, a membership 
of more than 200,000, being the strongest craft organization 
in the world. Fully 100,000 members have been initiated into 
the United Iron Workers during the year 1900. In many of 
the coal producing states mutual agreements have been made 
with the mine owners, that none but those carrying paid-up 
union cards are given employment. The United Mine Work- 
ers have a large treasury, and June 1, 1899, commenced the 
creation of a defense fund by the members each paying twen- 
ty-five cents per month for that purpose. INI. D. Ratchford, 
one of President McKinley's appointees upon the industrial 
commission, was president of the order from January 1, 1897, 
to September, 1898. John Mitchell, well and favorably known 
in the labor movement, succeeded him and has since filled 
that office. To Mr. Mitchell's excellent organizing and exec- 



350 BIBNNIAL REPORT 

utive ability is due in very large measure the flattering suc- 
cess attained. 

In the summer and fall of this year the United Mine 
Workers conducted a gigantic strike in the anthracite fields 
of Pennsylvania and won out handsomely. 

THE CIGAR MAKERS. 

The history of the Cigar Makers' International Union of 
America forms an integral part of the general labor move- 
ment. The first cigar makers' union was organized May 5, 
1851, at Baltimore, Md., at that time one of the leading cen- 
ters in the cigar trade. 

In 1852 the cigar makers of New York city organized a 
union, and subsequently unions were organized in other cities 
and towns. On June 21, 1864, the Cigar Makers' National 
Union was organized in New York city. At Buffalo, N. Y., 
September 2, 1867, the name was changed to the Cigar Mak- 
ers' International Union of America, which name has been 
retained continuously ever since. 

In September, 1877, Adolph Strasser was elected presi- 
dent, at a time when the union reached its lowest point since 
organization, but through his zeal the organization soon re- 
vived and began to prosper. Mr. Strasser served the union 
faithfully and well for fourteen years. 

In September, 1892, under the law providing for election 
of officers by the referendum, George W. Perkins, of Albany, 
N. Y., was elected international president, which office he has 
held continuously since. 

During Mr. Perkins' administration the International 
Union has made wonderful progress, and, despite the long 
industrial depression, the organization not only met all of its 
financial obligations promptly, paying thousands of dollars 
by way of out of work benefits, but increased its funds and 
gained in membership. 

The following table presents the total benefits paid for 
the past twenty years and two months : 



BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 361 

BENEFITS PAID IN TWENTY YEARS AND TWO MONTHS. 



YBAR 


Strike 
Benefit 


Sick 


Death 
Benefit 


Traveling 
Benefit 


Out of 
Work 
Benefit 


1879 


1 366823 










1880 


4,960 86 
21.797 68 
44.850 41 
27,812 13 
143.547 36 
61.067 28 
54,402 61 
13.871 62 
45.303 62 






1 2,808 15 
12,747 00 
20.386 54 
37,135 20 
39,632 06 
26,683 54 
31,835 71 
49,28104 
42,894 75 




1881 


$ 3,987 73 
17.145 29 
22,250 56 
31.55160 
29,379 89 
42,225 59 
63,900 88 
.58,824 19 


1 7500 
1.674 25 
2.690 00 
3.920 00 
4.214 00 
4.820 00 
8850 00 
21,319 75 




1882 




1883 




1884 




1885 




1886 




1887 




1888 




1889 


5 202 52 
18.414 27 


59,519 94 
64.660 47 


19.175 SO 
26,043 00 


43.540 44 
37,914 72 




1880 


1 22.760 50 


1881 


33.531 78 


87.472 97 


38.068 35 


53.535 73 


21.223 50 


1892 


37,477 60 


89,906 30 


U.70197 


47.732 47 


17,460 75 


1893 


18,228 15 
44,966 76 


104.391 83 
106.758 37 


49.458 33 
62.158 77 


60,475 11 
42.154 17 


89.402 75 


1894 


174.517 25 


1895 


44.039 06 


112.667 06 


66,725 98 


41,657 16 


166,377 25 


1896 


27.446 46 


109.208 62 


78.768 09 


33 076 22 


175,767 25 


1897 


12,175 00 


112.774 63 


69.186 67 


29.067 01 


117.471 40 


1898 


25,118 59 


111.283 60 


94.939 83 


25.237 43 


70.197 70 


1899 


12.331 63 


107.785 07 


98.993 83 


24.234 33 


38 087 00 


Total 


1 700,223 21 


11.335.594 49 


1 686.783 32 


1 702.029 02 


$ 893.215 35 



Total benefits paid in 1899 ! I 281.381 80 

Grand total of bcncfiU paid 14,326.845 39 

It will he seen that in the past twenty years the Interna- 
tional Union has expended, all told, in benefits, the munifi- 
cent sum of f 4,326,845.39. These figures speak for them- 
selves. In looking over the financial report of the Cigar Mak- 
ers' International Union the wonderful array of instructive 
figures impresses one with what a practical trade union can 
do if anchored upon a sound financial basis. The Interna- 
tional Union has, by dint of perseverance and self-sacrifice, 
reached its present standard of 30,000 members and a for- 
midable reserve fund, which is largely responsible for its 
success. 



352 BIENNIAL BEPOBT 

It is a fact that since this fund has assumed such fairly 
large proportions, the International Union has succeeded in 
raising wages in a large number of instances without a strike 
or any expense to the International Union. Employers hesi- 
tate, in face of such formidable weapons, to bring on a con- 
test, and in recent years, as a whole, when the demands of the 
cigar makers have been tempered with justice they have usu- 
ally been acceded to. 

In addition to raising the wages of its members from 
twenty to fifty per cent., the International Union also suc- 
cessfully shortened the hours of labor of its members to eight 
per day. The eight-hour day has been in operation in this 
trade since May 1, 1886. 

The successful achievements of the Cigar Makers* Inter- 
national Union are many and varied, chief among which have 
been the admirable financial system and the adoption of high 
dues, the shortening of the hours of labor, the adoption of its 
chain of benefits, the adoption of the blue label, and the initi- 
ative and referendum, which is in full force. The initiation 
fee is $3, and the weekly dues are thirty cents. 

The International Union pays the following benefits: 
f 5 per week in case of strike ; f 3 per week, out of work bene- 
fit; death benefit ranges from f200 to f550, according to 
length of membership; f50 funeral benefit for wife or wid- 
owed mother; f50 traveling loan benefit. 

The blue label, which was adopted by the International 
Union in September, 1880, is a most powerful factor in per- 
petuating the best interests of the organization. The label is 
furnished free to all manufacturers who comply with the 
laws, rules and regulations of the union. It represents fair 
wages, good sanitary conditions and clean-made cigars, as 
against filthy tenement house, sweat shop, Chinese and prison 
made goods. 

The label is protected by laws in force in nearly all the 
states, and has been sustained and endorsed by many of the 
highest courts in this country. 

GBANITE CUTTBBS. 

The Granite Cutters' National Union has been in exist- 
ence as a national trade organization since March 10, 1877, 
and, although transacting its business in a quiet and unos- 
tentatious way, ranks as one of the progressive trade organ- 



BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 353 

izations of the United States. The membership is about 
12,800, and branches exist in every state and territory where 
granite is found and cut. Its business is transacted upon 
purely democratic lines, all business of more than local im- 
portance being decided by a referendum vote. Prior to the 
organization of the national union there were many local 
unions of granite cutters in different parts of the country, 
some organizations dating back in the early days of the pres- 
ent century. The first railroad operated in this country was 
built and managed in connection with a granite quarry in the 
well known granite center of Quincy, Mass. In Baltimore, 
Md., the granite cutters had a first-class union of journey- 
men in 1825, and the prestige of the organization was suffi- 
cient to influence the legislature of that state, in 1832, to sell 
to the craft organization the stock and plant of granite-cut- 
ting machinery in connection with the state penitentiary, 
and a proviso was put into the law that thereafter no granite 
cutting should be allowed in the penal institutions of that 
state. Since 1877 the national body has been strengthened 
in every particular and in several ways has benefited the per- 
sonnel of the craft. In 1877 from f 1.50 to f 1.75 was the pre- 
vailing wage for a ten-hour day throughout the New Eng- 
land states. Men had to wait from one to six months for 
their wages, and were subject to the company store system in 
the meantime. At the present time the lowest wage rate paid 
to members of this craft in any part of the country is f 2.80 
per day, and the hours of labor have been reduced from ten 
to eight in all parts of the country. The minimum. rate is 
12.80, and the maximum rate is f 5 per day, the lowest rate 
being New England and the highest in Montana. 

The organization pays a strike benefit of $1 per day 
when it becomes necessary to suspend work, and |125 is al- 
lowed to defray the funeral expenses of a deceased member. 
The advantages of the organization may be seen when a ten- 
hour day, with w^ages at |1.50 to |1.75, is compared with an 
eight-hour day and wages ranging from $2.80 to $5 per day. 

There is one branch of the granite cutters in the State 
of Colorado. It has jurisdiction over the entire state. The 
wage rate in this state is from |3.60 to $4 per day. 

MEAT CUTTERS^ AND BUTCHER WORKMEN. 

The Amalgamated Meat Cutters' and Butcher Work- 
men's Union of North America was chartered by the Ameri- 



354 BIENNIAL REPOBT 

can Feredation of Labor at their convention at Gincinnatiy 
December 6, 1896. 

At the time of issuing this charter there were but ten lo- 
cals struggling for existence in different pa'rts of the coun- 
try, and with a small membership. 

The organization has gone forward and triumphed over 
all opposition. Up to date 93 charters have been issued, and 
the total membership has increased to nearly 4,000, and the 
future is very bright indeed. The jurisdiction of this union 
includes every wage earner who is in any way employed 
around slaughter houses or handling fresh meats in any ca- 
pacity. This union has succeeded in closing the meat mar- 
kets in many cities upon Sundays and in various ways bene- 
fited its members. 

THE IRON MOLDBBS^ UNION OF NORTH AMERICA. 

Previous to the year 1859 there existed a number of de- 
tached local unions of iron molders throughout the iron man- 
ufacturing sections of the country. Between these there was 
no community of interest, each depending upon its own re- 
sources in furnishing protection or promoting the interests 
of its members. July 5, 1859, what was known as the Na- 
tional Union of Molders was organized. Its purpose was 
chiefly to strengthen the members of the craft in resisting en- 
croachments upon their rights. The membership represented 
in the early conventions was very small, and when the third 
annual convention assembled in Cincinnati on June 10, 1861, 
it ^:epresented a total membership of but 2,846. With the 
breaking out of the civil war the iron industry, like every 
other, was very seriously affected, and the molders' organiz- 
ation was practically at a standstill. 

It is not necessary, for the purposes of this sketch, to 
give the details of the many struggles in which the Iron Mold- 
ers' Union was compelled to engage in order to maintain its 
integrity and preserve the rights of its members. Suffice it 
to say, that the many and bitter experiences acquired in many 
years of strikes taught its leaders that strikes, while neces- 
sary at times, were a very unsatisfactory way of settling dis- 
putes, and after a very trying conflict with the Foundrymen's 
Association, known as the Stove Foundrymen's National De- 
fense Association, in 1886, advances were made by both par- 
ties with a view to adopting the policy of conciliation and 
arbitration in all future disputes that might arise between 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 355 

the respective members. Thus was inaugaurated what is 
known as the conference meetings between representatives of 
the Iron Molders' Union of North America, as the Molders' 
Union is now called, and the Stove Founders' National De- 
fense Association, which determines annually the rate of 
wages to be paid for stove molding during the succeeding 
year. The arrangement with this association further pro- 
vides that in cases of dispute over matters of detail or over 
questions in any way affecting the relationship of the em- 
ployer and the employes, an effort shall be made to settle it 
first by the parties directly at interest, and, these failing, by 
the two national presidents, and finally by an arbitration 
committee chosen from each organization. So successfully 
has this plan worked that since 1891 there never has been a 
case which was not settled without recourse to a strike. 

In 1898 a similar arrangement was entered into with an- 
other association of foundrymen, which represents the gen- 
eral foundry interests just as the Stove Founders' National 
Defense Association represents the stove manufacturing side 
of the trade — the National Founders' Association. 

In 1878 a death or total disability benefit of f 100 was 
established, and since its inauguration fl96,500 have been 
paid out to the disabled or to the heirs of deceased members. 

Until the year 1895 the International Holders' Union of 
North America was known as a low-dues organization, na- 
tionally, but in the Chicago convention of that year it was 
felt that in order to get the greatest amount of good from an 
organization ample funds should be provided to carry on its 
work, and it was therefore determined to set the dues at 
tvi^enty-five cents per week and establish a national sick ben- 
efit of f 5 per week. On January 1, 1896, the sick benefit 
feature became operative, and since that time until May, 
1900, the sum of f 206,535 has been paid out in sick benefits. 

Contrary to the predictions of many since the inaugur- 
ation of the high dues system, the Molders' Union has in- 
creased its membership beyond all expectation. There are 
now 315 local unions, representing a membership of a little 
more than 40,000. The present national president is Mr. 
Martin Fox, under whose careful and conservative guidance 
the organization has grown in strength and prestige, and has 
been established upon a foundation so firm that it is well cal- 
culated to maintain its position as one of the soundest as well 
as one of the oldest trades unions in America. 



356 BIENNIAL REPORT 



THE WOOD WORKERS. 

The oldest union of wood workers of which there is a 
record was known as the United Cabinet Workers of New 
York, and was organized in 1853. The International Furni- 
ture Workers' Association was organized at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
July 7, 1873. It grew to a membership of 8,000 in 1895. It 
was composed largely of German wood workers. It took an 
active part in organizing the American Federation of Labor 
in 1881. 

The National Wood Carvers' Association was organized 
in Philadelphia, Pa., in January, 1883, and prospered fairly 
well until 1895. 

The Machine Wood Workers' International Union was 
organized in 1890. In 1896, on January 1, a consolidation 
was effected and the present Amalgamated Wood Workers' 
International Union was the result. During the periods of 
industrial depression the International Furniture Workers 
lost heavily in membership, but soon grew up stronger than 
before. 

Since the consolidation the Amalgamated Wood Work- 
ers' International Union absorbed the old International Var- 
nishers' Union. The Amalgamated Union has a roster of 
120 unions and numbers about 14,000 members. It pays 
death, disability and strike benefits. The local unions pay 
sick benefits, and there is an independent tool insurance sys- 
tem which is operated at cost. It has succeeded in reducing 
the hours of labor to eight per day in two cities and to nine 
per day in twenty-three others. Wages among the organized 
wood workers have increased, on an average, 25 per cent, as 
a result of the efforts of the union. 

INTERNATIONAL LONGSHOREMEN^S UNION. 

Before the year 1887 the shore workers of the great lakes 
depended for the fixing of wages largely upon those whose 
interest it was to get the largest amount of work for the least 
amount of money. But few organizations existed and they 
were scattered. In August, 1892, the International Long- 
shoremen's Association was organized. One of the purposes 
of this union was to exterminte the saloon boss system, which 
effort has been entirely successful. Prior to this time steve- 
dores contracted with vesselmen to unload their 



BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS, 357 

I 

These stevedores usually operated saloons along the docks, 
which they encouraged their employes to patronize, which 
the employes usually did, with the result that when pay day 
arrived their bar bill exceeded wages due. In fact, they would 
not be employed if they did not patronize these saloons. In 
this manner they were robbed of a great deal of money. 
Against this system the union waged unrelenting warfare. 
The work is performed upon the co-operative plan, each local 
contracting with vesselmen for the handling of freight. The 
first year or two the organization maintained itself with dif- 
ficulty and in the face of the most bitter opposition. It is 
now prosperous and has benefited and improved the condition 
of its members very materially. At the present time there are 
192 locals affiliated, with an aggregate membership of 19,500. 

OPEBATIVE PLASTEBBRS^ NATIONAL UNION. 

The present organization of plasterers was organized at 
St. Louis, Mo., September 14, 1882, as the Operative Plaster- 
ers' National Union. At the seventh national convention, 
held at St. Paul, Minn., January 9, 1889, the name was 
changed to the Operative Plasterers' International Associa- 
tion of the United States and Canada. 

This union has increased the wages of plasterers in 
nearly every city where it has an organization. In 1889 there 
were 53 locals affiliated, with a membership of 2,754. At pres- 
ent there are 102 locals affiliated with the international, with 
a membership of 5,700. The membership is good, when it is 
remembered that not more than one-eighth as many plaster- 
ers as bricklayers and not more than one-tenth as many as 
carpenters are employed in the building trades. Strike and 
lock-out benefits of |5 per week are paid. A death benefit of 
|50 is paid. Fifty-one death benefits have been paid in the 
last three years. 

THE NATIONAL LETTEB CABRIEBS^ ASSOCUTION. 

In 1883 the letter carriers of New York city organized 
a local association. Local unions of letter carriers were or- 
ganized in most of the large cities during the next five years. 
In 1889 the many locals throughout the county sent delegates 
to Detroit, Mich. In that city, on July 1 of that year, the 
National Association of Letter Carriers was organized. At 
the present time there are 800 branches in 800 cities, with a 



358 BIENNIAL REPORT 

membership of about 14,000, which is 90 per cent, of the en- 
tire number of carriers in the service. The National Associa- 
tion has been a great benefit to letter carriers. Through it 
much favorable legislation has been secured and the efficiency 
of the service has been vastly improved. The order is frater- 
nal. There is an insurance feature, and the members carry 
insurance, if they so elect, from one thousand to three thou- 
sand dollars. 

THE UNITED GARMENT WORKERS OF NORTH AMERICA. 

The United Garment Workers of America is com- 
posed of 143 unions, representing three divisions of the work- 
ers employed in clothing manufacture, viz. : cutters, tailors 
and overall operators. The membership is about 25,000. 
The National Union was organized in April, 1891, by sixteen 
unions which had then seceded from the Knights of Labor, 
and at the present time all the organized garment workers 
are under the jurisdiction of the national body. 

The clothing cutters constitute the best organized por- 
tion of the membership and exercise the controlling influence. 
They have the advantage of a long experience and are em- 
ployed in shops conducted directly by the firms. Their hours 
of labor are nine i)er day and in some cities eight. The 
rate of wages range from f 18 to f 24 per week. Their 
condition is greatly in contrast with that of the tailors who 
are largely employed in small shops controlled by petty con- 
tractors, who are forced by an intense competition to under- 
bid each other for work, and shoulder the burden of it upon 
their workmen. This is what is known as the "sweating" sys- 
tem. The great aim of the National Union is to abolish this 
degrading system of labor, \vhich is too well known to re- 
quire any description here. 

Clothing workers, upon the whole, were never so well 
organized as they are at the present time, or as hopeful of the 
future. The clothing industry is being rescued from odious 
conditions, which in the past have aroused such intense pub- 
lic indignation. 

The manufacture of overalls and mechanics' clothing has 
become a specialized industry, where girls are largely em- 
ployed. All the best factories use the union label and the 
wages of employes have been somewhat advanced. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 359 

As a result of the National Union, better factory laws 
have been enacted and enforced; children have been saved 
from the sweat shops, and the craft have been lifted to a 
higher level. 

NATIONAL UNION OF THE UNITED BREWERY WORKERS OF THE 

UNITED STATES. 

The National Union of the United Brewery Workers 
was organized August 29, 1886. In 1891, as the result of a 
strike with the Anheuser-Busch Brewing Company, the brew- 
ery workmen forced the breweries to recognize the union la- 
bel and the union rules. Since that time the organization 
has been very prosperous, and now has a membership of 
16,000, with 180 branches located in different parts of the 
country. It has gained the nine-hour day on the Pacific 
coast and also in the principal cities of the Western and Mid- 
dle states. About two-thirds of the brewery workers in the 
United States are included in its membership, and the per- 
centage is being steadily increased. 

When the brewery workers first organized the work day 
was from twelve to sixteen, and half a day on Sunday. 

The mass of the membership is advanced, progressive 
and intelligent. The following extract is taken from its con- 
stitution : "The emancipation of the working people will be 
achieved only when the economic and the political movements 
have joined hands.'' 

CARRIAGE AND V7AG0N V^ORKERS^ INTERNATIONAL UNION. 

The international union of this craft was organized 
August 14, 1891, at Pittsburg, Pa., with seven unions affili- 
ated. The following objects are specified in the constitution : 

To establish and uphold a fair and equitable rate of wages, lessen 
the hours of labor and regulate all trade matters appertaining to the wel- 
fare of members. 

To educate the worker In all economical and political questions that 
are necessary to better the condition of the wage worker. 

To endeavor to replace strikes and their attendant bitterness and 
pecuniary loss by arbitration and conciliation in the settlement of all dis- 
putes concerning wages and conditions of employment. 

Since organization the eight and the nine-hour days have 
been established in a large number of cities without reduc- 



360 BIENNIAL BEPORT 

tion of wages. In a number of cities wages have been ad- 
vanced. 

Thirty-seven locals are in existence at the present time^ 
with an aggregate membership of about 2,000. 

HOTEL AND BESTAUBANT EMPLOYES. 

The Hotel and Bestaurant Employes' Alliance and Bar 
Tenders' International League of America was organized at 
the Detroit convention of the American Federation of Labor, 
December, 1890. At birth it had a membership of about 500, 
divided between ten or twelve local unions. This union has 
shortened the hours of labor in 90 i)er cent, of the cities 
where locals have been organized, increased wages all along 
the line and made conditions better for the men and women 
engaged in these occupations. 

The last year has been the banner one, so far as this 
union is concerned, it having more than doubled its member- 
ship from October 1, 1899, to October 1, 1900. 

At present it has something over 6,000 members and 116 
locals. The order publishes a nice little official journal called 
The Server and Mixer. 

PAINTEBS, DEOOBATOBS AND PAPEB HANGEBS. 

The Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators and Pai)er 
Hangers of America was organized at Baltimore, March 15, 
1887, and incorporated December 7, 1894. 

The following are some of the objects of organization : 

To rescue our trade from the low level to which it has fallen, and 
by mutual effort to place ourselves on a foundation sufficiently strong 
to resist further encroachments. We propose to re-establish an appren- 
tice system to encourage a higher standard of skill, to cultivate feelings 
of friendship among the men of the craft, to assist each other to secure 
employment, to reduce the hours* of daily labor, to secure adequate pay 
for our work, to furnish aid in case of death or permanent disability, and 
by legal and proper means to elevate the moral, Intellectual and social 
conditions of all our members. 

The following benefits are paid : 

Wife funeral benefit of $50 on one year's membership. 

Member's funeral benefit, $100 on one year's membership, |150 on 
two years' membership. 

Permanent disability benefit of $100 on one year's membership, and 
$150 on two years' membership. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 361 

Since January 1^ 1888, f 110,000 has been paid in sick, 
death and disability benefits. 

Wages have been advanced, hours of labor shortened and 
many trade benefits have been secured by the craft. There 
are 325 locals affiliated, including those in Canada, with an 
aggregate membership of 26,000. 

THE INTERNATIONAL BROTHERHOOD OP ELECTRICAL WORKERS. 

The electrical industry is comparatively new, and conse- 
quently an organization of electrical workers is of recent 
date. In 1881-'82 three or four locals were organized, but 
they were wiped out of existenc eduring the great tel^raph- 
ers' strike of 1883. 

In 1890 a number of unions known as Wiremen's and 
Linemen's Unions were organized under the American Fed- 
eration of Labor and two under the Knights of Labor. 
Throughout several Western cities locals were organized and 
grew quite rapidly. 

November 30, 1891, delegates from eight unions met in 
St. Louis and organized the present International Brother- 
hood of Electrical Workers. All classes of electrical workers 
and linemen are eligible to membership. The number of 
those employed at this industry, even in the largest cities, is 
not large. There is a very considerable proportion of these 
workmen inside the organization. There is a union of these 
workmen in nearly every large city. There are 124 locals 
affiliated with the international. The total membership is a 
little more than 8,000. 

The following extract, taken from their preamble, shows 
the advanced ground occupied by these workers. "Not to the 
niggardness of nature, nor the providence of God, nor the 
slothfulness of labor must be attributed the poverty which is 
the inheritance of the overwhelming majority of mankind. 
There lies at our door a social condition remedial through an 
enlightened legislature; high above the demands of individ- 
ual organization should be the united demand of all organ- 
izations for industrial freedom." 

LABOR ORGANIZATION AMONG THE FARMERS. 

Such organizations as may have been organized among 
farmers in the past, much though they undoubtedly had in 
common with the labor orders proper from an economic point 



362 BIENNIAL REPORT 

of view, were not labor unions from a trade union stand- 
point. The Farmers' Alliance co-operated with the Knights 
of Labor very eiffectively at diifferent times in the accomplish- 
ment of results that were eventually beneficial to the class 
represented by each society. 

The International Farmers' Union, organized at Central 
Labor Union hall, Binghampton, N. Y., November 18, 1899, 
is the first society of farmers formed along strictly trade 
union lines. In contrast to the former co-operative associa- 
tions, agricultural societies, among whom the leading pur- 
pose has been more favorable terms in buying implements and 
supplies, the International Farmers' Union seeks to create a 
better market for their products, through the adoption of the 
union label and in alliance with the organized mechanics of 
the country. 

The constitution provides that only those actually en- 
gaged in farming, and who personally perform labor upon a 
farm, shall be eligible to membership. 

They declare their intention of working in harmony 
with other organized workers by demanding union label 
goods of all kinds. In return they expect mechanics to buy 
products from union farms. 

The International Farmers' Union has adopted a label 
bearing as its emblem a plow, which is roistered and pro- 
tected by law as other labels are. This label will remain the 
property of the union, but will be granted to all members in 
good standing. This label is put upon the products of the 
union farms direct. The organization has grown consider- 
ably during the past year, and may become quite general, as 
the idea meets with the approval of trade unionists generally. 
The International Farmers' Union is affiliated with the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor. 

THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OP MACHINISTS. 

The International Association of Machinists is the rec- 
ognized organization of that craft. It was founded in At- 
lanta, Ga., May 5, 1888, by R. W. Talbot and four associates. 
Since that time its growth has been almost phenomenal, until 
to-day it is recognized as one of the leading labor organiza- 
tions, being third in point of membership affiliated with the 
American Federation of Labor. 

As an international association the order has grown 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 363 

from the five members in May, 1888, to more than forty thou- 
sand in July, 1900. The order has lodges in Canada and 
Mexico, and these, in addition to the United States, make a 
total of about 400 lodges. 

The greatest victory of the association was accomplished 
this year, when, after a gigantic strike in Chicago and else- 
where, the employers' organization, the National Metal 
Trades Association, met the representatives of the Interna- 
tional Association of Machinists in joint conference in New 
York city, and from May 10 to 18 deliberated over the aflfairs 
of the two organizations, and the following agreement was 
reached, thus recognizing the International Association of 
Machinists and establishing the great principle of arbitra- 
tion: 

JOINT AGREEMENT. 

At a meeting of the Joint Board of Arbitration of the National Metal 
Trades Association and the International Association of Machinists, ap- 
pointed under the Chicago agreement of March 17, 1900, signed March 31, 
1900, held at the Murray Hill Hotel, New York city. May 10 to 18, 1900, the 
following resolutions were adopted and agreements entered into, to take 
effect from this date: 

Resolved, That the strikes be declared off in the factories of the 
members of *the National Metal Trades Association in the cities of Cleve- 
land and Paterson, the National Metal Trades Association members of this 
board to wire the members of their association in these two cities to meet 
a committee from each shop, of their former employes, to arrange for the 
return of as many men as their present necessities require; and that sub- 
sequent requirements of men shall be filled from their former employes 
whom they may not be able to reinstate at the present time. 

The intent of this last clause is, that if, within the next six months, 
former employes make application for reinstatement they shall be rein- 
stated, provided there are vacancies for them. 

Where strikes exist in these cities in firms other than the members 
of the National Metal Trades Association, who will agree to the settlement 
herein entered into, after the same has been adjusted by this joint body, 
such strikes shall be declared off also. 

Whereas, doubts have been expressed by members of this board, rep- 
resenting both parties to this conference, as to the ability of their re- 
spective organizations to control their members; now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the members of this board pledge themselves each to 
the other that in case of the refusal of any member of the respective or- 
ganizations represented to observe and carry out in an honorable manner 
the findings and decisions of this board, in regard to strikes and lockouts, 
based upon a fair, just and liberal interpretation as to what is known as 
the Chicago agreement, we will report such member or members to our 
respective organizations for discipline, suspension or expulsion, as the 
merits of the case may justify. 



364 BIENNIAL BEPOBT 

MACHINIST. 

A machinist is classified as a competent general workman, competent 
floor hand, competent lathe hand, competent vise hand, competent planer 
hand, competent sharper hand, competent milling machine hand, compe- 
tent slotting machine hand, competent die sinker, competent horlng mill 
hand, competent toolmaker, and competent linotype hand. To he consid- 
ered a competent hand in either class he shall be able to take any piece of 
work pertaining to his class, with the drawings or blue prints, and prose- 
cute the work to successful completion with(n a reasonable time. He shall 
also have served a regular apprenticeship or have worked at the trade four 
years. 

It is understood that the question of competency is to be determined 
by the employers. Since the employers are responsible for the work 
turned out by their workmen, they shall, therefore, have full discretion to 
designate the men they consider competent to perform the work, and to 
determine the conditions under which it shall be prosecuted. 

This last paragraph does not, in any way, abridge or destroy the right 
of appeal from any apparent or alleged unjust decision rendered by an 
employer of labor, or his representative, in conformity with the powers 
vested in him by this paragraph. 

OVERTIME. 

All overtime up to 10 o'clock p. m. shall be paid for at the rate of not 
less than time and one-quarter time, and all overtime from 10 p. m. until 
12 midnight shall be paid for at a rate of time and one-half time, and that 
after 12 o'clock and legal holidays and Sundays shall be paid for at a rate 
of not less than double time. 

In cases of emergencies, where shop machinery breaks or runs down, 
and it is absolutely necessary to repair the same so that the factory can 
run on Monday, this time shall be paid for at a rate of time and one-half 
time. The repairs above referred to to apply only to the machinery of the 
employer. 

The foregoing rates not to interfere in any way with existing condi- 
tions; that is, where a higher rate than the above is paid now, no reduction 
will take place. 

Such rates for overtime shall not apply to men regularly employed on 
night gangs. 

APPRENTICES. 

There may be one apprentice for the shop, and in addition not more 
than one apprentice to every flve machinists. It is understood that in 
shops where the liatio is more than the above, that no change shall take 
place until the ratio has reduced itself to the proper number, by lapse or 
by the expiration of existing contracts. 

EMPLOYMENT AND HOURS. 

No discrimination shall be made against union men, and every work- 
man shall be free to belong to a trade union, should he see fit. Every em- 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 365 

ployer shall be free to employ any man, whether he belong or not to a 
trade union. Every workman who elects to work in a shop will be re- 
quired to work peaceably and harmoniously with all fellow employes, 
whether he or they belong to a trade union or not He shall also be free 
to leave such employment, but no collective action shall be taken until 
any matter in dispute has been dealt with under the provisions for avoiding 
disputes as per the Chicago agreement, dated March 17, 1900, signed March 
31, 1900. The National Metal Trades Association does not advise its mem- 
bers to object to union workmen or give preference to non-union workmen. 

Fifty-seven hours shall constitute a week's work from and after six 
months from the date of the final adoption of a joint agreement, and fifty- 
four hours shall constitute a week's work from and after twelve months 
from date of final adoption of a joint agreement. The hours to be divided 
as will best suit the convenience of the employer. 

In consideration of this concession in working hours, the Interna- 
tional Association of Machinists will place no restrictions upon the manage- 
ment or production of the shop, and will give a fair day's work for a fair 
day's wage. 

THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OP PLUMBERS AND GAS 

FITTERS. 

The United Association of Journeymen Plumbers, Gas 
Fitters, Stfeam Fitters and Steam Fitters' Helpers of the 
United Slates and Canada was organized in Denver, Colo., 
June, 1889. This was a reorganization, the old Plumbers and 
Gas Fitters' National Union having been organized in 1882. 
Prior to the Denver convention a great many local unions of 
plumbers, gas fitters, helpers, etc., were chartered by the 
Knights of Labor. After this time most of these unions with- 
drew from the Knights of Labor and affiliated directly with 
the international organization of their craft. The order has 
had a steady, uninterrupted growth during these years. It 
enjoys the distinction of having never lost a strike which 
was ordered or endorsed by the general organization. Den- 
ver has had two of the national officers, T. H. O'Brien and 
Harry McGann, both members of local union No. 3, having 
served as president and secretary, respectively, of the inter- 
national. The association has a union in Honolulu, and has 
recently organized a very strong branch in Havana, Cuba. 

Locals are to be found in nearly all cities of importance 
in the United States and Canada. The last convention was 
held at Trenton, N. J., August, 1900. There are three hun- 
dred locals affiliated at present, with a membership of about 
15,000 



366 BIENNIAL REPORT 

THE EISE OF RAILROAD ORGANIZATIONS. 

THE BROTHERHOOD OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS. 

The first railroad to be built and operated in this coun- 
try, which carried passengers, was the Delaware & Hudson. 
It was completed in 1829 and furnished service to the public 
in that year. The "Stourbridge Lion," a locomotive imported 
from England, made its first trip August 8, 1829. 

It was not until the advent of the electro-telegraph, in 
1844, that the era of the organization of railway employes 
began. The thought that in union of interests there is 
strength usually comes sooner or later to all concerned. 
Sometimes it is not ielt until some influence from the outside 
drives it home. 

Between 1850 and 1854 a few scattering organizations 
were effected. In 1854 a strike occurred on the Baltimore 
& Ohio Railroad, as a result of which a number of employes 
lost their situations. Upon November 6, 1855, in obedience 
to a call, seventy locomotive engineers, representing fourteen 
states and fifty-five railroads, assembled at Baltimore and or- 
ganized the National Protective Association. It died within 
the next two years, although a number of the subordinate 
unions maintained their organization. 

May 5, 1863, a considerable number of engineers met 
at Detroit, Mich., and organized Division No. 1, Brotherhood 
of the Footboard. 

August 17, 1864, at the second national convention, the 
name was changed to the present one, the Grand Interna- 
tional Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers. Up to this 
time fifty-four divisions had been organized. As a result 
of this convention the locomotive engineers were launched 
upon the industrial field, a full-fledged international craft. 
From that time forward their growth, while never rapid, has 
been steady. While the organization has declared several 
strikes, its policy has usually been one of conciliation. 

It is officially recognized by most of the railroad com- 
panies and its committees usually accorded a respectful hear- 
ing. Through the instrumentality of this organized effort 
the remuneration for services has been greatly increased, over- 
time allowance properly adjusted, and the character of those 
who comprise it elevated and educated, and good relations 



BUBBAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 367 

maintained between employer and employe. The insurance 
feature of the order has disbursed, in the aggregate, more 
than $6,000,000 to injured members and heirs of deceased 
members, besides disbursing from f 40,000 to f 50,000 to the 
widows, orphans and needy of the order at every convention. 

During the great Chicago, Burlington & Quincy strike, 
in 1886, there was nearly |2,000,000 paid out to the striking 
engineers by way of strike benefits. The Locomotive Engin- 
eers' Journal has been published since 1866. - 

The rules of the order require that the members shall be 
sober and temperate. Drunkenness will result in expulsion, 
as wall gross carelessness or disregard for the interests of the 
company by whom employed. P. M. Arthur has been chief 
since 1874. There are, at the present writing, 561 divisions 
of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers in the United 
States, Mexico and the British provinces. The membership 
at present is slightly in excess of 25,000. 

THE BROTHERHOOD OF LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN. 

At Port Jervis, N. Y., in December, 1873, nine locomo- 
tive firemen met and organized Deer Park Lodge No. 1 of the 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen. 

This order has for its object the uniting of locomotive 
firemen, as well as the protection of their interests, and with 
a view of cultivating a spirit of friendship and harmony be- 
tween employer and employe. With a realization that their 
vocation involved ceaseless peril, and that it was a duty they 
owed themselves and families to make suitable provision 
against disaster, an insurance system, under which the order 
pays |1,500 to the beneficiary of a deceased member, was es- 
tablished. 

So well did its founders labor that twelve local lodges 
were organized the first year. TheWst national convention 
was held at Hornellsville, N. Y., aAd the second at Indian- 
apolis, Ind. From 1877 to 1880 it struggled for existence. 
Since 1880 it has been gradually forging forward. Eugene 
V. Debs, an honored and respected name in the annals of the 
labor movement, was general secretary-treasurer from 1880 
to 1892. Under his efficient management the order prospered 
greatly. 

The present general secretary-treasurer is F. W. Arnold, 
and the headquarters are at Peoria, 111. 



368 BIENNIAL REPORT 

The Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen has always 
been in close touch with the Brotherhood of Locomotive En- 
gineers, and its membership is gradually transferred to it as 
the fireman becomes an engineer. 

The amount paid for death and disability claims during 
the year 1899 was f 482,000. The number of deaths during 
the year was 276. The number of disability claims was 68, 
making a total of 344 claims paid during the year. The 
amount paid for death and disability claims since the insur- 
ance feature of the brotherhood was inaugurated, to and In- 
cluding 1899, is 15,147,337.37. 

The increase of membership during the year was 4,700. 
The number of lodges in the United States, Dominion of Can- 
ada and Mexico is 557. 

The Firemen's Magazine, a well conducted journal, has 
been published since 1876. The brotherhood has always 
tried to avoid strikes, and is strongly in favor of arbitrating 
such differences as may arise. 

John H. Murphy, of Denver, Colo., is the attorney for 
the Grand Lodge of Firemen and also other railroad organ- 
izations. 

ORDER OF RAILWAY CONDUCTORS. 

In the spring of 1868 the conductors employed by the 
Illinois Central Eailroad at Amboy, 111., formed the nucleus 
of this order and termed it the Conductors' Union. At the 
same time the conductors on the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy at Galesburg, 111., organized, and at a conference be- 
tween delegates from Amboy and Galesburg, held July 6, 
1868, the Conductors' Brotherhood was formed. The associ- 
ation grew very slowly, and in 1878 there were in existence 
thirty-seven local divisions. 

In October, 1878, the association was reorganized under 
its present name of the Order of Railway Conductors. For 
many years the association followed the non-protective pol- 
icy by obligating itself not to engage in any strike of railway 
employes under any circumstances or conditions whatever. 
This policy was believed to be unprofitable, and finally proved 
generally unsatisfactory, and in 1890 it was abandoned, and 
the membership was absolved from obligations made in that 
direction. The present general policy of the organization, 
which is in all essentials the same as that of the other rail- 
road brotherhoods, was adopted. When this change was 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 369 

made the order had 13,000 members. At the present time it 
has 24,032 members in 403 local divisions, scattered over 
practically every state and territory of the Union, as well as 
the Dominion of Canada and the Republic of Mexico. Twen- 
ty-six local divisions are located in Canada and two in 
Mexico. 

The order has a mutual benefit department, under which 
it insures its members against death and against total dis- 
ability, clearly specified in the laws. In 1890, when the 
change in the policy of the organization was made, the benefit 
department had 3,900 members. At the present time it has 
15,900 members. There has been paid out by this depart- 
ment in benefits to disabled members and the families of de- 
ceased members an aggregate of |3,981,467. The amount 
now paid in these benefits approximates |500,000 per year. 

While the organization, in common with its sisters, pro- 
vides laAvs under which striking machinery may be put in 
oi)eration, it should be fully understood that it endorses, by 
a practically unanimous voice, the principle of arbitration as 
a means of settling disputes, and has never yet gone to ex- 
tremes in support of any cause that it would not have been 
willing to submit to the arbitrament of a fair and disinter- 
ested tribunal. The organization makes for peace, and be- 
lieves in conducting its affairs in a straightforward and busi- 
ness-like manner. 

No figures are available or possible of compilation show- 
ing the advantages that have accrued to the members through 
the efforts of the organization in the direction of increased 
compensation, pay for excess hours of labor, etc., but the ac- 
complishments in this direction since that work was taken 
up, following the change in policy in 1890, have been as great 
as were ever accomplished within the same time and under 
anything like similar conditions by any other organization. 

The organization is in a very healthy financial condition 
and enjoys an excellent credit. 

ORGANIZATIONS AMONG THE SWITCHMEN. 

The first local union of switchmen was organized in 
Chicago in 1877. It went to pieces the following year, but 
was reorganized in 1882. 

Delegates from several locals, representing about 2,000 
organized switchmen, met in Chicago, February 22, 1886, and 

18 



370 BIENNIAL REPORT 

organized the Switchmen's Mutual Aid Association of 
North America. The growth of the order was remarkable, 
and it continued to prosper until the year 1894, when the 
grand secretary-treasurer defaulted in the sum of |25,000. 
The order, being unable to collect anything from his bonds- 
men, became defunct. 

In September,' 1899, the Switchmen's Union of North 
America was organized at Cleveland, Ohio. It has grown 
with amazing rapidity since the reorganization, and now has 
174 lodges in good standing, with a membership of about 
5,000. Its purposes are mutual protection and caring for 
its members who may be injured, and providing for the fam- 
ilies of deceased members through the insurance feature 
adopted. There is but one salaried officer, who is heavily 
bonded for the faithful performance of duty. 

BROTHERHOOD OP RAILROAD TRAINMEN. 

At Oneonta, N. Y., September 23, 1883, the first lodge 
of the Brotherhood of Eailroad Brakemen was organized 
with nineteen members. It grew and prosi)ered, and by Oc- 
tober 19, 1885, 161 lodges were reported, with a membership 
of nearly 7,000. 

At St. Paul, Minn., in 1890, the name was changed to 
that of the Brotherhood of Eailroad Trainmen. It was be- 
lieved that the former name did not properly designate the 
organization, as many of the members were engaged at other 
occupations in the railroad service than that of brakemen, 
hence the change of name. Two thousand four hundred dol- 
lars is the maximum amount of insurance that can be car- 
ried by any member. The insurance feature has been the 
means of relieving the distress incident to the maiming and 
killing of hundreds of railroad trainmen. The organization 
has found favor \^dth the railroad employes everywhere. 

At the banning of the organization there was not a 
railroad in the country that had an agreement with its train- 
men, regulating the payment of wages or conditions srovern- 
ing employment. 

This has been changed decently and respectably. Nearly 
every railroad company in the country is at present working 
in accordance with a contract regularly entered into with its 
employes. 

In many parts of the country joint boards, composed of 
representatives of the several railroad organizations, exist 



BUBBAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 371 

for the purpose of making contracts covering every branch of 
the service with the railroads. In other places each order 
makes its own contract with the company. The social im- 
provement has been as marked as have the financial advan- 
tages that have been secured through these organizations. 

During the year 1899 the Brotherhood of Trainmen paid, 
on account of death and total and permanent disability 
claims, |667,692.60, this being about |100,000 more than wa« 
paid out in the year 1898. 

The total amount paid out by the order for death and dis- 
ability claims is |5,381,211.13. The order has, throughout 
the United States and Canada, 586 lodges. 

The total membership at present is almost exactly 
44,000 members in good standing. 

THE ORDER OF RAILROAD TELEGRAPHERS. 

The order of Bailroad Telegraphers was organized at 
Cedar Eapids, Iowa, on June 9, 1886. For the first five years 
of its existence it was merely a fraternal association, desired 
to bring the railroad telegraphers into closer relationship 
and curb the indiscriminate teaching of telegraphy, which 
was proving to be a great detriment to the business. 

At the fifth annual convention, held in St. Louis, Mo., 
in 1891, it was decided to adopt a protective feature similar 
to that of other railway labor organizations. The growth of 
the order, in comparison with similar organizations, has been 
slow on account of the telegraphers being scattered over the 
country and the difficulty in getting any number of them to- 
gether. Bailroad telegraphers are mostly employed at points 
where only one man is needed to transact the business. In the 
early days the order met with strenuous objections from the 
officials, who considered telegraphers as men employed in a 
confidential capacity, but the telegraphers came to the con- 
clusion that a man who would be loyal to his employer must 
first be loyal to himself and join the organization of his class. 
During the fourteen years of the order's existence it has been 
instrumental in shortening the hours of labor, increasing the 
rates of pay and establishing the rights of its members on all 
the important lines of railway in the United States and Can- 
ada. It has placed the business of telegraphy on a higher 
plane than it ever occupied before by insuring just treatment 
and continuity of employment. 



372 BIENNIAL REPORT 

On January 1, 1898, the organization, by referendum 
vote, adopted a mutual benefit department plan, providing 
death benefits for all members initiated after that date and 
others of the old members who might wish to participate 
therein. This department issues certificates in three series, 
of 1300, 1500 and |1,000 each. 

The order at this time has a membership of nearly 
20,000, which includes more than 95 per cent, of the railroad 
telegraphers in the United States and Canada. 

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 

Bureaus of Labor Statistics exist in thirty-one states of 
the Union, and the United States Department of Labor was 
established at Washington, D. C, in response to the demands 
of the organized wage workers of this country. They exist in 
order that reliable data and statistics may be gathered and 
published upon all subjects relating to production and dis- 
tribution, and that society may gain a more perfect knowl- 
edge of the condition, the wants and needs of all its members. 

They had their origin in the conviction among the active 
promoters of the labor movement in the years immediately 
following the war, that the needs of the masses could thus 
be determined and would furnish a basis for such legislation 
as might be required. 

The first public declaration in favor of such bureaus was 
contained in the address of William H. Sylvis, president of 
the old National Labor Union, at the second national conven- 
tion of that body, held at Chicago in 1867. Among the reso- 
lutions adopted by this convention was one favoring a depart- 
ment of labor by the general government and by each of the 
states. 

Such bureaus have been organized in thirty-three states. 
As they have been abolished in but two instances, their work 
has undoubtedly been considered useful and valuable. 

The discussion of all questions pertaining to the science 
of society, questions that are sociological in their character, 
will help civilization in its onward march and come strictly 
within the province of the labor bureau. 



A Bureau of Labor has recently been established In New Orleans, 
La., with Thomas H. Harrison, Commissioner of Labor, in charge. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 373 

The following is a list of the Bureaus of Labor Statis- 
tics in the United States^ with date of establishment, and 
the name and address of commissioner in charge : 

United States Department of Labor — Established as a 
bureau of labor January 31, 1886; made a department of 
labor June 3, 1888. Annual reports, bi-monthly bulletins and 
much miscellaneous matter and reports upon special subjects 
investigated. Carrol D. Wright has been National Commis- 
sioner of Labor from the beginning. 

The Massachusetts Bureau of Labor Statistics was the 
first one organized. It was established June 23, 1869. An- 
nual reports. Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, Horace G. 
Muellin, Boston, Mass. 

Indiana Bureau of Statistics — ^Established March 2, 
1879. Biennial reports. Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, 
John B. Connor, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Illinois Bureau of Labor Statistics — Established May 
29, 1879. Biennial reports. Secretary of the Bureau of La- 
bor Statistics, David Pass, Springfield, 111. 

Kentucky Bureau of Agriculture, Labor and Statistics 
— First established March 20, 1876, as a Bureau of Agricul- 
ture, Horticulture and Statistics. The duties of the bureau 
were enlarged, the appropriation increased, and the present 
name adopted April 2, 1892. Biennial reports. Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture, Labor and Statistics, Lucas Moore, 
Frankfort, Ky. 

Ohio Bureau of Labor Statistics — ^Established May 5, 
1877. Annual reports. Commissioner of Labor, John P. 
Jones, Columbus, Ohio. 

Wisconsin Bureau of Labor Statistics — Established 
April 3, 1883. Biennial reports. Commissioner of Labor, 
Halford Erickson, Madison, Wis. 

California Bureau of Labor Statistics — Established 
March 3, 1883. Biennial reports. Commissioner of Labor, 
E. V. Meyers, San Francisco, Cal. 

Maryland Bureau of Industrial Statistics — Established 
March 27, 1884. Annual reports. Chief of the Bureau of In- 
dustrial Statistics, Charles H. Meyers, Baltimore, Md. 

Missouri Bureau of Labor Statistics and Inspection — 
Established March 19, 1879. Enlarged to cover a wider field 
March 23, 1883. Annual reports. Commissioner of Labor, 
Thomas P. Rixey, Jefferson City, Mo. 



374 BIENNIAL REPORT 

Connecticut Bureau of Labor Statistics — ^Established 
July 12, 1873; abolished July 23, 1875; re-established April 
23, 1885. Annual reports. Commissioner of Labor, Harry 
E. Back, Hartford, Conn. 

New Jersey Bureau of Statistics, Labor and Industries 
— Established March 27, 1878. Annual reports. Chief of 
Bureau of Statistics, Labor and Industries, William 
Stainsby, Trenton, N. J. 

Michigan Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statistics — 
Established June 6, 1883. Annual reports. Commissioner of 
Labor, Joseph L. Cox, Lansing, Mich. 

Rhode Island Bureau of Labor Statistics — Established 
March 29, 1887. Annual reports. Commissioner of Labor, 
Henry E. Tiepke, Providence, R. I. 

North Carolina Bureau of Labor Statistics — Established 
February 28, 1887. Annual reports. Commissioner of La- 
bor, B. R. Lacy, Raleigh, N. C. 

West Virginia Bureau of Labor — Established February 
22, 1889. Annual reports. Commissioner of Labor, I. V. 
Barton, Wheeling, W. Va. 

North Dakota Department of Agriculture and Labor — 
Established October 1, 1890. Biennial reports. Commis- 
sioner of Labor, H. A. Thomas, Bismarck, N. D. 

Kansas Bureau of Labor Statistics — Established March 
5, 1885. Annual reports. Commissioner of Labor, W. L. A. 
Johnson, Topeka, Kan. 

Iowa Bureau of Labor Statistics — Established April 3, 
1884. Biennial reports. Commissioner of Labor, W. E. 
O^Blenness, Des Moines, Iowa- 
Pennsylvania Bureau of Industrial Statistics — Estab- 
lished April 12, 1872. ' Annual reports. Chief of Bureau of 
Industrial Statistics, James M. Clark, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Nebraska Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statistics — 
Established March 31, 1887. Biennial reports. The gov- 
ernor, ex-offlcio commissioner. Deputy Commissioner of La- 
bor and Industrial Statistics, Sidney J. Kent, Lincoln, Neb. 
New York Bureau of Labor Statistics — ^Established May 
4, 1883. Annual reports. Commissioner of Labor, John Mc- 
Mackin, Albany, N. Y. 

Minnesota Bureau of Labor — Established as a Bureau 
of Labor Statistics March 8, 1887 ; enlarged and changed to 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 375 

Bureau of Labor April, 1893. Biennial reports. Commis- 
sioner of Labor, Martin McHale, St. Paul, Minn. 

Tennessee Bureau of Labor Statistics and Mines — Es- 
tablished March 23, 1891. Annual reports. Commissioner 
of Labor, B. A. Shiflett, Nashville, Tenn. 

Colorado Bureau of Labor Statistics — Established 
March 24, 1887. Biennial reports. The Secretary of State 
is ex-officio Commissioner of Labor. Deputy Commissioner 
of Labor, James T. Smith, Denver, Colo. 

New Hampshire Bureau of Labor — Established March 
30, 1893. Biennial reports. Commissioner of Labor, Lysan- 
der H. Carroll, Concord, N. H. 

Montana Bureau of Agriculture, Labor and Industry — 
Established February 17, 1893. Annual reports. Commis- 
sioner of Labor, J. H. Calderhead, Helena, Mont. 

Washington Bureau of Labor — Established June 11, 
1897. Annual reports. Commissioner of Labor, W. C. Ad- 
ams, Seattle, Wash. 

Utah Bureau of Statistics was established March 13, 
1890, with Joseph P. Bach, of Salt Lake, as Territorial Sta- 
tistician. The office was abolished in 1895. 

South Dakota Bureau of Agriculture and Labor Statis- 
tics was established in 1890. It was abolished by act of the 
legislature in 1895. 

Texas Department of Agriculture, Statistics and His- 
tory — Established March 14, 1876. Annual reports. Com- 
missioner of Agriculture, Statistics and History, Jefferson 
Johnson, Austin, Tex. 

Arkansas Bureau of Agriculture and Labor Statistics — 
Established February 22, 1889. Biennial reports. Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture and Labor Statistics, Prank Hill, Little 
Bock, Ark. 

Virginia Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statistics — 
Established March 3, 1898. Annual reports. Commissioner 
of Labor, Archer P. Montague, Bichmond, Va. 

Idaho Bureau of Labor and Mining Statistics — Estab- 
lished March 11, 1895. Annual reports. Commissioner of 
Labor, J. A. Czizek, Boise City, Idaho. 



376 BIENNIAL REPORT 



TRADES UNIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

The last report issued by the Department of Labor of 
Great Britain and Ireland brings the records of trades 
unions, trades councils, and the federation of trades unions 
throughout the United Kingdom, down to January 1, 1899. 
The number of trades unions — that is, distinct national or in- 
ternational craft organizations — dealt with is no less than 
1,267. The aggregate membership of all unions reporting is 
1,644,591. 

In Great Britain there is an act of parliament which pro- 
vides for the registration of trade unions and makes provis- 
ion for annual returns being made to the Registry of Friendly 
Societies, giving statistics concerning their working, annual 
revenues, expenditures, etc. This system very greatly facili- 
tates the work of the Labor Bureau in gathering and compil- 
ing data relative to these organizations. The unions are not 
compelled, under the trades union act, to register, but a large 
majority of them have found it advantageous to do so. The 
few unregistered unions, while not required by law to make 
returns, have usually acceded to the request of the registry 
in this .respect. During the preceding year the number of 
separate unions appears to have decreased by forty, but the 
membership increased by 33,207, or a little more than two 
per cent. 

The statistics given in the report, with reference to the 
financial condition of the one hundred principal organiza- 
tions considered, show traces of the drain upon trade union 
funds and the increase of contributions required to make 
good the expenditure caused by the great engineering strike 
of 1897. 

The revenues accruing to the treasuries of these 100 soci- 
eties for the year 1898 was |9,577,275 ; the expenditure was 
17,448,355; the amount in the treasuries, January 1, 1899, 
was 113,473,995. 

During 1898 the total number of trades unions appears 
to have decreased from 1,307 to 1,267. The decrease of forty 
is due to the fact that the number of unions dissolved during 
the year (fifty-six), added to the number (nineteen) amal- 
gamated with other unions, exceeded by forty the number 
(thirty-five) organized during the year. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 377 

During the same time the number of branches or locals 
affiliated and returned increased from 13^335 to 13,738. 

In 1898 it appears that out of the total membership of 
1,644,591 of the 1,267 separate organizations, 1,043,476, or 
upwards of sixty-three per cent., are included in the 100 prin- 
cipal unions, leaving about thirty-seven per cent, of member- 
ship to the other 1,167 unions. 

Of the 100 principal unions which are considered in this 
relation, 14 belong to the building trades, 14 to mining and 
quarrying, 14 to engineering, ship building and iron indus- 
tries, 20 to textile trades, 10 to transport labor, 8 to clothing 
trades, 7 to printing and related industries, 5 to furnishing 
and wood working, 2 to glass trades, 3 to food and tobacco 
trades, and 13 to general labor and miscellaneous indus- 
tries. 

Of the total number of unions existing January 1, 1899, 
594, with 1,234,635 members, were registered under the 
trades union acts, while 673 unions, with a membership of 
409,956, were unregistered. More than two-thirds of the en- 
tire membership of the trades unions of the United Kingdom 
belong to the building, mining, metal, ship building, engin- 
eering and textile group of trades. 

In respect to the sex of members, the returns show that 
140 unions included females in their membership, the total 
of these in 1898 being 116,016, oi; 7 per cent, of the member- 
ship of all the unions, and 41 per cent, of the membership of 
the 140 unions which include female members. Naturally, 
the bulk of this female membership is to be found in the tex- 
tile trades. Thus, of all female trade unionists, 106,470 be- 
long to the textile trades, and of these again 87 per cent, be- 
long to the cotton industry, mainly to weavers' societies. The 
bulk of the female trade unionists are to be found in societies 
in which both male and female operatives are associated. 
Only twenty-nine societies, with 7,785 members, are known 
which have an exclusively female membership. 



378 



BIENNIAL REPORT 
DISBURSEMENTS. 



From 1892 to 1898, inclusive, the following amounts 
were disbursed : 



Amonnt 



Per Cent. 

ot 

ToUl 



Bxpenses of strikes 

Sick, death, unemployed and other benefits 
Working expenses 

Total 



2,473.036 
6.3S8.609 
1.895.721 



.23 
.59 
.18 



10.727,:i66 



100 



Of nearly ten and three quarters million pounds ster- 
ling expended during these seven years, 59 per cent, was for 
benevolent purposes, 23 per cent, for strike benefits, and 18 
per cent, for working expenses of various kinds. 

The trade unions of Great Britain aim to keep on hand 
a very large reserve fund. When, however, the funds are run- 
ning a little low, owing to strikes, large expenditures upon 
account of the unemployed or other causes, special assess- 
ments are sometimes levied to bring the reserve up to a neces- 
sary amount. The large treasuries of the principal unions 
throughout Great Britain enable the unionists of that coun- 
try to contest strikes very bitterly. 

PROPORTION OF TRADES UNIONISTS TO INDUSTRIAL POPULATION. 

The proportion of men in the classes from whom trade 
unionists are drawn is approximately estimated at one in 
five, or, omitting agriculture, in which branch of industry 
trade unionists are very scarce, one in four. In the case of 
women in factories, the proportion is slightly more than one 
in ten. 

During 1898 the number of trades councils w^is 156 ; 
membership, 701,717. The number of federations of trades 
unions was 120, with an affiliated membership of 1,089,583. 

Since 1892 the membership has increased 109,458. 

WAGES OP DOMESTIC SERVANTS IN GREAT BRITAIN. 

The report of the labor commissioner of Great Britain 
gives the result of the first attempt at an investigation of the 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 379 

wages of domestic servants in that country. The inyestiga- 
tion was made by means of schedules of inquiry addressed to 
persons employing domestic help. 

The result is based on 2,067 schedules returned at vari- 
ous periods between 1894 and 1898. The schedules show the 
average yearly earnings of 5,568 indoor domestic servants, of 
whom all but 230 were females. While the figures pre- 
sented cover but a small proportion of all the domestic ser- 
vants in the United Kingdom, it is believed that a sufllcient 
number of returns for each age and occupation were received 
to give a fair idea of wage rates generally for the respective 
ages and occupations. 

The general averages for all occupations w^as determined 
by applying the average wages paid to servants, according 
to the schedules returned, to the entire number of servants 
employed at similar service in that country. The general 
wage rate thus obtained shows the average yearly earnings 
for female servants to be |86.62, in London; |75.43 in the 
rest of England, and |84.19 in the three principal Scottish 
towns. These rates are exclusive of board and lodging. 

The report deals mainly with female servants, as the 
number of males employed at domestic service is compara- 
tively insignificant, while about one-third of the entire fe- 
male wage-earning population of the United Kingdom are 
employed at such service. 

Of the 230 male servants whose wages are reported, the 
occupations and average yearly wages were as follows: 
85 butlers, |285.18; 84 footmen, |129.94; 31 men servants of 
various kinds, |187.85; 28 boys, |53.04; and 2 cooks, |622.91. 

Besides the more detailed presentation of the returns, 
the report also gives a comparative table showing the rates 
of wages received in large households in 1886 and at the time 
of the present investigation. This comparison shows that 
the average wages were nearly the same at the two periods. 

WAGES IN ENGLAND. 

In England a marked change took place in the rate of 
wages in January, 1900. About 697,600 workmen, belonging 
chiefly to metallurgic mining and textile industries, obtained 
an increase in wages amounting to about thirty-three cents 
per capita per week. For 428,000 employes, the increase was 
brought about by "Wages and Conciliation Boards;" for 



380 BIENNIAL REPORT 

159,300, by virtue of sliding scales; for 5,300, the increase 
was obtained as a result of strikes. A reduction in wages of 
about fifty-five cents per capita per week affected 350 work- 
men. 

STRIKES IN GREAT BRITAIN. 

The number of strikes and lockouts reported in Great 
Britain in 1898 was 711, involving 253,907 workmen. The 
total number of working days lost was 15,289,478. Wages 
were reported as the cause of the strike in 449 cases; hours 
of labor in 19 cases; regulations of labor and conflicts with 
other workmen in 136 cases; trouble with trades unions in 
51 cases, and strikes of sympathy in 53 cases. 

The number of strikes in 1898 is the lowest in the last 
five years. The number of men involved is the exact average 
for the same period. The number of working days lost is 
greater than in any other year since 1894, due to a strike of 
coal miners in Wales, which involved about 100,000 men and 
continued for an exceptionally long period. 

The most important strikes were in the mines, involving 
a total of 177,029 workmen, or about 70 per cent, of the whole 
number. In the textile industries, 24,978 strikers were in- 
volved; in metallurgy, 21,432; in building trades, 16,684. 
The number of workmen involved in the mining strikes com- 
prised about 84 per cent, of the whole mining population. 

The average length of a strike was 60.2 days, in place of 
44.9 days in 1897, 18.8 days in 1896, and 21.6 days in 1895. 

The average per cent, of men striking for shorter work- 
ing days was 0.42 as against 22.9 per cent, in 1897. The re- 
sults show that 89.17 per cent, of the strikers had their 
strikes terminated either by negotiations between the par- 
ties, which included 81.49 per cent, of the strikers, or by ar- 
bitration and conciliation, which included 7.68 per cent.; 
3.79 per cent, of the strikers saw their places filled by others ; 
and 6.93 per cent, of the strikers had to submit altogether. 
In no case was a strike ended by closing the industry. 

TRADES UNIONS IN FRANCE. 

The law by which trades unions in France are formed 
was created in 1884. The number of trades existing in 1898 
was 2,324, with a total membership of 437,793. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 381 



MISCELLANEOUS SUBJECTS. 



AGRICULTURE. 



In no respect has the Centennial state so far exceeded 
the hopes of its early pioneers as in the field of agriculture. 
The extent, variety and wealth of its agricultural resources 
were not suspected by the first settlers. For many years 
afterwards Colorado was given up to mining camps and cat- 
tle ranges, and believed to be fit for nothing else. It was not 
until near the date of admission to the sisterhood of states 
that the people, either at home or abroad, began to under- 
stand the splendid future which the state had before it by 
reason of the fertility and productivity of its soil. The state 
which contributed generously to the world's supply of gold 
and silver has likewise earned a well-deserved reputation for 
the excellence of the produce of farm and orchard. 

The celebration of "Days" has come into very general 
use in Colorado. In fact, the practice may be said to have 
originated here. These days are for the purpose of advertis- 
ing the special product for which the locality giving them 
has become famous. Such days usually occur when the sea- 
son of the crop from which they take their name is at its 
best. The occasion is given up to the entertainment of all 
who come, and they are feasted with the product, whatever 
it may be. 

Watermelon Day at Kocky Ford, Peach Day at Grand 
Junction, Apple Day at Canon City and Montrose, Straw- 
berry Day at Boulder and Glenwood Springs, Pumpkin Pie 
Day at Longmont, the Potato Bake Day at Greeley and Corn 
Boast Day at Loveland are each devoted to the consumption 
of the product indicated by the name given. 

The year 1899 was not quite up to some of the former 
years, so far as agriculture was concerned. The value of the 
farm product being estimated at nearly 20 per cent. less, 
than that of the preceding year. 



382 BIENNIAL BEPOBT 

In 1899 the value of alfalfa and hay of all kinds pro- 
duced was 116,835,000. The value of wheat produced was 
14,182,535. Potatoes were produced to the value of |1,492,- 
445; oats, |1,110,000; orchard and small fruits, |4,500,000. 
Value of dairy products, |5,064,668. There are twenty-five 
cheese factories and sixty-six creameries in the state. The 
most widely known creamery in Colorado is the one located 
at Longmont, which has achieved an enviable reputation for 
the high-grade quality of the butter produced. 

There are about 4,000,000 acres of land in Colorado un- 
der ditch. 

According to the report of the horticultural department 
there were, at the end of 1899, 121,464 acres planted in fruits, 
distributed as follows: apples, 89,655; stone fruits, 28,684; 
pears, 3,125. 

The State Agricultural College is situated at Fort Col- 
lins on land donated by the government. It is under the con- 
trol of the State Board of Agriculture, of which one-half the 
members are farmers. It receives a biennial appropriation 
from the state and an annual appropriation from the general 
government. The instruction given includes mathematics, 
civil engineering, chemistry and all other studies necessary 
to a thorough education. Practical and scientific farming 
are taught. One of the government experiment stations is 
maintained upon the grounds. 

The sheep growing industry is one of great importance. 
It furnishes employment for a considerable number of men; 
and is the source of large revenue. Colorado ranks ninth in 
the states of the Union with reference to the number of sheep 
owned. The table giving the statistics upon the sheep and 
wool industry of the United States is taken from the year 
book issued by the department of agriculture, and is prob- 
ably the most authentic information published on the sub- 
ject. The business of feeding lambs for market has become 
quite a profitable industry in some parts of the state. 

The cattle and live stock interests of the state have in- 
creased in importance with each succeeding year. While the 
era of large herds running into the thousands has passed 
away, or at least is rapidly passing away, the number of small 
herds has vastly increased. The quality of range stock has 
been very much improved within the last few years. 

The department of agriculture credits Colorado with 
possessing 1,021,922 head of cattle other than milch- cows, 



BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS. 383 

valued at 128,297^538. In 1891 there were 1,017,465 cattle 
in the state, valued at |16,046,133. There were 93,499 milch 
cows in the state, January 1, 1900, valued at |3,384„664, as 
compared with 62,285, valued at |1,750,931, January 1, 1891. 

This state had, January 1, 1900, 145,713 horses, with a 
valuation of |4,068,081; 8,580 mules, whose value was 
f399,827. 

There were 309,611 acres of wheat in the state, with an 
average of 23.7 bushels per acre. This average yield was ex- 
ceeded by Montana alone, in which state the average acre- 
age was 25.7 bushels. The total number of bushels of what 
produced in Colorado was 7,397,781. The average acreage in 
all the states was 12.27 bushels. To oats, 90,698 acres were 
sown, and the total product was 2,448,846. There were 
171,264 acres planted to corn, which yielded 2,911,488 bushels 
and was valued at |1,251,940. The average aci'eage of the 
staple farm crops in Colorado for the year 1899 is far above 
the average, when the whole country is considered. 

The production of beet sugar is a comparatively new in- 
dustry in the United States and is of very recent introduc- 
tion in Colorado. The entire beet sugar production of the 
United States in 1891 was 3,986 tons. By 1897 it had in- 
creased to 45,030 tons. The total domestic consumption of 
sugar in 1897 was 2,096,263 tons. The fact that the soil and 
climate of Colorado was well adapted to sugar beet culture 
had been conclusively proven by the investigations carried 
on at the experiment station at the Agricultural College, at 
Fort Collins. The authorities at the college had been inves- 
tigating the subject for the last ten years and have issued sev- 
eral bulletins with reference to it. The analyses taken here 
of beets produced in many parts of the state prove that the 
sugar beets produced would compare favorably with those in 
any part of the United States, and their production be made 
profitable to all parties concerned. 

The summer of 1899 marked the erection of the sugar 
beet factory at Grand Junction, which permanently estab- 
lished an industry that will soon become a very valuable 
one. This factory was completed and commenced the man- 
ufacture of beet sugar November 22, 1899. This factory 
was erected at an expense, including the cost of equipping it 
with the necessary machinery, of f 500,000. The run for 1899 
was a very short one and the product was about 800 tons of 
refined sugar. It is the common understanding that the crop 



384 BIENNIAL REPORT 

for the first year is not a very successful one. This was true 
at Grand Junction, the farmers not being familiar with the 
crop and the factory being completed late in the season. The 
estimated production for the 1900 season is 2,000 tons of re- 
fined sugar. It has a capacity of 350 tons of beets daily. 

The factory at Rocky Ford was built during the present 
year by the American Beet Sugar Company, with Henry T. 
Oxnard as president and Fr. Mitzer, manager. This factory 
is one of the largest in the United States. The crop upon 
which it is dependent for its supply has been exceptionally 
good. At the present writing it is in active operation and is 
^each day putting sugar on the market. About six thousand 
acres were planted to beets for the use of this factory. The 
American Beet Sugar Company has cultivated this season 
about 2,000 acres of beets upon land belonging to the com- 
pany. The. Rocky Ford factory has a capacity of from 800 
to 1,000 tons of beets daily. It was erected and equipped for 
the jtnanufacture of sugar at an expense of about |1,000,000. 
At the present writing it is turning out sugar to its full ca- 
pacity. 

The factory at Sugar City has been completed by the 
National Beet Sugar Company and commenced the manufac- 
ture of sugar early in November of this year. It is located 
near Ordway, upon the Missouri Pacific, and is but a few 
miles distant from Rocky Ford. The company is composed of 
Buffalo, N. Y., and Pueblo, Colo., capitalists. The company 
has purchased several thousand acres of land, which, together 
with the valuable water rights which have been secured, will 
enable it to place sugar upon the market very profitably. 
P. L. Van Alstyne is vice president and general manager. 
This year the company has 2,400 acres of beets; during the 
coming season they expect to raise about 6,000 acres. The 
guaranteed capacity of the plant is 500 tons of beets per day, 
but the actual capacity is nearly 600 tons. 

A company has been organized to build a sugar factory 
at Loveland. All arrangements having been perfected, the 
factory will probably be built during the summer of 1901, 
and be completed in time to have all the crop of that year. 

The average yield of sugar beets in this country is about 
ten tons to the acre, and will average about 10 per cent, of 
refined sugar actually extracted. As the industry is yet in 
its infancy in Colorado, this being the second season in which 
any sugar was produced, the average tonnage of beets grown 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 385 

per acre and the per cent, of sugar extracted are not known 
with any degree of exactness, but is said by competent au- 
thority to be more than in most other states where beets are 
grown for the purpose of producing sugar. While the sell- 
ing price of beets varies somewhat and is proportioned to the 
per cent, of sugar contained, co-efficient purity, etc., the aver- 
age value is about |4.50 per ton. 

The beet sugar produced in Colorado this season will ex- 
ceed the entire product of the United States for the vear 
1891. 

CONSUMPTION OP SUGAR IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1898-1899. 

The following is clipped from a recent issue of the Sugar 
Trade Journal: 

The consumption of sugar in the United States for 1899 was 2,094,610 
tons, against 2,002,902 tons in 1898, an increase of 91,708 tons, or 4.57 
per cent The consumption of 1899 consisted of 160,400 tons of domestic 
cane sugar, 79,368 tons of domestic beet sugar, and 5,000 tons maple and 
other sugars, a total domestic production of 249,968 tons; and 1,560,764 
tons of foreign cane sugar, 272,943 of foreign raw beet sugar, and 5,935 
tons of foreign refined, a total of 1,839,642 tons imported. • • • The 
amount of refined sugar which went into consumption in 1899 was 2,040,676 
tons, of which the American Sugar Refining Company manufactured 
1,385,608 tons, or 67.9 per cent.; the independent refiners, 585,765 tons, or 
28.7 per cent.; the beet-sugar manufacturers, who make refined sugar, 
63,368 tons, or 3.1 per cent, and the foreign refiners, 5,935 tons, or 0.3 per 
cent The amount consumed in the raw plantation condition was 53,934 
tons. The undistributed stock of refined sugar we estimate at 20,000 tons, 
against 25,000 tons during last year. 



386 



BIENNIAL REPORT 



NUMBBR, AVERAGB PRICB AND TOTAL VALUB OP HORSES AND 

MULES 



IN THE UNITED STATES ON JANUARY 1, 1900, BY STATES. 



States And Territoric 



Hones 



Namber 



Ayersge 

Price Per 

Head 



Value 



Mules 



Number 


ATersffe 

Price Per 

Head 









160 44 


8,714 


7.196 


94 48 


37,794 


76 16 


4,879 


78 56 


12.891 


72 79 


36.358 


59 89 


112.612 


63 47 


98,331 


74 12 


157.006 


68 96 


8,521 


7160 


132.321 


60 16 


164.713 


59 16 


92.722 


62 96 


200,562 


35 18 


142,594 


44 52 


139,164 


47 89 


7.264 


52 06 


96,968 


45 28 


16.883 


58 04 


2.567 


64 73 


88.734 


55 28 


78.936 


53 79 


4.611 


63 79 


6,248 


59 39 


81,232 


54 72 


166.026 


43 69 



Value 



Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts .. 
Rhode Island... 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania ... 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina. . 
South Carolina.. 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

I^ouisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

West Virginia... 

Kentucky 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Indiana 

niinoU 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 



100.747 

55.578 

84.388 

66.017 

10.384 

44.119 

590.771 

79.972 

569,722 

81.192 

130.969 

236,279 

148,164 

68.319 

109,985 

88,060 

133,546 

203,492 

146,029 

1.125.646 

234.127 

306.073 

150,320 

350.978 

640.429 

412.462 

577,220 

983.233 

418,018 

459,673 

979,889 

724,507 



158 62 

57 80 
53 50 
78 07 
86 37 
73 89 
63 06 
72 88 
50 39 
50 80 

58 07 

45 70 

53 50 
62 03 

54 59 

46 70 
45 72 
4i3 75 
36 06 
20 88 

33 30 
43 01 

.43 21 
39 54 

55 00 
57 59 
50 83 
49 31 
6153 
54 95 
49 84 

34 35 



I 6,432.826 

3.217.456 

4.514.500 

5.154.136 

806,906 

3,259,754 

37.251.855 

5,828,258 

33,243^71 

1.865 221 

6.960,014 

10,797.007 

7,926,938 

4,237,798 

6,001.626 

1.776,778 

6.106,518 

8.903.707 

5.228 063 

28.507,407 

7.817.264 

13,251.442 

6.496,281 

13.879.065 

35,222,931 

23,752.443 

29.337.792 

48,486,673 

25,722.829 

25.256.763 

48,810,774 

24,801.718 



t 257,903 

679,883 

2,878 366 

383,297 

937.005 

2.176.306 

7,141,568 

7,288,760 

10,826.082 

610.066 

7.961.060 

9,743.925 

5,837,072 

9.166.041 

6.348.000 

6.664,968 

878,309 

4.890.251 

979.911 

166.161 

2,141,258 

4,245.658 

294>128 

480,868 

1,706,906 

7.210.821 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 



387 



NUMBER, AVBRAGE PRICE AND TOTAL VALUE OP HORSES AND 

MULBS--CoDclndecL 



IN THB UNITBD STATBS ON JikNUARY 1, 1900. BY STATBS. 



States and Territorlea 



Hones 



Number 



Average 

Price Per 

Head 



Value 



Mules 



Number 



Average 

Price Per 

Head 



Value 



Kansas 

Nebraska 

South Dakota 

North DakoU 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arisona 

Utah 

Nemda 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon.. ................ 

California 

Oklahoma 

United SUtes 



732,676 

6S8.807 

287.889 

180.891 

146.781 

70.818 

145.718 

83.184 

52,431 

71,710 

42.090 

127.821 

171,391 

188.986 

321.729 

50.826 



136 44 

42 68 
89 04 
49 85 

28 79 

19 12 
27 92 

20 21 
27 08 
2158 
16 41 
22 40 
39 23 

29 99 
38 61 
24 12 



I 26.696,739 
28,120.512 
11.236.671 
8,902,389 
8.491,196 
1,354,196 
4,068.061 
1,680.945 
1,417.838 
1,547,792 
690.594 
2.868.504 
6.722,898 
5,516.923 
12,422.429 
1.213,970 



82.586 

43,876 

6.626 

6.885 

878 

1,499 

8,580 

3,298 

1,031 

1.615 

1.838 

889 

1,470 

5,441 

48,682 

9.584 



146 85 
54 35 
49 84 
67 48 
40 44 
48 41 
46 60 
34 06 
87 82 

85 62 
34 87 

86 91 
58 91 
38 64 
48 49 
86 58 



$ 3.827.859 

2.384.667 

380.266 

465.257 

35.509 

72,564 

399,827 

112.823 

88,477 

57,522 

46.664 

82.810 

86.696 

210,241 

2.860,718 

350.107 



18,587,524 | 44 61 



1603.969 442 



2.066,027 



$53 56 



1111,717.092 



388 



BIENNIAL REPORT 



NUMBER, AVERAGE PRICE, AND TOTAL VALUE OF MILCH COWS 
AND OTHER CATTLE. 



IN THB UNITED STATBS ON JANUARY 1, 1900, BY STATBS. 



States and Territories 



Milcb Cows 



Number 


Average 

Price Per 

Head 


203,8U 


128 90 


135.457 


32 70 


268,886 


3190 


181,589 


37 20 


25.2&6 


39 95 


144,529 


34 80 


1.487,416 


35 20 


223.261 


39 10 


970,473 


33 15 


35,730 


81 50 


154,712 


29 80 


242,488 


24 05 


243,298 


18 20 


122.959 


19 25 


285.431 


23 96 


113,108 


16 70 


231.802 


18 40 


2U.103 


20 70 


123.232 


21 96 


693,794 


25 25 


188.936 


20 25 


239.394 


24 15 


167.173 


28 40 


235,798 


27 25 


780,939 


32 30 


463,698 


32 70 


605,855 


33 75 


1.021,236 


36 30 


1.008,321 


33 60 


672 540 


31 65 


1,263,283 


34 90 


659,731 


28 60 



Value 



Other Cattle 



Number 


Average 

Price Per 

Head 


112,723 


126 38 


79,221 


25 57 


132,450 


23 41 


73,378 


27 12 


10,149 


29 83 


66,188 


90 A 


572,299 


27 45 


39,896 


30 70 


523,^ 


27 34 


22.305 


28 08 


102,723 


25 36 


325.000 


23 96 


274,843 


12 31 


137,264 


10 77 


380,716 


11 07 


299,712 


838 


279,278 


10 96 


273.706 


13 59 


171,729 


13 37 


4,352.541 


17 86 


230.486 


14 04 


286,841 


18 79 


241,025 


25 15 


303.651 


24 52 


674,619 


30 69 


338,120 


26 75 


629,075 


32 65 


1.303,018 


31 62 


595.208 


27 33 


364,463 


24 27 


2.178.729 


33 47 


1.387,615 


26^ 



Value 



Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts .. 
Rhode Island ... 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania ... 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina.. 
South Carolina.. 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

West Virginia... 

Kentucky 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

towa 

Missouri 



5,890,225 
4.429.444 
8,577,463 
6,755,111 
1,008,977 
5,029,609 

52.357,043 
8,729.505 

32,171,180 
1,125.495 
4.610.418 



4,428.024 

2,366,961 

6.836.072 

1.888,904 

4,265,157 

5.052.932 

2,704.942 

17,518.298 

3,8^.954 

5,781,365 

4,747.713 

6.425.496 

25,224.330 

15,162,925 

20.447.606 

37,070.867 

33.711,586 

21,285,891 

44,088,577 

18.868,307 



S 2,973.863 

2.025,477 

3,100,074 

1,990.270 

302.788 

2,045^5 

15,707,884 

1,224.982 

14,314.840 

625.247 

2,604.643 

7,787,812 

3,383,726 

1,478,267 

4,216,(^ 

2,612,036 

3.061,719 

3,719.121 

2.296,702 

77.736,384 

3,235,910 

5,390,596 

6.061,432 

7,446,740 

20,702,044 

9,043.695 

20,536,787 

41,197,518 

16,267,023 

13,700,354 

72,990,788 

36,981.329 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 



389 



NUMBBR, AVERAGE PRICE AND TOTAL VALUE OF MILCH COWS 
AND OTHER CATTLE— Concluded. 



IN TRB UNITBD STATES ON JANUARY 1, 1900. BY STATBS. 



States and Territories 



Nebraska 

South Dakota 

North Dakota.... 

Montana 

Wyominjr-.l..- - 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arixona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 

Oklahoma 

United States 



Milch Cows 



Number 



707,675 
685,338 
398 383 
176.206 
45,814 
18.104 
93,499 
19,510 
19.140 
57,209 
18,250 
33,075 
122,414 
115.514 
306,872 
40,715 



16,292.360 



Average 

Price Per 

Head 



32 50 

35 50 

33 40 
31 95 

39 25 

40 55 

36 20 

31 70 

32 50 

32 75 

34 10 
31 90 

35 40 
31 05 

33 75 
31 90 



131 60 



Value 



22,999.438 

24,329.499 

13,305,992 

5,629,750 

1,778,574 

734.117 

3,384,6M 

618.467 

622.050 

1,873,595 

622,325 ! 
1.055,092 
4,333,456 
3.583.636 
10.424.430 
1,298,808 



Other Cattle 



Number 



2,159,549 
1,521,434 
480 817 
255,166 
914.494 
729,722 
1.021,922 
659,849 
362,721 
278.867 
219,831 
364.8.53 
268,090 
522,018 
604.881 
^3.256 



$514,812,106 27,610,054 



Average 

Price Per 

Head 



28 90 
30 38 

29 61 
27 24 

27 19 

28 10 
27 69 
18 64 
16 46 

22 93 

23 06 
23 77 
25 21 

23 36 

24 57 

25 36 



124 97 



Value 



62.401253 
46,220,249 
14 237,235 
6,951,242 
24.865.089 
20,505.914 
28.297.588 
12.301.571 
5,969,298 
6,396.237 
5,068,415 
8.672.748 
6,757,573 
12,192.775 
14.864.947 
7,182.529 



1689.486.260 



390 BIENNIAL BEPOBT 

NUMBER, AVERAGE PRICE, AND TOTAL VALUE OF SHEEP. 



IN THE UNITED STATES ON JANUARY 1, 1900. BY STATES. 


STATES AND TERRITORIES 


Number 


Price Per 
Head 


Valae 


Maine 

New Hampshire _ 


254.027 

79.072 

169,ZS9 

40,194 

10,606 

31.808 

846,165 

42.722 

814,322 

12,592 

138.177 

376,918 

235.260 

61,217 

294,826 

76.074 

171,799 

215.748 

113,205 

2.416,721 

108,957 

251.735 

426.814 

549,882 

2,839.690 

1.389,073 

677,905 

637.719 

744,656 

419,218 

619,476 

597,619 

275,118 

322.057 

381.882 


1 3 10 
3 19 

3 61 
455 

386 
890 

4 07 
434 
360 
367 
351 
309 
162 
170 
176 
169 
153 
156 
158 
192 
167 
237 
3 19 
301 
3 71 
358 
400 
3 97 
366 
3 18 
402 
3 10 
304 
339 
329 


1 787.484 00 
252,239 00 


Vermont . . .... ........ 


611,363 00 


Massacbusetto 

Rhode Island 


182.883 00 
40,974 00 


Connecticut 

New York 


124.194 00 
3,448,122 00 




186.584 00 


Pennsylvania 

Delaware ._ 


2,928,302 00 
46.269 00 


Maryland 


485,553 00 


Virginia 


1,164,676 00 


North Carolina 


379 945 00 


South Carolina .. .... . ._. 


104.069 00 


Georgia 

Florida 


518.898 00 
128,870 00 


Alabama . 


262,767 00 


Mississippi 


335,490 00 


I«ouisiana 


179.203 00 


Texas ^ . . . 


4,634,063 00 


Arkansas _. 


181,796 00 


Tennessee 

West Virginia 


596.485 00 
1.363.244 00 


Kentucky 

Ohio 


1,656,004 00 
10,535,250 00 


Michigan 


4,972.882 00 


Indiana 


2,713,993 00 


Illinois 


2,532.383 00 


Wisconsin 

Minnesota . 


2.716.505 00 
1 333,118 00 


Iowa . . ._ - 


2,487,816 00 


Missouri 


1,854,711 00 


Kansas . 


885,534 00 


Nebraska 


1.090.807 00 


South Dakota 


1,257.166 00 







BUBBAU. OF LABOB STATISTICS. 



391 



NUMBER, AVBRAGB PRICB, AND TOTAL VALUB OF SHBBP— 

Concluded. 



IN THB UNITBD STATES ON JANUARY 1, 1900, BY STATB8. 



8TATSS AND TBRRITORIKS 



Number 



ATcrafpe 

Price Per 

Head 



Value 



North DakoU 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico... 

Ariaona 

UUh 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 

Oklahoma 

United States 



874,110 
8.884,170 
2,840.100 
2,185.827 
8,978.489 
1.024.480 
2,370,968 

657.778 
2,658.662 

790.217 

2,446,685 

2.001,501 

33 004 



8 16 
284 
8 51 
286 
2 17 
234 
2 59 

2 91 
280 

3 13 
2 67 
285 
2 52 



$ 1,188.683 00 
11,017.474 00 
9,964.806 00 
6,250.086 00 
8,622,862 00 
2,893.58100 
6.150,380 00 
1,914.120 00 
7,444.254 00 
2,470.218 00 
6.532,676 00 
5.710,282 00 
88.330 00 



41.883.065 



I 21 



$122,665,913 00 



392 



BIBNNIAL REPORT 



WHEAT. 



NUMBBR OP ACRES, TOTAI^ NUMBER OP BUSHELS, AGGREGATE VALUE, AND 
AVERAGE NUMBBR OP BUSHELS TO THE ACRE, BY STATES, POR THE YEAR 
1899. 



STATES AND TERRITORIES 



Acres 



Bushels 



Dollars 



Bushels 



Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania ... 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina. . 
South Carolina.. 

Georgia 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

West Virginia... 

Kentucky 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Kansas 

Nebraska 

South Dakota... 
North Dakota... 

Montana 

Wyoming 



1.963 

511 

3,560 

900 

378,600 

123.370 

1,506.362 

72,856 

759.643 

753,625 

521,731 

148.271 

297,239 

56,735 

3 248 

814,832 

227,135 

958,187 

417,285 

901.272 

2,816«761 

1,587.523 

2,587,875 

1,266,541 

759,573 

5,091,312 

i.399,653 

1,151,384 

3,721,229 

2.018.619 

3,526.013 

4.043,643 

69,764 

21.029 



43,942 

8.789 

78.320 

5.490 

7,006.766 

1,788,866 

20.472,923 

932.557 

10,710.966 

6.330,450 

3.495,598 

963,762 

2,021,225 

431,186 

25,010 

9»044,685 

1,953,361 

8.292,727 

3 880,761 

8,201,675 

39,998,006 

13.335,193 

25.361.175 

12.665,410 

11.773.382 

68.223.581 

18,196.489 

11.398.702 

36,468.044 

20.791.776 

37,728.339 

51 758,690 

1.792,936 

396,346 



39,987 00 

8,350 00 

66,572 00 

5.216 00 

5,604,612 00 

1.341.649 00 

13,512,129 00 

634.139 00 

7,283.457 00 

4,368,010 00 

2,866,390 00 

954.124 00 

1.980.600 00 

383,756 00 

19.508 00 

6,160.362 00 

1,250.151 00 

6.468.327 00 

2.755,333 00 

5.418.040 00 

25,596.724 00 

8.667,875 00 

16,231,152 00 

7,979.208 00 

7,181.763 00 

37.522.969 CO 
10.007,519 00 

7,067.195 00 
18,963,383 00 

10.187.970 00 
18.864,i;0 00 
26 896.901 00 

1,093.690 00 
264.88100 



22.5 

17.2 

22.0 

18.3 

18.5 

14.5 

13.6 

12.8 

14.1 

8.4 

6.7 

6.5 

6.8 

7.6 

7.7 

11.1 

8.6 

8.7 

9.3 

9.1 

14.2 

8.4 

9.8 

10.0 

15.5 

13.4 

13.0 

9.9 

9.8 

10.3 

10.7 

12.8 

25.7 

18.8 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 



393 



WHEAT— Concluded. 



NUMBBR OP ACRES. TOTAI« NUMBBR OP BUSHBLS, AGGREGATB VALUE, AND 
AVERAGE NUMBER OP BUSHELS TO THE ACRE. BY STATES, POR THE YEAR 
1869. 



STATES AND TERRITORIES 


Acres 


Bushels 


Dollars 


Bushels 


Colorado 


809,611 


7.337,781 


$ 4.182.535 00 


23.7 


New Mexico 


186.946 


2,579,855 


1.573,712 00 


13.8 


Arisona 


22,362 


342,189 


21B,969 00 


15.3 


Utah 


180.506 


3,736,454 


1.980,321 00 


20.7 


Nevada 


88.167 


687,006 


522.125 00 


18.0 


Idaho 


142,153 


3,440,103 


1,720,062 00 


24.2 


Washington 


966,406 


21.710,394 


11,072.301 00 


22.7 




1.143.205 


21,949,.536 


11,638.254 00 


19.2 


California 


2,393,185 


33,743,909 


20.921.223 00 


14.1 


Oklahoma 


1.218,253 


16,202,765 


8.587,465 00 


13.3 


United States 


44,592,516 


547,303,846 


$ 319.545,259 00 


12.27 







394 



BIBNNIAL BEPOBT 



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BUBBAU OF hABOn STATISTICS. 



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396 BIBNNIAL REPORT 



EDUCATION IN COLORADO. 

The pride and glory of the American people center very 
largely its public school system. That the means of secur- 
ing a liberal education are at the command of the great com- 
mon people ; that the school system is free to rich and poor, 
to high and low, to black and white, is an achievement of 
which every American justly feels proud. In the coming to- 
gether in every school house of children of different nation- 
alities, of different religions, of different colors and complex- 
ions, caste distinctions are obliterated, prejudices are de- 
stroyed and friendships formed that last throughout life. 

To the common, every-day public school the great mass 
of the people of this country owe, in very large measure, such 
success, happiness and prosi)erity as they have achieved In 
life. The sturdy pioneers, who laid the foundation for the 
future greatness of our state, clearly foresaw the necessity 
of, and made ample provision for, a broad and constantly ex- 
panding public school system. 

The people of Colorado, with the same energy which has 
characterized them in every other direction, have advanced 
and improved their school facilities as rapidly as the growth 
of population made such action necessary. The public 
school system of Colorado is second to none in the Union. 
With regard to the work done and the results secured, the 
schools of Colorado will compare favorably with those of the 
Eastern and Middle states. The great improvements made 
in the methods of imparting knowledge by the leading edu- 
cators of to-day makes the public school equal to the collie 
or the university of a generation ago. If there be any one 
proposition upon which the American people are more thor- 
oughly united than any other, it is that the wealth of our 
country should educate its youth. Unquestionably, a vast 
majority of our people favor the compulsory education of 
children at public expense. The ideal of the nationalists 
upon this subject has long since been accepted, and we are 
moving rapidly forward toward its complete realization. 

The well recognized policy of the state is that it is not 
only the duty of the law-making power to prohibit the em- 
ployment of children in occupations that are hurtful to 
health and moral development, but to prohibit their employ- 
ment during a portion of the year at any kind of labor what- 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 397 

ever. While the state furnishes ample opportunities for the 
education of youth in such branches as will best train them 
to become useful citizens, it should see that such expense is 
not wasted and such opportunities are not thrown away 
through the carelessness or poverty of parents, or the indif- 
ference or truant habits of children. Nearly all of the North- 
ern and Western states have laws forbidding the employment 
of children for a part of the year and compelling their at- 
tendance at school. In states where truant oflBcers have been 
created for the express purpose of enforcing this law, it has 
been in a measure effective. Where neither truant oflftcers 
or factory inspectors have enforced the law, it has been prac- 
tically inoperative, 

According to the reports received at the office of the 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction from the county 
superintendents of the several counties in the state, for the 
year 1899, there was a school population of 142,466, divided 
almost equally between males and females. 

The total enrollment in the public schools for this year 
was 108,816, according to the official statistics, or 76.4 per 
cent, of the school population attending the public schools 
during the year. Exactly what portion of those of school 
age attended parochial or private schools .there is no way to 
determine, but it is perhaps not an exaggeration to estimate 
it at .036 per cent, of the entire number, making a total of 
80 per cent, of the children of Colorado who attended school 
during a part of the year 1899. The average daily attendance 
was 69,065, or 48.5 per cent, of the entire population of the 
state of school age. The entire number of teachers employed 
at one time in the graded schools was 1,660. The average 
monthly salary received by them was $82.30 for male and 
158.25 for female teachers. The entire number of teachers 
employed at one time in rural and ungraded schools was 
1,443, with an average monthly salary of f 48.36 for men and 
$39.10 for lady teachers. The entire expense of maintaining 
the public schools of Colorado for this was $2,508,748.06. 
Of this amount $1,454,116.77 was paid to teachers in the 
form of wages, the balance being for other expenses incurred 
in connection with the schools. There are 1,739 school houses 
in the state and 1,425 school districts. With flfty-two coun- 
ties reporting, the average monthly cost of maintaining the 
public schools is $5.72 for each pupil, computed upon the 



398 BIBNNIAL BBPORT 

basis of the average attendance. The estimated raluation of 
the school houses in the state of Colorado is 16,4959855. 

The statistics contained in the following table have been 
compiled from the report of the Superintendent of Public In- 
struction for the year 1899. 



BUUBAU or LABOB STATISTICS. 



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BIENNIAL BEPOBT 



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BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 401 





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402 



BIENNIAL REPORT 



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BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 403 



FOREIGN IMMIGRATION. 

For many years there has been, upon the part of Amer- 
ican labor, a growing spirit of antagonism to unrestricted 
immigration. This is not due, so far as the industrial side 
of the question is concerned, to any especial dislike for the 
foreigner, but to the fact that the labor market is already 
overstocked and that every additional immigrant increases 
the surplus. The immigrant arriving in this. country and 
finding 25 per cent, of its labor unemployed, an under-esti- 
mate doubtless, if the last twenty-five years be included in 
the statement, can only find employment at wage labor by 
displacing some one at work. 

In the densely populated centers of population, near the 
seaboard, the cry against the foreigner, who is taking "our 
work," is becoming loud and strong. Even here in Colorado 
there is a very strong sentiment developing in favor of more 
stringent immigration laws. 

American wage workers of foreign birthj as a rule, are 
as vigorously opposed to immigration as is the native born 
citizen. Many years ago, when there was a vast continent 
and an almost unlimited area of fertile land inviting settle- 
ment, the immigrant was encouraged. He became his own 
employer and displaced no one. He contributed to the foun- 
dation of new states, the opening of new farms, the genius 
and thrift of new enterprises, the increase of homes, and the 
advancement of the principles which are distinctively Amer- 
ican. Without the immigrant our country could not have 
worked out the great achievements of its material and indus- 
trial development. 

It is evident that any number of industrious foreigners 
coming within our borders would be valuable additions to 
our population, providing they could be set to work without 
taking the places of those already here. 

It is estimated by statisticians that every able-bodied 
immigrant of industry and good character, who comes here 
at the age of 21 and lives until he reaches the age of 50, adds 
at least five thousand dollars to the national stock of wealth. 
He produces that much more than he consumes, if he be em- 
ployed with a fair degree of regularity. Why drive away 
those who may thus enhance the national wealth? A careful 
and conservative calculation of the productive power of the 



404 



BIENNIAL REPORT 



land and machinery in the United States, together with six 
hours' labor upon the part of each person physically and 
mentally capable of performing it, would maintain in a high 
state of comfort 800,000,000 of people, and leave a handsome 
surplus. With freedom of opportunity and the ability of 
each willing worker to transmute his labor into wealth, of 
which he would be the owner, every foreigner capable of 
building readily into the social fabric and becoming Amer- 
icanized would be welcomed. As long as men are crowding 
and jostling each other for a job, opposition to the introduc- 
tion of foreigners will be loud in the land. 

It has been proposed by many to add an educational test 
to immigrants, and thus increase the quality but decrease 
the number of immigrants. As the republic is based upon 
the intelligence of its citizens, and the public school is the 
most public institution we have, an educational test would 
surely be the best to be had of assimulative Americanism. 

TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS WHO HAVE 
ARRIVED IN THE UNITED STATES SINCE 1783. 



Prom 


To 


Nnmber 


From 


To 


Number 


1788 


1820 

1830 

1840 

1830 

1800 

1870 

1880 

1890 

18W 

1892 


250,000 

12S.d93 

538.381 

1.423,337 

2.799,423 

1,964.061 

2.834.040 

5,246.613 

546,065 

579.663 ' 




1893 

1894 

1893 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

m 


488,832 


1820 




285.631 


1830 




258,536 


1840 ... 




343,267 


1850 . -. 




290,832 


1860 




226.423 


1870 




306,321 


1880 




391,012 










Total 






....18,842.012 











*Bleven months, July 1, 1899, to May 31, 1900. 

It will be noticed that there is a falling off in the immi- 
gration from 1890 to 1900, as compared with the preceding 
ten years, of more than a million and a half of immigrants. 
This is due partly to the immigration laws and partly to the 
fact that the South American republics have been oflfering 
inducements to the European peasantry. 

Laws restricting immigration are of recent date. In 
1864 congress passed a law to encourage immigration. The 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 



405 



immigrant could contract for labor to be performed after he 
arrived in the country, before leaving his home in the old 
world. In 1868 this law was repealed. In 1882 a mildly re- 
strictive measure was passed. Between 1880 and 1890 immi- 
grants were pouring into the country in such vast numbers 
that many of the industrial centers of the East became over- 
run with the lowest and most degraded class of Europeans. 
The labor organizations brought the attention of congress 
so forcibly to the hurtful effect which the indiscriminate in- 
flux of immigrants was having upon the working classes in 
the coal-producing districts of Pennsylvania^ and in many 
other places, that in 1891 and in 1893 fairly effective legis- 
lation, correcting some of the evils complained of, was se- 
cured. This law has undoubtedly deterred many Europeans 
from immigrating to this country. A per capita tax of ?1 
is collected. The present law is supposed to sift the desir- 
able from the undesirable immigrants. All idiots, insane 
persons, paupers or those who are likely to become paupers, 
persons suffering from loathsome or contagious disease, ex- 
convicts, also all persons who come under contract. Steam- 
ship companies report their refusal to sell tickets to more 
than 50,000 applicants for immigrant passage. Many thou- 
sand immigrants have been turned back by the inspector. 
The following table will show the statistics of the debarred 
for the years 1898 and 1899 : 



CHARACTER 



1808 



Idiota 

Insane persons 

Psnpers, etc 

Diseased persons 

Convicts 

Assisted immigrants. 
Contracted laborers.. 

Total...: 



1 


1 


12 


19 


2.261 


2.599 


rrfi 


348 


2 


8 


79 


82 


417 


741 



3,030 



3.798 



406 



BIBNNIAL R£POBT 



TABI.E 



IMMIGRATION, BY NATIONALITY, FOR FISCAL YEARS 1897-08, AND 1808-98, SHOW 
ING INCREASE AND DECREASE FOR EACH COUNTRY. RESPECTIVELY, AND 
THE TOTAL NET INCREASE IN 1808 09. FROM PRECEDING FISCAL YEAR 
1807-08. 



COUNTRIES 


1807-06 


1806-00 


Increase 


Decrease 


Austrift-Hungary 


S0,707 

606 

1,046 

1.000 

17,111 

2,330 

58,613 

767 

4.038 

1,717 

4,726 

900 

20.828 

577 

12,398 

1.246 

176 

38.021 

1 


62.401 
1,101 
2.690 
1.604 

17.476 
2.833 

77,410 
1.020 
6,705 
2.064 


22,604 
406 
744 




Belginm 




Denmark 




France, including Corsica 


206 


German Empire 


866 




Greece . ,, 


6 


lUly, including Sicily and Sardinia 


18,806 

262 

1,767 

337 




Netherlands 




Norway 




Portugal, including Cape de Verde and Asore islands 




Poland 


4.726 


Roumania 


1.606 

60,082 

52 

385 

12,707 

1,326 

80 

45.123 

6 


706 

31.154 

52 




Russian Empire and Finland 




Servia, Bulgaria and Montenegro 




Spain, including Canary and Balearic islands 


102 


Sweden 


399 

80 




Switzerland 




Turkey in Europe 


06 


United Kingdom 


7,102 
5 




Not specified 








Total Europe . 


217,786 


207,340 


84,870 


5,316 






China 


2,071 
2.230 


1.660 
2.844 

17 
4.436 

15 




411 


Japan 


614 

17 

161 




India 




TurkQrinAsia '. 


4,275 
61 




Other Asia 


46 






Total Asia 


8,637 


8,072 


792 


457 







With respect to illiteracy, an examination of the statis- 
tics published for the two years under consideration dis- 
closes the fact that 22.1 per cent, of immigrants over 14 years 
of age are totally illiterate, being neither able to read nor 
write in their native language. The lowest in the scale of 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 407 

illiteracy is Germany, .019 per cent. The highest is Italy, 
47.3 per cent. ; Austria-Hungary, 41 ; Russia, 37. 

According to the United States census report of 1890 
illiterates constitute 13.34 per cent, of its population over 
10 years of age. 

Under the ruling of the immigration commissioner illit- 
eracy is made to begin at the age of 14. Less than 4 per cent, 
of people unable to read and write at the age of 14 ever learn 
to do so afterwards. 

Very large numbers of these illiterate non-English- 
speaking people arriving in this country congregate together, 
and their environment favors an intimacy, out of which 
grows a tenacious adherence to their native language, habits, 
customs and institutions, which render the portion of the 
city which they inhabit, almost to the exclusion of all others, 
a section of their native country upon our shores. It is as 
though a settlement, with but little in common with our 
civilization, had been transplanted from the old world to 
the new. Here they have their own saloons, stores, boarding 
houses, societies, churches and other institutions peculiar to 
the land from whence they came. Leadville, Pueblo, Denver 
and other cities in Colorado have colonies in their midst of 
this description. This antagonism of race, mode of living and 
language, fed by isolation and ignorance, an unwillingness 
to assimilate with the balance of our population, an indif- 
ference to assuming the duties of citizenship, an evident in- 
ability to intelligently exercise, understand and appreciate 
the privileges of the ballot and the spirit of free, progressive 
government, all cause the localities where these people live 
to be looked upon as plague spots and their presence to ex- 
cite the gravest apprehension. 

THE POPULATION OF COLORADO IN 1900. 

The census returns given in the only bulletin relating to 
Colorado, published by the census department, does not af- 
ford that full and complete information with reference to the 
population of the state which will be furnished at a later 
date. No census ever taken has escaped adverse criticism. 
Nothing is more common than for a city or town to form an 
exaggerated notion of its size, to feel a sense of disappoint- 
ment, and to make charge of inaccuracies in the enumeration, 
if the result does not come up to their expectations. This 



408 BIENNIAL REPORT 

feeling no doubt obtains in several cities of Colorado. On 
the whole, however, the census was no doubt fairly and in- 
telligently taken, and the result shows substantial growth 
during the past decade. The following facts are taken from 
the official returns thus far published : 

The population of the state in 1900 is 539,700, as com- 
pared with a population in 1890 of 412,198, representing an 
increase during the decade of 127,502, or 30.9 per cent. A 
small part of this increase, namely, 1,051 persons on Indian 
reservations, was included in the census just taken, but were 
not included in the general population of the state at the pre- 
ceding census. 

Colorado had in 1860 a population of 34,277, and in 1870 
a population of 39,864. In 1880, the first census taken after 
its admission as a state, it had grown to 194,327, representing 
an increase in ten years of 154,463, or 387.4 per cent. 

The population of Colorado is almost sixteen times as 
large as the population given for 1860. 

The total land surface of the state is, approximately, 
103,645 square miles, the average number of persons to the 
square mile at present being 5.27. 

The following territorial changes in the counties of Colo- 
rado have been made since 1890 : Part of Ohaflfee annexed 
to Fremont; Mineral organized from parts of Hinsdale, Rio 
Grande and Saguache in 1893; Teller organized from parts 
of El Paso and Fremont in 1899. 

Of the fifty-seven counties in the state, forty-two show 
increases in population since 1890. In some of them the per- 
centages of population are very large, namely : Otero, 174.8 
per cent. ; Archuleta, 156.2 per cent. ; Bent, 132.2 per cent. ; 
Mesa, 117.5 per cent. ; Delta, 116.5 per cent. ; Morgan, 104.1 
per cent. ; Montezuma, 100 per cent. ; Prowers, 91.2 per cent. ; 
Hinsdale, 86.6 per cent. ; and San Miguel, 84.9 per cent. 

The fifteen counties showing a decrease in population 
are Baca, Cheyenne, Clear Creek, Custer, Dolores, iEagle, 
Kiowa, Kit Carson, Ouray, Park, Phillips, Pitkin, Sedgwick, 
Washington and Yuma. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 
POPULATION OF THE STATE BY COUNTIES 



409 



IN 1900 \ND IN 1880. 



COUNTIES 

ArmpAhoe 

Archuleta 

•BacB 

Bent 

B<^lder 

Chaflee 

'Cheyenne 

*C]cAr Creek 

•Costilla 

Conejos 

•Custer 

Delta 

•Dolores 

Douflflas 

•Eagle 

Elhert 

BlPaso 

Fremont 

Garfield 

Gilpin 

Grand 

Gunnison 

Hinsdale 

Huerfano 

Jefferson 

•Kiowa 

•KitCMwn 

I^ske 

La Plate 

Larimer 

Las Animas 

Lincoln 

Logan 

Mesa 

Mineral 

•Decrease. 



1900 


1880 


Increase 


153,017 


132,135 


20,882 


2,117 


826 


1.291 


759 


1479 


720 


3,049 


1,311 


1.736 


21,5U 


14.062 


7.462 


7.085 


6.612 


473 


501 


531 


8SS 


7.082 


7,184 


102 


4.632 


7,193 


1.141 


8.799 


3,491 


1.601 


2,937 


2,970 


33 


5.487 


2.534 


2,953 


1.134 


1,496 


364 


3,120 


3,006 


114 


3.008 


3.725 


51 


3,101 


1.856 


1245 


31.602 


21.239 


10,363 


15.646 


9,156 


6.480 


5,835 


4.478 


1,357 


6.690 


5,867 


823 


741 


604 


137 


5.331 


4.539 


972 


1,609 


862 


747 


8.395 


6.882 


1.513 


9,306 


8,4.50 


856 


701 


1.243 


442 


1,580 


2,472 


892 


18.054 


14.663 


3.391 


7.016 


5,509 


1,507 


12.168 


9.712 


2.456 


21,842 


17.208 


4.634 


926 


689 


237 


3.392 


3.070 


2.222 


9,267 


4.260 


5,007 


1.913 




1.913 



410 BIENNIAL REPORT 

POPULATION OF THE STATE BY COUNTIES— Concluded. 



IN 1900 AND IN 1880. 



COUNTIES 



1900 



1880 



Increase 



Montexuma 

Montrose 

Morgan 

Otero 

•Ouray 

•Park 

PhUlipi 

•Pitkin 

Prowers 

Pueblo 

Rio Blanco 

Rio Grande 

Routt 

Saguache 

San Juan 

San Miguel 

•Sedgwick 

Summit 

Teller 

•Washiiigton 

Weld 

•Yuma 

* Decrease. 



8,058 
4..135 
3.268 

11,522 
4.7S1 
2.998 
1.583 
7,000 
3,766 

34,448 
1,690 
4.080 
3,661 
3.853 
2,342 
5,379 
971 
2,744 

29.002 
1,241 

16,808 
4729 



1,529 
3.980 
1.601 
4,192 
6,510 
3,548 
2.642 
8,929 
1,968 
31,491 
1,200 
3.451 
2,369 
3.513 
1.572 
2.909 
1,923 
1.906 



2.301 
11,736 
2.596 



1,528 

555 

1.667 

7.330 

1,779 

550 

1«059 

1.909 

1,797 

2.967 

490 

629 

1.292 

540 

770 

2.470 



29.022 

1.060 

5,072 

867 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 411 

SIZE AND GROWTH OF VARIOUS CITIES AND TOWNS. 



City or Town 


1900 


1890 


City or Town 


1900 


1890 


Aspen, city 


2,303 
6.150 
3.775 
3,114 
2,914 
21.065 
10.147 
133.859 
3,117 
4.480 
3.728 
3,(»4 
2.192 
2,152 


5.106 
3.330 
2.825 
2.480 
1,788 
11.140 

106,713 

2,726 

732 

2,011 

2,383 


Goldficld 

Grand Junction, dty.... 
Greeley, city 


2,191 
3.503 
3.023 
2.502 
2,513 

12,4.% 
2.201 
2.196 

28.157 
2.018 
3.722 
2,446 
3,345 
4.966 




Boulder 

Canon City 


2.030 
2,395 


Central City, town 

Colorado City 


Idaho Springs, town.... 

La Junta, town 

I^adville. dty 


1,338 
1.439 


Colorado Springrs, city... 


10,384 


Cripple Creek, dty 

Denver, city 


Lonsrmont. town 

Ouray, dty 


1.543 
2,534 


Darans^, city 


Pueblo, dty 

Rocky Ford, town 

Salida, dty 

Telluride, town 

Trinidad, dty 

Victor, town 


24 558 


Florence, precinct 

Florence, city 

Port Collins, city 

Globeville, town 


468 
2.586 

766 
5,523 


Golden, city 











412 BIENNIAL REPORT 

TOWNS UNDER TWO THOUSAND POPULATION. 



Name of Town 



Population 



Name of Town 



Population 



Aguilar 

Akron 

Alamosa: 

Alma 

Altman 

Anaconda 

Animas 

Antonito 

Argo 

Basalt 

Bedrock 

Belle vue 

Berkeley 

Berthond 

Black Hawk. 

Bonanxa 

Breckenrldge 

Brighton 

Bmsh 

iBuena Vista.. 
Burlington . . . 
Carbondale... 
Castle Rock.. 

Como 

Conejos 

Cortes 

Craig 

CrecdeCity... 
Crcede town. 
Crested Butte 

DeBeque 

Del Norte.... 

Delta 

Dolores 

Eagle 

Baton 

Bdith 



351 

1441 

297 



154 
347 
443 
382 
35 
99 
707 
305 

1,200 
141 
976 
366 
381 

1,006 
183 
173 
301 
407 
848 
125 
133 
938 
235 



7a-> 

815 
108 
124 
384 
282 



Eldora 

Elizabeth 

Elyria 

Empire 

Erie 

Evans 

Patrplay 

Fletcher 

Florissant 

Fort Lnpton 

Port Morgan 

Freshwater 

Fruita 

Georgetown 

Gillett 

Oilman 

Glenwood Springs 

Gothic 

Granada 

Granite 

Green Mountain Falls 

Gunnison 

Holly 

Holyoke 

Hooper , 

Hotchkiss 

Hot Sulphur Springs. . 

Jamestown , 

Julesburg 

Lafayette 

La Jara 

Lake City 

Lamar 

Las Animas 

La Veta 

Lawrence 

LitUeton 



3G6 
215 

1.384 
276 
697 
388 
319 
202 
131 
214 
634 
77 
126 

1.418 
524 
221 

1.350 

20 

204 

250 

40 

1.200 
364 
451 
177 
261 
00 
164 
371 
970 
206 
700 
987 

1,192 
254 
299 
788 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 413 

TOWNS UNDER TWO THOUSAND POPULATION.— Concluded. 



Name of Town 



Population 



Louisville 

Loveland 

Lyons 

Manasaa 

Mancos 

Maniton 

Marble 

Meeker 

Montdair 

Monte VisU 

Montrose 

Monument 

Nevadaville 

Newcastle 

Ophir 

Ordway 

Pagosa Springs. 

Palmer Lake 

Htkia 



966 
1.091 
347 
739 
383 
1,308 
101 
507 
415 
556 
1,217 
156 
823 
481 
127 
138 
369 
166 



Name of Town 



Population 



Platte villc.... 

Red Cliff 

Rico 

Ridgway 

Rifle 

Rockvale 

RosiU 

Saguache , 

St. Klmo 

Sheridan 

Silver Cliff. 

Silver Plume 

Silverton , 

South Canon City 

Springfield 

Sterling 

Sugar City 

Tin Cup 



256 
811 
245 
273 
870 
110 

78 

65 
442 
576 
775 
1.380 
958 

44 
109 
689 

64 



POPULATION OF DENVER AND PUEBLO: 1860 TO 1900. 





Denver 


Pueblo 


Ceoftus Years 


Population 


Increase 


Population 


Increase 




Number 


Per Cent. 


Number 


Per Cent. 


1900 

1890 

1880 

1870 


133.859 

106.713 

35.629 

4.759 

4.749 


27.146 

71.084 

30.870 

10 


25.4 

199.5 

648.6 

0.2 


28,157 

24.558 

3.217 

666 


8,599 

21.341 

2.551 


14.6 
663.3 
383.0 


1860 











414 BIENNIAL REPORT 



EMPLOYERS' LIABILITY. 



The subject of employers' liability to the employe for in- 
juries received is one in which both feel a deep interest. It 
is a matter which affects the interest of the wage earner and 
those dependent upon him in a very vital way. The statutory 
law bearing directly upon the question of employers' liabil- 
ity, in the several states, is filled with subtleties, ambiguities 
and uncertainties, which render it very dijfficult to deter- 
mine what the legislative intent really is in each case coming 
before the court for adjustment. Liabilities arising under 
these statutes have been made the subject for a great deal of 
mental exercise, subtle and abstract reasoning upon the part 
of men clothed for the time being with judicial authority. 

The books are full of judicial opinions touching upon 
some phase of the question. 

The great mass of decisions have been of a nature to sus- 
tain the contention that the employer is not responsible for 
accidental injuries received by the employe through the care- 
lessness or negligence of a fellow servant or co-employe. 
The authorities are not uniform upon this point, and there 
are some exceptions to the rule. These opinions have also 
almost, if not quite, invariably placed the burden of risk in- 
cident to the employment itself upon the workman who has 
been injured in the r^ular discharge of his duties. 

If the workman did not fully acquaint himself with the 
nature of the risk attending the particular kind of labor at 
which he was engaged, he was held to have been guilty of 
negligence for not doing so, which prevented him from recov- 
ering in case of injury. In case he did fully acquaint him- 
self with the risk, no matter how hazardous it might have 
been, he was held to have assumed it. In either case he was 
without redress. These opinions were usually accompanied 
and bolstered up with a mass of sophistry, subtleties and hazy 
reasoning such as is a frequent attribute of the judicial 
mind. 

As a general rule, it has been the history of legal contro- 
versies involving the liability of the employer, that only in 
cases where his negligence was flagrant — ^indeed almost crim- 
inal — ^has the employe been enabl^ to recover. 

The right of trial by jury has been much more to the ad- 
vantage of injured employes, in their efforts to recover dam- 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 415 

ages from employing corporations^ than has the opinions of 
courts. 

Many efforts have been made in the several states to se- 
cure good and efficient employers' liability laws. While 
some considerable progress has been made in this direction 
of late years, the results, as a whole, are far from satisfac- 
tory. Organized workmen have been everywhere working to 
secure the passage of a law that will place them upon an 
equality with outsiders, so far as the responsibility of the 
employer is concerned. 

November 3, 1838, sixty-two years ago, and long before 
the organization of the* German empire, a law was passed 
in Prussia, defining the responsibility of railroad companies 
to their employes, which has never been equaled by any of 
the liability laws enacted in this country. It was soon after 
the first railway was completed in that country. The gov- 
ernment, recognizing the highly hazardous character of rail- 
road labor, and the difficulty upon the part of injured em- 
ployes of producing legal proof to the effect that such acci- 
dent was caused through the negligence of the company or 
some of its employes, inserted the following clause in the 
railway law for the benefit of injured employes or passen- 
gers : 

The company is bound to make compensation for all injuries that 
may occur, in the course of transportation, to persons or goods carried 
or to other persons and their possessions; and it can release itself from 
this obligation only by producing evidence that the injury was occasioned 
through the fault of the victim himself or through some unpreventible, 
external chance [unabwendbaren uusseren Zufall]. The dangerous char- 
acter of the enterprise itself is not to be considered as coming under such 
inevitable risk. 

It will be observed that this law exactly reverses the rule 
which has obtained in the United States, and makes it in- 
cumbent upon the company to prove that the injury was 
caused by the negligence of the person setting up the claim 
for damages, or some "unpreventable external cause," act of 
God, etc., in order to relieve itself of responsibility. The last 
sentence is especially significant. It is absolutely at vari- 
ance with most statutes upon the subject in this country and 
with the concensus of opinions handed down by American 
judges, to the effect that the workman assumes all the risk 
ordinarily connected with the employment. 



416 BIENNIAL REPORT 

This line of precedent and reasoning seems to be based 
upon the presumption that the rate of wages paid in the haz- 
ardous callings are high enough to afford compensation for 
the increased risk. The assumption, however, is not in ac- 
cordance with the facts. Leaving the elements of skill and 
efficiency of organization on the part of the workers out of 
consideration, the men who are employed at the especially 
dangerous occupations are poorly and not extravagantly 
paid. The average earnings of the coal miners will fully 
verify this statement. No occupation is more dangerous or 
is attended with greater risks; not many are more poorly 
paid. The classes which are sufficiently forehanded to de- 
mand wages high enough to cover the risk are usually not 
there at all. 

With the growth and development of manufactures, in- 
volving as it does the use of complicated machinery, a great 
deal of good legislation on the subject of employers^ liabil- 
ity has been enacted in Germany within the last sixty years. 
In fact the history of that country affords more instances of 
legislation protecting the interests of the working classes 
thai\ does the history of any other. 

The common law of employers' liability, as stated by 
Judge John F. Dillon, an eminent authority, is given in three 
propositions, and, summarized, is as follows : 

1. The exercise of reasonable care to furnish suitable 
machinery and appliances to carry on the business for which 
he employe the servant. 

2. The exercise of like care in not subjecting the ser- 
vant to risk of injury from unskillful, drunken, habitually 
negligent or otherwise unfit fellow servants. 

3. The exercise of due care, when the master hires a 
youthful and inexperienced servant, in cautioning him about 
the dangers, etc. 

But Judge Dillon still holds that the workman as- 
sumes all ordinary risks incident to the business itself : 

With Judge DUlon's opinion contrast that of Sir Frederick Pollock, 
the eminent English Jurist: "I think the doctrine of the American and 
English courts is bad law as well as bad policy. The correct course, in 
my Judgment, would hare been to hold that the rule expressed by the 
maxim respondeat superior, whatever its origin or reason^ was general. 
* ^ ^ No such doctrine as that of common employment has found 
place in the law courts of France or of any German state." — ^Report of 



BUEEAU OF LABOR BTATISTICS. 417 

British Commissioner of Labor, 1894 (C. — 7063 — III. A), Appendix 
CLVIII to Minutes of Bridence. 

As will be seen by reading the laws upon this subject in 
the diflPerent states, the tendency of legislation of late years 
has been to divide the responsibility, Judge Dillon notwith- 
standing, and to lean to the opinion expressed by Frederick 
Pollock. A valuable feature of these laws is that they pro- 
hibit the employer from relieving himself of liability by spe- 
cial contract or agreement. This is a distinct repeal of the 
old common law, in accordance with which, under the sacred 
privilege of free contract, the employe was frequently com- 
pelled to sign away all right to indemnification in case of 
injury. 

I would recommend a careful revision of the employers' 
liability law of this state and its correction in a way that will 
carefully protect the interests of workmen. The employe 
should be enabled to recover damages when an injury is in- 
curred in any way, not due to his own negligence and care- 
lessness. Proof of the fact that the injury received was the 
result of the negligence of the employe should be required 
from the employer, in order to relieve himself from liability. 

LABOR LAWS OF COLORADO. 

In traveling over the state the Commissioner has been 
requested many times, by wage workers and others, to in- 
clude in this report the laws directly bearing upon labor and 
of especial interest to the wage earners of Colorado. In ac- 
cordance T^dth this desire, as frequently expressed, and being 
fully convinced that a compilation of the labor laws will be 
useful, especially to those who have not a set of Mills' Anno- 
tated Statutes within easy reach, there is here presented the 
gist of all statutory laws upon the subject. 

It is a well recognized fact that the interest of the work- 
ers is so far-reaching, so diversified, and involves so much, 
that all laws are really labor laws, either good or bad, wise 
or otherwise. The following are the ones that, in the main, 
have been enacted through the efforts and hard work of the 
labor organizations, their friends and representatives, who 
have at different times been connected with the law-making 
branch of the state service. 

It has not been always ea^y to determine what laws 
should be included and what ones omitted. Some of the acts 



418 BIENNIAL REPORT 

are not reproduced in full in this work, only the more im- 
portant parts being given. Some of those laws are not found 
in Mills' Annotated Statutes, that compilation only coming 
down to January, 1897. 

An act to confer exclusive rights to the use of labels, trade marks, 
terms, designs, devices or forms of advertisement and provide for the re- 
cording of the same, to provide a remedy for the violation of such right, 
and the penalty for the unlawful use of labels, trade marks, terms, de- 
signs, devices and forms of advertising, and to repeal all acts and parts 
of acts inconsistent herewith. 
Be it Enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Colorado : 

Section 1. Whenever any person, or any association or union of 
workingmen, has heretofore adopted or used, or shall hereafter adopt or 
use, any label, trade mark, term, design, device or form of advertisement 
for the purpose of designating, making known, or distinguishing any 
goods, wares, merchsindise or other product of labor, as having been made, 
manufactured, produced, prepared, packed or put on sale by such person 
or association or union of workingmen or by a member or members of 
such association or union, it shall be unlawful to counterfeit or imitate 
such label, trade mark, term, design, device or form of advertisement, or 
to use, sell, offer for sale or in any way utter or circulate any counterfeit 
or imitation of any such label, trade mark, term, design, device or form 
of advertisement. 

Sec. 2. Whoever counterfeits or imitates any such labels, trade 
mark, term, design, device or form of advertisement; or sells, offers for 
sale or in any way utters or circulates any counterfeit or imitation of any 
such label, trade mark, term, design, device or form of advertisement; or 
keeps or has in his possession with intent that the same shall be sold or 
disposed of, any goods, wares, merchandise or other product of labor to 
which or on which any such counterfeit or imitation is printed, painted, 
stamped or impressed; or knowingly sells or disposes of any goods, wares, 
merchandise or other product of labor contained in any box, case, can or 
package, to which or on which any such counterfeit or imitation is at- 
tached, affixed, printed, painted, stamped or impressed; or keeps or has 
in his possession with intent that the same shall be sold or disposed of, 
any goods, wares, merchandise or other products of labor in any box. 
case, can or package to which or on which any such counterfeit or imita- 
tion is attached, affixed, printed, painted, stamped or impressed shall be 
punished by a fine of not more than five hundred dollars ($500), or by 
imprisonment for not more than three months or by both such fine and 
imprisonment. 

Sec. 3. Every such person, association or union that has hereto- 
fore adopted or used, or shall hereafter adopt or use, a label, trade mark, 
term, design, device or form of advertisement as provided in Section 1 
of this act, may file the same for record in the office of the Secretary of 
State by leaving two copies, counter-parts or fac-similes thereof, with 
said secretary and by filing therewith a sworn application specifying the 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 419 

name or names of the person, association or union on whose behalf such 
label, trade mark, term, design, device' or form of advertisement shall be 
filed; the class of merchandise and description of the goods to which it 
has been or is Intended to be appropriated stating that the party so filing 
or on whose behalf such label, trade mark, term, design, device or form 
of advertisement shall be filed) has the right to the use of the same; that 
no other person, firm, association, union or corporation has the right of 
such use, either In the identical form or in any such near resemblance 
thereto as may be calculated to deceive and that the fac-simile or coun- 
terparts filed therewith are true and correct. There shall be paid for 
such filing and recording a fee of one dollar. Said secretary shall de- 
liver to such person, association or union so filing or causing to be filed 
any such label, trade mark, term, device or form of advertisement, so 
many duly attested certificates of the recording of the same as such per- 
son, association or union may apply for, for each of which certificates 
said secretary shall receive a fee of one dollar. Any such certificate of 
record shall in all suits and prosecutions under this act be sufficient 
proof of the adoption of such label, trade mark, term, design, device or form 
of advertisement Said Secretary of State shall not record for any person, 
union or association any label, trade mark, term, design, device or form 
of advertisement that would probably be mistaken for any label, trade 
mark, term, design, device or form of advertisement theretofore filed by 
or on behalf of any other person, union or association. But the said Sec- 
retary shall file and record under this act any label, trade mark, term, 
design, device or form of advertisement, which may have been previously 
filed by any person, or any association or union of worklngmen, provided 
the person, association or union seeking to file and record under this act 
is the same person, association or union that previously filed or recorded 
the same label, trade mark, term, design, device or form of advertise- 
ment. 

Sec. 4. Any person who shall for himself or on behalf of any other 
person, association or union procure the filing of any label, trade mark, 
term, design, or form of advertisement In the office of the Secretary of 
State under the provisions of this act, by making any false or fraudulent 
representations, or declarations, verbally or in writing, or by any fraud- 
ulent means, shall be liable to pay any damages sustained In consequence 
of any such filing, to be recovered by or on behalf of the party injured 
thereby In any court having Jurisdiction and shall be punished by a fine 
not exceeding five hundred dollars ($500) or by imprisonment not exceed- 
ing three months, or by both such fine and imprisonment. 

Sec. 5. Every such person, association or union adopting or using 
a label, trade mark, term, design, device or form of advertisement as 
aforesaid, may proceed by suit for damages to enjoin the manufacture, 
use, display or sale of any counterfeits or imitations thereof and all 
courts of competent Jurisdiction shall grant Injunction to restrain such 
manufacture, use, display or sale and award the complainant in any such 
■ult damages resulting from such manufacture, use, sale or display as 
may be by the said court deemed Just and reasonable, and shall require 



420 BIENNIAL REPORT 

the defendant to pay to such person, association or union all profits de- 
rived from such wrongful manufacture, use, display or sale; and such 
court shall also order that all such counterfeits or imitations in the pos- 
session or und*er the control of any defendant in such cause be delivered 
to an officer of the court, or to the complainant to be destroyed. 

Sec. 6. Every person who shall use ^or display the genuine label, 
trade mark, term, design, device or form of advertisement of any such, 
person, association or union in any manner, not being authorized so to do 
by such person, union or association, shall be deemed guilty of a misde- 
meanor and shall be punished by imprisonment for not more than three 
months or by a fine of not more than five hundred dollars ($500). 

In all cases where such association or union is not incorporated, 
suits under this act may be commenced and prosecuted by an officer or 
member of such association or union on behalf of and for the use of such 
association or union. , 

TRUCK SYSTEM. 

An act in relation to the "truck system" securing to laborers and 
others the payment of their wages in lawful money of the United States, 
and prescribing penalties for a violation of this act, and repealing all acts 
and parts of acts in confiict herewith. 

Be it Enacted hy the General Assembly of the State of Colorado: 

Section 1. It shall be unlawful for any person, company or corpora- 
tion, or the agent or the business manager of any such person, company 
or corporation, doing business in this state, to use or employ, as a system, 
directly or indirectly, the "truck system" in the payment, in whole or in 
part, of the wages of any employe or employes of any such person, com- 
pany or corporation. 

Sec. 2. The words "truck S3'^stem" as used in the preceding section 
are defined to be: (1) Any agreement, method, means or understanding 
used or employed by an employer, directly or indirectly, to require his 
employe to waive the payment of his wages in lawful money of the United 
States, and to take the same, or any part thereof, in goods, wares or me^ 
chandise, belonging to the employer or any other person or corporation. 
(2) Any condition in the contract of employment between employer and 
employe, direct or indirect, or any understanding whatsoever, express or 
implied, that the wages of the employe, or any part thereof, shall be spent 
in any particular place or in any particular manner. (3) Any requirement 
or understanding whatsoever by the employer with the employe that does 
not permit the employe to purchase the necessaries of life where and of 
whom he likes without interference, coercion, let or hindrance. (4) To 
charge the employe interest, discount or other thing whatsoever for money 
advanced on his wages, earned or to be earned, where the pay days of th« 
employer are at unreasonable intervals of time. (5) Any and all arrange- 
ments, means, or methods, by which any person, company or corporation 
shall issue any truck order, scrip, or other writing whatsoever, by means 
whereof the maker thereof may charge the amount thereof to the em- 
ployer of laboring men so receiving such truck order, scrip or other writ- 



BUEEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 421 

ing, with the understanding that such employer shall charge the same to 
his employe and deduct the same from his wages. 

Sec. 3. Any truck order, scrip or other writing whatsoever, made, 
issued, or used in aid of or in furtherance of, or as a part of, the "truck 
system" as defined in this act, evidencing any debt or obligation from any 
person, company or corporation for wages due or to become due to any 
employe or employes of any person, company or corporation, issued under a 
system whereby it is the intent and purpose to settle such wage debt or 
debts by any means or device other than in lawful money, shall be utterly 
void in the hands of any person, company or corporation with knowledge 
that the same had been issued in pursuance of such system, and it shall 
be unlawful to have, hold or circulate the same with such knowledge. 

Sec. 4. Any person who shall violate any of the provisions of this act 
shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall, upon conviction, be 
punished by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five 
hundred dollars, and by imprisonment In the county Jail of not less than 
thirty days, nor more than six months. 

Sec. 5. The violation of the provisions of any section of this act by 
any corporation organized and existing under the laws of this state shall 
be deemed sufficient cause for the forfeiture of the charter of any such 
corporation, and the Attorney Greneral of the state shall immediately com- 
mence proceedings in the proper court in the name of the people of the 
State of Colorado, against any such corporation for the forfeiture of its 
charter. 

Sec. 6. Any foreign corporation doing business in this state that shall 
violate the provisions of any section of this act shall forfeit its right to do 
business in this state, and the Attorney Greneral of the state shall, upon 
such violation coming to his knowledge, by Information or otherwise, in- 
stitute proceedings in the proper court for the forfeiture of the right of 
any such corporation to do business in this state. 

Sec. 7. That if the Attorney General of the state should fail, neglect 
or refuse to commence such actions as are provided for in sections 5 and 6 
of this act, after demand being made upon the Attorney General to in- 
stitute such proceedings by any responsible person, then any citizen of 
this state shall have the right to institute and maintain such proceedings, 
upon giving bond for costs of suit. 

Sec. 8. The District Attorney of any county shall prosecute for any 
violation of this act in the same manner as he may be required by law 
to prosecute for the violation of other criminal acts, except as provided in 
sections 5 and 6 of this act. 

Sec. 11. Whereas, in the opinion of the General Assembly an emer- 
gency exists; therefore, this act shall be in force and take effect from and 
after its passage. 

Approved March 31, 1899. 

PAYMENTS OF LABORERS UPON PUBLIC WORKS— PROVISION FOR. 

Section 1. That hereafter it shall be the duties of councils of cities, 
trustees of Incorporated towns, boards of commissioners of counties and 
boards of directors of school districts within the limits of municipal cor- 



422 BIENNIAL REPORT 

porations, which have contracted for the construction of public works, to 
withhold payment of moneys due the contractor for the construction of 
such public works to satisfy the claims of laborers, subcontractors and 
others performing labor or furnishing materials upon or for such public 
works in the manner hereinafter described. 

Sec. 2. Before any payment shall be made to the contractor, as may 
be provided for in the contract for the construction of such public works, 
the contractor shall present to the council of cities, trustees of towns, 
boards of commissioners of counties and directors of school districts, a 
statement in writing showing the amounts owing by him for labor per- 
formed or materials furnished, and the names of the persons to whom 
such sums are due. And in case such contractor shall have sublet a part 
of such works, the statement shall show the sum owing to the subcon- 
tractor, and shall be accompanied by a statement from the subcontractor 
showing names of persons performing labor or furnishing materials at the 
instance of such subcontractor and the amounts due such persons re- 
spectively. Such statements shall be certified under oath by the contractor 
or subcontractor, that the same correctly states the sums owing for labor 
and materials, with names of persons to whom such sums are owing. 

Sec. 3. Any person to whom a contractor or subcontractor may be 
indebted may file with the clerk of such city, town or board of county 
commissioners, or secretary of the school district, his claim, duly verified 
upon oath as correct, in which shall be stated the amount claimed as 
owing, the name of the contractor or subcontractor by whom he was em- 
ployed or at whose instance he furnished materials. If such claims tally 
with statement of contractor or subcontractor as to amount due, name of 
claimant, the amount claimed shall be paid directly to claimant, and shall 
be deducted out of sum to be paid contractor or subcontractor, as case 
may be; provided, where the amounts due contractor or subcontractor are 
insufficient to pay the claims filed, the sum to be paid contractor or sub- 
contractor shall be prorated among the respective claimants against such 
fund in proportion to amount of claims. In case a claim filed shall not be 
admitted or tally with statement filed by contractor or subcontractor as 
aforesaid, such claimant shall within thirty days bring suit in some court 
of competent Jurisdiction to recover Judgment against the contractor or 
subcontractor by whom he was employed, or for whom he furnished ma- 
terials; and upon filing a transcript showing final judgment has been re- 
covered, together with a certificate of clerk of court that the same has not 
been appealed from, shall be entitled to be paid the same as if claim had 
been admitted as aforesaid. Two or more claimants against the same 
person may Join in suit and recover one several Judgment, upon which 
execution may issue as in other cases. 
Approved April 10, 1899. 

PROM THE ACT CONCERNING THE REGULATION OP MINES. 

Sec. 3. The Commissioner of Mines shall, with the consent of the 
Governor, appoint two Inspectors of practical experience in mining, citi- 
zens of the United States and legal voters of the State of Colorado, and 
having had not less than seven (7) years practical experience In mining 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 423 

in the State of Colorado, who shall hold their office for the term of two 
years, and whose duties shall be as hereinafter specified, and he shall 
appoint a clerk who must have a general knowledge of mineralogy and 
shall act as assistant curator for the state mineral collection; and before 
entering upon the discharge of their duties they shall subscribe to the 
oath required by the Constitution, and each give bond to the state in the 
sum of $5,000, to be approved by the Governor, conditioned upon the faith- 
ful performance of their duties, respectively; said bonds shall, together 
with the Commissioner's bond, be deposited with the Secretary of State. 
The Commissioner of Mines may appoint a stenographer, who shall act 
as assistant clerk, and such other competent assistants as he may deem 
necessary for the carrying out of the object of this act; provided, appro- 
priation be made therefor, and shall have the power, with the consent of 
the Governor, at any time, to remove the inspectors, clerks or other as- 
sistants for incompetency, neglect of duty or abuse of the privileges of 
his office. 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the inspectors to examine and report 
to the Commissioner the condition of the hoisting machinery, engines, 
boilers, whims, cages, cars, buckets, ropes and cables in use In all the metal- 
liferous mines in operation in the state, the appliances used for the extin- 
guishment of fires, the manner and methods of working and timbering the 
shafts, drifts, inclines, stopes, winzes, tunnels and upraises through which 
persons pass while engaged in their dally labors, all exits from the mine 
and how the mine is ventilated, together with the sanitary condition of the 
same, and also how and where all explosives and inflammable oils and sup- 
plies are stored, also the system of signals used in the mine. He shall not 
give notice to any owner, agent, manager or lessee of the time when such 
inspection shall be made. 

Sec. 5. The Commissioner of Mines may as appropriations may be 
made therefor, from time to time, appoint deputy inspectors in the va- 
rious mining camps or districts to investigate or report on accidents, or 
appoint such other competent assistants as he may deem necessary and 
proper for the carrying out of the object of this act; for the purpose of 
making more extended geological researches and surveys concerning the 
mineral districts of the state; the appointments of said deputy inspectors 
or assistants to become void upon the performance of the specific things 
or acts designated by the commissioner in their said appointment; but 
the entire expenses of the bureau must not in any one year be greater 
that can be paid out of the fund or appropriation provided therefor. 

Sec. 8. The Commissioner of Mines, inspectors, -or either of them, 
shall not act as manager, or agent or lessee, for any mining or other cor- 
poration during the term of his office, but shall give his whole time and 
attention to the duties of the office to which he has been appointed. No 
officer of this bureau nor any agent or person in any way connected 
therewith, shall make a report of any mine or mining property with the 
intent to promote or aid in the sale or other conveyance thereof, and any 
such officer, agent, or person violating this provision shall, upon convic- 
tion thereof, pay a fine of not less than five hundred ($500.00) dollars, 
nor more than five thousand dollars ($5,000.00) or be imprisoned in the 



424 BIENNIAL REPORT 

state penitentiary not less than one (1) nor more than thtee (3) years 
or both in the discretion of the court. The Commissioner shall, on re- 
ceipt of reliable information relating to the health and safety of the 
workmen employed in any metalliferous mine, mill or reduction plant 
in the state, or whenever he deems such inspection necessary, examine or 
instruct one of the inspectors to examine and report to him the condi- 
tion of the same. The owner, agent, manager or lessee shall have the 
right to appeal to the Commissioner on any difference that may arise 
between such parties and the inspector. On receipt of notice of any acci- 
dent in a mine, mill or reduction plsint, whether fatal or not, the com- 
missioner shall inquire into the cause of such accident. 

Sec. 9. It shall be the duty of the Commissioner of Mines to bien- 
nially make report to the Governor, showing the amount of disburse- 
ments of the bureau under his charge, the progress made and such sta- 
tistical information in reference to mines, mining, milling and smelting 
as shall be deemed important, and shall transmit copies of said report 
to the general assembly at the biennial session. There shall be printed 
at least one thousand (1,000) copies of said report for distribution and 
said reports shall contain a review of the work of the bureau. 

The Commissioner may, from time to time, with the consent of 
the Governor, as appropriations may be made therefor, compile, publish 
and distribute bulletins upon subjects, districts and counties; such 
bulletins, when treating of a district or county, shall give in detail 
the history, geology, mines, mills, process of treatment and results, to- 
gether with a classification and location of mines and prospects together 
with maps of the same; one thousand (1,000) copies shall be distributed 
free to state and county officers, public libraries, newspapers, magazines 
and exchanges of the bureau, and the remainder sold at cost of printing. 

Sec. 10. Every owner, agent, manager or lessee of any metallifer^ 
ous mine or metallurgical plant In this state shall admit the Commis- 
sioner or inspector on the exhibition of his certificate of appointment, for 
the purpose of making examination and inspection provided for in this 
act, whenever the mine is in active operation and render any necessary 
assistance for such inspection. But said Commissioner or inspector shall 
not unnecessarily obstruct the working of said mine or plant. The re- 
fusal of the owner, agent, manager or lessee to admit the Commissioner 
or inspector to such mine or plant to lawfully inspect the same, shall 
upon conviction, be deemed a misdemeanor, and shall be subject to a 
fine of not less than fifty dollars ($50.00) nor more than three hundred 
dollars ($300.00) or be imprisoned not less than one (1) nor more than 
three (3) months or both such fine and imprisonment 

Sec. 11. The Commissioner and inspectors shall exercise a sound 
discretion in the enforcement of this act and if they shall find any mat- 
ter, thing, or practice in or connected with any metalliferous mine or 
metallurgical plant to be dangerous or defective, so as to. In their opinion, 
threaten or tend to the bodily injury of any person, the Commissioner or 
inspector shall give notice in writing thereof to the owner, agent, man- 
ager or lessee of such mine or plant, stating in such notice the particulars 



BUBEAU OF LABpB STATISTICS. 425 

in which he considers such mine, or plant, part t)iereof or practice to be 
dangerous or defective; and he shall order the same to be remedied; a 
copy of said order shall be filed and become a part of the records of the 
bureau of mines, and said owner, agent, manager or lessee shall, upon 
compliance of said order, immediately notify the Commissioner of Mines 
in writing. Upon the refusal or failure of said owner, agent, manager or 
lessee to report within reasonable length of time, said owner, agent, 
manager or lessee shall be subject to a fine of not less than fifty dollars 
($50.00) nor more than three hundred ($300.00) dollars for each and every 
such refusal or failure. 

Sec. 12. If the Commissioner, inspectors or either of them, shall 
reveal any information in regard to metallurgical processes, ore bodies, 
chutes or deposits of ore or' location, course or character of un- 
derground workings or give any information or opinion respecting any 
mine or metallurgical process, obtained by them in making such inspec- 
tion, except in the way of official reports filed for record, as hereinbefore 
provided, on conviction thereof he or they shall be removed from the 
office and fined in a sum not less than one thousand dollars ($1,000.00) 
nor more than five thouscuid dollars ($5,000.00). 

Sec. 13. In case the owner, agent, manager or lessee, after written 
notice being duly given, does not conform to the provisions of this act, 
or disregards the requirements of this act, or any of its provisions, or 
lawful order of the Commissioner or inspector made hereunder, any- 
court of competent jurisdiction may, on application or information of 
the (Commissioner of Mines, by civil action in the name of the people of 
the State of Colorado, enjoin or restrain the owner, agent, manager or 
lessee from working the same until it is made to conform to the provi- 
sions of this act; and the costs of action paid by defendant, and such 
remedy shall be cumulative, and shall not alfect any other proceedings 
against such owner, agent, manager or lessee, authorized by law for the 
matters complained of in such action. 

Sec. 14. Any owner, agent, m^^nager or lessee having charge or 
operating any metalliferous mine or metallurgical plant, whenever loss 
of life or accident serious enough in character to cause the injured party 
to stop work for two consecutive days and connected with the workings 
of such mine or metallurgical plant, shall occur, shall give notice imme- 
diately and report all the facts thereof to the Commissioner of Mines. 
The refusal or failure of the said owner, agent, manager or lessee to so 
report within reasonable length of time shall be deemed a misdmeanor 
and shall, upon conviction, be subject to a fine of not less than fifty 
dollars ($50.00) nor more than three hundred dollars ($300.00) or be im- 
prisoned not less than one or more than three months, or by both such 
fine and imprisonment. The Commissioner of Mines, upon receipt of 
notice of accident, shall investigate and ascertain the causes and make 
or cause to be made, a report, which report shall be filed in his office for 
future reference. 

That explosives must be stored in a magazine provided for that 
purpose alone; said magazine to be placed far enough from the working 



426 BIENNIAL REPOUT 

shaft, tunnel or incline .to insure the same remaining intact in the event 
the entire stock of explosives in said magazine be exploded; that all ex- 
plosives in excess of the amount required for a shift's work must be kept 
in said magazine; that no powder or other explosive be stored in under- 
ground workings where men are employed; that each mine shall provide 
and employ a suitable device for thawing or warming powder and keep 
the same in condition for use; that oils or other combustible substances 
shall not be kept or stored in the same magazine with explosives. 

That the Commissioner of Mines shall have authority to regulate 
and limit the amount of nitro powder stored or kept in general supply 
stores in mining camps or mining towns where there is no municipal law 
governing the storage of same. 

That oils and other inflammable materials shall be stored or kept in 
a building erected for that purpose, and at a safe distance from the main 
buildings, and at a safe distance from the powder magazine, and their 
removal from said building for use shall be in such quantities as are nec- 
essary to meet the requirements of a day only. 

That no person shall, whether working for himself or in the employ 
of any person, company or corporation, while loading or charging a hole 
with nitro glycerine, powder or other explosives, use or employ any steel 
or iron tamping bar; nor shall any mine manager, superintendent, fore- 
man or shift boss, or other person having the management or direction 
of mine labor, allow or permit the use of such steel, iron or other metal. 
tamping bar by employes under his management or direction. 

That all old timber removed shall, as soon as practicable, be taken 
from the mine and shall not be piled up and permitted to decay under- 
ground. 

That no person addicted to the use of intoxicating liquors or under 
eighteen years of age shall bd employed as hoisting engineer. 

That all hoisting machinery, using steam, electricity, air or 
hydraulic motive power, for the purpose of hoisting from or lowering into 
metalliferous mines employes and material, shall be equipped with an 
indicator geared positively to the drum shaft, and so adjusted with dial 
or slide as to move a target or indicator and thereby at all times show 
the exact location of the cage, bucket or skip, said indicator to be so 
placed near to and in clear view of the engineer and to be free of gong, 
bells or other automatic attachments. 

That all mines employing steam and other hoisting power, and 
equipped with cage or skip, shall, when hoisting material from two or 
more levels, employ a man to be known as a "eager," whose duties shall 
be to load and unload said cage or skip at said levels and to give all sig- 
nals to the engineer. 

That there shall be established by the Commissioner of Mines a uni- 
form code of signals, embracing that most generally in use in metallif- 
erous mines, and the Commissioner shall have the power to enforce the 
adoption of such code of signals in all mines using hoisting machinery. 
The code of signals shall be securely posted, in clear and legible form, in 
the engine room, at the collar of the shaft and at each level or station. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 427 

That all mines having but one exit, and the same covered with a 
building containing the mechanical plant, furnace room, and blacksmith 
shop, shall have flre protection. Where steam Is used, hose of sufficient 
length to reach the farthest point of the plant shall be attached to feed 
pump or injector, and the same kept ready for Immediate use. In mines 
where water Is not available, chemical flre extinguishers or hand grenades 
shall be kept In convenient places for Immediate use. 

That all persons shall be prohibited from riding upon any cage, skip 
or bucket loaded with tools, timber, powder or other material, except for 
the purpose of assisting In passing same through shaft or Incline, and 
then only upon special signal. 

All pevsons giving or causing to be given false signals, or riding 
upon any cage, skip or bucket upon signals that designate to the engineer 
that no employes are aboard, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor 
under this act 

That all shafts more than flfty (50) feet in depth equipped with 
hoisting machinery shall be divided Into at least two (2) compartments, 
and one compartment to be partitioned off and set aside for a ladder-way. 
The ladders shall be made sufficiently strong for the purpose demanded, 
and in vertical shafts, landings shall be constructed not more than twenty 
(20) feet apart, said landings to be closely covered, except an opening 
large enough to permit the passage of a man; said ladders shall be In- 
clined at the most convenient angle which the space allows, and shall be 
firmly fastened, and kept in good repair. In all incline shafts the land- 
ings shall be put in as above described, but a straight ladder on the In- 
cline of the shaft. Ladders In upraises and winzes shall be likewise pro- 
vided and kept in repair, but where winzes connecting levels are used 
only for ventilation and exit, only one such winze on each level need be 
equipped. 

That hereafter shafts equipped with buildings and machinery, with 
only the working shaft for exit, shall be divided into at least two (2) 
compartments, one of which shall be tightly partitioned off and used for 
a ladder-way as hereinbefore provided for, said ladder-way shall be se- 
curely bulkheaded at a point at least twenty-five feet below the collar 
of the shaft, and below this bulkhead, a drift shall be run to the surface, 
if location of drift is upon side hill, or wall without the building and up- 
raised to the surface, if upon a level. Said ladder-way and landings shall 
be kept at all times in good repair and afford easy mode of escape in event 
of flre. 

That hereafter all tunnels or adit levels at safe distance from mouth 
of same shall connect with the surface, and be provided with safe and 
suitable ladders, and thus afford a means of exit In case of flre destroying 
buildings over the mouth of tunnel or adit level. 

That employes engaged in sinking shaft or incline shall, at all times, 
be provided with chain or other kind of ladder so arranged as to Insure 
safe means of exit. 

That all shaft collars hereafter constructed shall be covered and so 
arranged that persons or foreign objects cannot fall into the shaft. Where 



428 BIENNIAL REPORT 

a mining cage is used a bonnet wliich raises with the cage and falls back 
into place when the cage descends shall be used. This bonnet or shaft 
cover need not be tight beyond what would exclude anything from falling 
into the shaft that would endanger life, and the cage shall also be 
equipped with safety clutches and a steel hood, or bonnet, oval in shape, 
if solid, and if divided in the middle and hinged at the sides, the angles 
of the sides when closed shall not be less than forty-five degrees, nor the 
steel less than three-sixteenths (3-16) of an inch thick. 

When wooden doors are used the shaft must be housed in and covered, 
and said doors so constructed as to stand at an angle of not less than 
forty-five degrees pitch, when closed, hinged at the lower sides, and opening 
upward, or outward, and said doors shall not be less than tq^r inches In 
thickness. 

That all stations or levels shall, when practicable, have a passage-way 
around the working shaft, so that crossing over the working compartment 
can be avoided. At all shaft stations a guard rail or rails shall be pro- 
vided and kept in place across the shaft, in front of the level, so arranged 
that it will prevent persons from walking, falling or pushing a truck, car 
or other conveyance into the shaft. All winzes and mill holes extending 
from one level to another shall be covered or surrounded with guard-rails 
to prevent persons from stepping or falling into the same. 

That where any shaft is sunk on a vein, ore shoot or body, a pillar 
of ground shall be left standing on each side of the shaft of sufficient di- 
mensions to protect and secure the same, and in no case shall stoping be 
permitted up to or within such close proximity to the shaft as to render 
the same insecure, until such time as the mine is to be abandoned and 
said pillar withdrawn. 

That all abandoned mine shafts, pits or other excavations endanger- 
ing the life of man or beast shall be securely covered or fenced. 

That any person or persons removing or destroying any covering or 
fencing placed around or over any shaft, pit or other excavation, as here- 
inbefore provided, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor under this 
act, and upon conviction thereof in any court of competent Jurisdiction 
shall be fined in a sum of not less than fifty dollars ($50.00) or more than 
three hundred dollars ($300), or imprisonment in the county jail for six 
(6) months, or by both fine and Imprisonment. 

That any person or persons operating any metalliferous mine or mill 
and employing five or more men, shall report the same to the Bureau of 
Mines and state when work is commenced and when stopped, and mines 
working continuously shall report on or before December 1 of each year, 
together with the names of the owners and managers or lessee in charge 
of said work, together with the postofflce address, the name of the claim 
or claims to be operated, the name of the county and mining district, to- 
gether with the number of men employed, directly or indirectly, the same 
being classified into miners, trammers, timbermen, ore assorters, mill men, 
teamsters, etc. The necessary blanks to carry out the provisions of this 
section shall be furnished upon application by the Commissioner of Mines. 

That any owner, lessee, manager, superintendent or foreman in 
charge of any metalliferous mine who shall wilfully misrepresent or with- 



BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 429 

hold facts or information from any inspector or other officer of this 
bureau regarding the mine, such as length of time timbers have been in 
place, or making any misrepresentation tending to show safety when the 
reverse is true, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon con- 
viction thereof in any court of competent jurisdiction shall be fined in 
any sum not less than one hundred dollars nor more than three hundred 
dollars. 

Notice of the maximum number of men permitted to ride upon or 
In the cage, skip or bucket, at one time, shall be posted at the collar of 
the shaft and at each level. All men or employes riding upon or in an 
overloaded cage, skip or bucket, as provided in notice so posted, shall be 
guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction in a competent court shall 
be fined not less than five dollars nor more than fifty dollars for each and 
every offense. 

The Commissioner of Mines or inspectors under this act shall have 
power to make such examination and Inquiry as Is deemed necessary to 
ascertain whether the provisions of this act are complied with ; to examine 
into and make Inquiry respecting the condition of any mine, mill or part 
thereof, and all matters or things connected with or relating to the safety 
of the persons employed in or about the same; to examine into and make 
Inquiry respecting the condition of the machinery or mechanical device, 
and if deemed necessary have same tested; to appear at all coroner's in- 
quests held, respecting accidents, and if deemed necessary call, examine 
and cross-examine witnesses; to exercise such other powers as are neces- 
sary for carrying this act into effect. 

Any person, owner, agent, manager or lessee operating a metalliferous 
mine or mill in this state who fails to comply with the provisions herein 
set forth shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor against this act, and, 
when not otherwise provided, shall be liable to the penalty prescribed in 
section 13 of this act, or to a fine of not less than twenty-five dollars 
($25.00), nor more than three hundred dollars ($300.00), for each and 
every provision not complied with, or both, at the discretion of the court. 

EMPLOYES— COERCION. 

Section 1. That it shall be unlawful for any individual, company or 
corporation, or any member of any firm, or agent, officer or employe of any 
company or corporation, to prevent employes from forming, Joining or 
belonging to any lawful labor organization, union, society or political 
party, or to coerce or attempt to coerce employes by discharging or threat- 
ening to discharge them from their employ or the employ of any firm, 
company or corporation, because of their connection with such lawful labor 
organization, union, society or political party. 

Sec. 2. Any person or any member of any firm, or agent, officer or 
employe of any such company or corporation, violating the provisions of 
section 1 of this act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon 
conviction thereof shall be fined in any sum not less than one hundred 
dollars nor more than five hundred dollars or imprisoned for a period not 
less than six months nor more than one year, or both, in the discretion of 
the court. 



430 BIENNIAL REPORT 



LABOR DAY. 

Sec. 2128. The first Monday in September of the present year of our 
Lord, and each year thereafter, is hereby declared a public holiday, to be 
known as "Labor Day/' and the same shall be recognized, classed and 
treated as other holidays under the laws of this state. 

CERTAIN EMPLOYMENTS OF CHILDREN FORBIDDEN. 

Section 1. It shall be unlawful for any person having the care, cus- 
tody or control of any child under the age of fourteen years to exhibit, 
use or employ as an actor or performer in any concert hall or room where 
intoxicating liquors are sold or given away, or in any variety theater, or 
for any illegal, obscene, indecent or immoral purpose, exhibition or prac- 
tice whatsoever, or for or in any business, exhibition or vocation in- 
jurious to the health or dangerous to the life or limb of such child, or 
cause, procure or encourage such child to engage therein. Nothing in this 
section contained shall apply to or affect the employment or use of any 
such child as a singer or musician in any church, school or academy, or at 
any respectable entertainment, or the teaching or learning the science 
or practice of music. 

Sec. 2. It shall also be unlawful for any person to take, receive, hire, 
employ, use, exhibit or have in custody any child under the age and for 
the purpose prohibited in the first section of this act. 

Sec. 5. Any person who shall be convicted of violating any of the 
provisions of the preceding sections of this act shall be fined not exceeding 
$100, or be imprisoned in the county Jail not exceeding three months, or 
both, in the discretion of the court; and upon conviction for a second or 
any subsequent offense, shall be fined not exceeding $200, or be imprisoned 
in the county Jail not exceeding six months. 

SEATS FOR FEMALE EMPLOYES. 

Sec. 3604. Every person, corporation or company employing females 
in any manufacturing, mechanical or mercantile establishments in this 
state, shall provide suitable seats for the use of the females so employed, 
and shall permit the use of such seats by them when they are not neces- 
sarily engaged in the active duties for which they are employed. 

Sec. 3605. Any person, corporation or company violating any of the 
provisions of this act shall be punished by fine of not less than $10 nor 
more than $30 for each offense. 

EXEMPTION FROM TAXATION. 

Sec. 3. * * * the household goods of every person being the head 
of a family, to the value of $200, shall be exempt from taxation, • • • 

EXEMPTION FROM EXECUTION, ETC.— HOMESTEADS. 

Sec. 2132. Every householder in the State of Colorado, being the 
head of a family, shall be entitled to a homestead not exceeding in value 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 431 

the sum of |2,000, exempt from execution and attachment, arising from 
any debt, contract or civil obligation. * * * 

Sec. 2134. Such homestead shall only be exempt as provided in sec- 
tion 2132, while occupied as such by the owner thereof, or his or her family. 

Sec. 2135. When any person dies seized of a homestead, leaving a 
widow, or husband, or minor children, such widow, or husband, or minor 
children shall be entitled to the homestead; but in case there is neither 
widow, husband nor minor children, the homestead shall be liable for the 
debts of the deceased. 

Sec. 2136. The homestead mentioned in this act may consist of a 
house and lot or lots, in any town or city, or of a farm consisting of any 
number of acres, so that the value does not exceed $2,000. 

Sec. 2139. In case of the sale of said homestead, any subsequent 
homestead acquired by the proceeds thereof shall also be exempt from 
execution or attachment, nor shall any Judgment or other claim against 
the owner of such homestead be a lien against the same in the hands of a 
bona fide purchaser. ♦ ♦ ♦ 

EXEMPTION FROM EXECUTION, ETC.— PERSONAL PROPERTY. 

Sec. 2561. The necessary wearing apparel of every person shall be 
exempt from execution, writ of attachment and distress for rent. 

Sec. 2562. The following property, when owned by any person being 
the head of a family and residing with the same, shall be exempt from 
levy and sale upon any execution or writ of attachment or distress for 
rent, and such articles of property shall continue exempt while the family 
of such person are removing from one place of residence to another within 
this state. 

First — Family pictures, school books and library. 

Second — A seat or pew in any house or place of public worship. 

Third — The sites of burial of the dead. 

Fourth — ^All wearing apparel of the debtor and his family; all bed- 
steads and bedding kept and used for the debtor and his family; all stoves 
and appendages kept for the use of the debtor and his family; all cooking 
utensils; and all the household furniture not herein enumerated, not ex- 
ceeding $100 in value. 

Fifth — The provisions for the debtor and his family, necessary for 
six months, either provided or growing, or both, and fuel necessary for 
six months. 

Sixth — The tools and implements, or stock in trade, of any mechanic, 
miner or other person, used and kept for the carrying on of his trade or 
business, not exceeding $200 in value. 

Seventh — The library and implements of any professional man, not 
exceeding $300. 

Eighth — ^Working animals to the value of $200. 

Ninth — One cow and calf, ten sheep, and the necessary food for all 
the animals herein mentioned foi* six months, provided or growing, or 
both; also one farm wagon, cart or dray, one plow, one harrow, and other 
farming implements, including harness and tackle for team, not exceeding 
$50 in value. 



432 BIBNNUL REPORT 

Tenth — Provided, That nothing in this chapter shall be so construed 
as to exempt any property of any debtor from sale for the payment of any 
taxes whatever, legally assessed: And provided further. That no article of 
property above mentioned shall be exempt from attachment or sale on exe- 
cution for the purchase money for said article of property. 

Eleventh — And provided also further, That the tools, implements, 
working animals, books and stock in trade, not exceeding |300 in value, 
of any mechanic, miner or other person not being the head of a family, 
used and kept for the purpose of carrying on his trade and business, shall 
be exempt from levy and sale on any execution or writ of attachment 
while such person is a bona fide resident of this state. 

Sec. 2563. Whenever in any case the head of a family shall die, 
desert or cease to reside with the same, the said family shall be entitled 
to and receive all the benefit and privileges which are in this chapter con- 
ferred upon the head of a family residing with the same. 

Sec. 2565. If any debtor shall be engaged in removing his or her 
property from this state, such property shall not be exempt from levy and 
sale under execution or attachment: Provided, That nothing in this chap- 
ter contained shall be held to authorize the levying upon and selling the 
necessary wearing apparel or beds and bedding of any debtor, or of the 
family of any debtor, under any execution or attachment. 

EXEMPTION FROM EXECUTION, ETC.— WAGES. 

Sec. 2567 (as amended by chapter 5, acts of 1894). There shall be 
exempt from levy under execution or attachment or garnishment sixty 
dollars ($60.00) of the amount due for wages or earnings of any debtor at 
the time such levy is made, under execution, attachment or garnishment 
of the same. 

Provided, Such debtor shall be at the time of such levy under execu- 
tion, attachment or garnishment the head of a family or the wife of the 
head of a family, and such family Is dependent in whole or in part upon 
such earnings for support. 

WAGES PREFERRED IN ASSIGNMENTS. 

Sec. 193. The valid claims of servants, laborers and employes of the 
assignor, for wages earned during the six months next preceding the date 
of the assignment, not to exceed $50 to any one person then unpaid, and 
still held by the person who earned the same, and all taxes assessed under 
the laws of this state, or of the United States, shall be preferred claims 
and be paid In full prior to the payment of the dividends in favor of other 
creditors. 

SUING AS A POOR PERSON. 

Sec. 676. If any court shall, before or after the commencement of any 
suit, be satisfied that the plaintiff is a poor person, and unable to prosecute 
his or her suit and pay the cost and expenses thereof, they may, In their 
discretion, permit him to commence and prosecute his action as a poor 
person; and thereupon such person shall have the necessary writs, pro- 
cesses and proceedings, as In other cases, without charge; and if the plain- 
tiff recover Judgment there shall be a Judgment for his costs. 



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. 433 



HOURS OF LABOR— PUBLIC WORKS. 

Section 1 (as amended by chapter 9, acts of 1894). In all work here- 
after undertaken in behalf of the state or any county, township, school 
district, municipality or incorporated town, it shall be unlawful for any 
board, officer, agent, or any contractor or subcontractor thereof, to employ 
any mechanic, workingman or laborer in the prosecution of any such 
work for more than eight hours a day. 

Sec 2 (as amended by chapter 9, acts of 1894). Nothing in section 1 
of this act shall be construed so as to prevent work in excess of eight 
hours a day in emergency cases; Provided, That hours in excess of eight 
a day shall be treated as constituting part of a subsequent day's work; 
and Provided, That in no one week of seven days shall there be permitted 
more than forty-eight hours of labor. Any violation hereof shall be un- 
lawful. 

Sec. 4. (as amended by chapter 9, acts of 1894). Any employer, 
board, officer or contractor who shall violate the provisions of sections 1 
or 2 of this act sball be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction 
thereof shall be punished by fine of not less than one hundred dollars 
($100.00) nor more than five hundred dollars ($500.00), or by imprison- 
ment In the county Jail not more than one hundred (100) days, or by both 
fine and imprisonment, at the discretion of the court. 

HOURS OF LABOR— RAILROAD EMPLOYES. 

Section 1. No company operating a railroad, in whole or in part 
within this state, shall permit or require any conductor, engineer, fireman, 
brakeman, telegraph operator, or any trainman who has worked In his 
respective capacity for eighteen consecutive hours, except In case of 
casualty, to again go on duty or perform any work until he has had at 
least eight hours' rest. 

Sec. 2. Any company which violates, or permits to be violated, any 
of the provisions of the preceding section, or any officer, agent or employe 
who violates, or permits to be violated, any of the provisions of the pre- 
ceding section, shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $300 for 
each and every violation of this act. 

CONTRACTS OF EMPLOYES WAIVING RIGHTS TO DAMAGES VOID. 

It shall be unlawful for any person, company or corporation to re- 
quire of its servants or employes, as a condition of their employment or 
otherwise, any contract or agreement whereby such person, company or 
corporation shall be relased or discharged from liability or responsibility 
on account of personal injuries received by such servants or employes 
while in the service of such person, company or corporation, by reason of 
the negligence of such person, company or corporation, or the agents or 
employes thereof, and such contracts shall be absolutely null and void. 



15 



434 BIENNIAL REPOET 



BLACKLISTING. 

Sec. 239. No corporation, company or individual shall blacklist, or 
publish or cause to be blacklisted or published, any employe, mechanic or 
laborer, discharged by such corporation, company or individual, with the 
Intent and for the purpose of preventing such employe, mechanic or 
laborer from engaging in or securing similar or other employment from 
any other corporation, company or Individual. 

Sec. 240. If any officer or agent of any corporation, company or in- 
dividual, or other person, shall blacklist or publish, or cause to be black- 
listed or published, any employe, mechanic or laborer, discharged by such 
corporation, company or individual, with the intent and for the purpose 
of preventing such employe, mechanic or laborer from engaging in or 
securing similar or other employment from any other corporation, com- 
pany or individual, or shall In any manner conspire or contrive, by corre- 
spondence, or otherwise, to prevent such discharged employe from securing 
employment, he shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon con- 
viction thereof shall be fined not less than fifty (50) no^ more than two 
hundred and fifty (250) dollars, or be imprisoned in the county Jail not 
less than thirty nor more than ninety days, or both. 

BLACKLISTING AND BOYCOTTING— TO PREVENT. 

Section 1. That any railroad or telegraph company, or any officer, 
agent or employe of any railroad or telegraph company, or any other com- 
pany, corporation or individual doing business within the State of Colo- 
rado, s